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package TAP::Harness;
use strict;
use Carp;
use File::Spec;
use File::Path;
use IO::Handle;
use TAP::Base;
use vars qw($VERSION @ISA);
@ISA = qw(TAP::Base);
=head1 NAME
TAP::Harness - Run test scripts with statistics
=head1 VERSION
Version 3.17_01
$VERSION = '3.17_01';
# For VMS.
This is a simple test harness which allows tests to be run and results
automatically aggregated and output to STDOUT.
use TAP::Harness;
my $harness = TAP::Harness->new( \%args );
sub _error {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{error} unless @_;
$self->{error} = shift;
directives verbosity timer failures comments errors stdout color
show_count normalize
lib => sub {
my ( $self, $libs ) = @_;
$libs = [$libs] unless 'ARRAY' eq ref $libs;
return [ map {"-I$_"} @$libs ];
switches => sub { shift; shift },
exec => sub { shift; shift },
merge => sub { shift; shift },
aggregator_class => sub { shift; shift },
formatter_class => sub { shift; shift },
multiplexer_class => sub { shift; shift },
parser_class => sub { shift; shift },
scheduler_class => sub { shift; shift },
formatter => sub { shift; shift },
jobs => sub { shift; shift },
test_args => sub { shift; shift },
ignore_exit => sub { shift; shift },
rules => sub { shift; shift },
sources => sub { shift; shift },
for my $method ( sort keys %VALIDATION_FOR ) {
no strict 'refs';
if ( $method eq 'lib' || $method eq 'switches' ) {
*{$method} = sub {
my $self = shift;
unless (@_) {
$self->{$method} ||= [];
return wantarray
? @{ $self->{$method} }
: $self->{$method};
$self->_croak("Too many arguments to method '$method'")
if @_ > 1;
my $args = shift;
$args = [$args] unless ref $args;
$self->{$method} = $args;
return $self;
else {
*{$method} = sub {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{$method} unless @_;
$self->{$method} = shift;
for my $method (@FORMATTER_ARGS) {
no strict 'refs';
*{$method} = sub {
my $self = shift;
return $self->formatter->$method(@_);
=head1 METHODS
=head2 Class Methods
=head3 C<new>
my %args = (
verbosity => 1,
lib => [ 'lib', 'blib/lib', 'blib/arch' ],
my $harness = TAP::Harness->new( \%args );
The constructor returns a new C<TAP::Harness> object. It accepts an
optional hashref whose allowed keys are:
=over 4
=item * C<verbosity>
Set the verbosity level:
1 verbose Print individual test results to STDOUT.
0 normal
-1 quiet Suppress some test output (mostly failures
while tests are running).
-2 really quiet Suppress everything but the tests summary.
-3 silent Suppress everything.
=item * C<timer>
Append run time for each test to output. Uses L<Time::HiRes> if
=item * C<failures>
Show test failures (this is a no-op if C<verbose> is selected).
=item * C<comments>
Show test comments (this is a no-op if C<verbose> is selected).
=item * C<show_count>
Update the running test count during testing.
=item * C<normalize>
Set to a true value to normalize the TAP that is emitted in verbose modes.
=item * C<lib>
Accepts a scalar value or array ref of scalar values indicating which
paths to allowed libraries should be included if Perl tests are
executed. Naturally, this only makes sense in the context of tests
written in Perl.
=item * C<switches>
Accepts a scalar value or array ref of scalar values indicating which
switches should be included if Perl tests are executed. Naturally, this
only makes sense in the context of tests written in Perl.
=item * C<test_args>
A reference to an C<@INC> style array of arguments to be passed to each
test program.
test_args => ['foo', 'bar'],
if you want to pass different arguments to each test then you should
pass a hash of arrays, keyed by the alias for each test:
test_args => {
my_test => ['foo', 'bar'],
other_test => ['baz'],
=item * C<color>
Attempt to produce color output.
=item * C<exec>
Typically, Perl tests are run through this. However, anything which
spits out TAP is fine. You can use this argument to specify the name of
the program (and optional switches) to run your tests with:
exec => ['/usr/bin/ruby', '-w']
You can also pass a subroutine reference in order to determine and
return the proper program to run based on a given test script. The
subroutine reference should expect the TAP::Harness object itself as the
first argument, and the file name as the second argument. It should
return an array reference containing the command to be run and including
the test file name. It can also simply return C<undef>, in which case
TAP::Harness will fall back on executing the test script in Perl:
exec => sub {
my ( $harness, $test_file ) = @_;
# Let Perl tests run.
return undef if $test_file =~ /[.]t$/;
return [ qw( /usr/bin/ruby -w ), $test_file ]
if $test_file =~ /[.]rb$/;
If the subroutine returns a scalar with a newline or a filehandle, it
will be interpreted as raw TAP or as a TAP stream, respectively.
=item * C<merge>
If C<merge> is true the harness will create parsers that merge STDOUT
and STDERR together for any processes they start.
=item * C<sources>
I<NEW to 3.18>.
If set, C<sources> must be a hashref containing the names of the
L<TAP::Parser::SourceHandler>s to load and/or configure. The values are a
hash of configuration that will be accessible to to the source handlers via
For example:
sources => {
Perl => { exec => '/path/to/custom/perl' },
File => { extensions => [ '.tap', '.txt' ] },
MyCustom => { some => 'config' },
The C<sources> parameter affects how C<source>, C<tap> and C<exec> parameters
are handled.
For more details, see the C<sources> parameter in L<TAP::Parser/new>,
L<TAP::Parser::Source>, and L<TAP::Parser::IteratorFactory>.
=item * C<aggregator_class>
The name of the class to use to aggregate test results. The default is
=item * C<formatter_class>
The name of the class to use to format output. The default is
L<TAP::Formatter::Console>, or L<TAP::Formatter::File> if the output
isn't a TTY.
=item * C<multiplexer_class>
The name of the class to use to multiplex tests during parallel testing.
The default is L<TAP::Parser::Multiplexer>.
=item * C<parser_class>
The name of the class to use to parse TAP. The default is
=item * C<scheduler_class>
The name of the class to use to schedule test execution. The default is
=item * C<formatter>
If set C<formatter> must be an object that is capable of formatting the
TAP output. See L<TAP::Formatter::Console> for an example.
=item * C<errors>
If parse errors are found in the TAP output, a note of this will be
made in the summary report. To see all of the parse errors, set this
argument to true:
errors => 1
=item * C<directives>
If set to a true value, only test results with directives will be
displayed. This overrides other settings such as C<verbose> or
=item * C<ignore_exit>
If set to a true value instruct C<TAP::Parser> to ignore exit and wait
status from test scripts.
=item * C<jobs>
The maximum number of parallel tests to run at any time. Which tests
can be run in parallel is controlled by C<rules>. The default is to
run only one test at a time.
=item * C<rules>
A reference to a hash of rules that control which tests may be
executed in parallel. This is an experimental feature and the
interface may change.
{ par => [
{ seq => '../ext/DB_File/t/*' },
{ seq => '../ext/IO_Compress_Zlib/t/*' },
{ seq => '../lib/CPANPLUS/*' },
{ seq => '../lib/ExtUtils/t/*' },
=item * C<stdout>
A filehandle for catching standard output.
Any keys for which the value is C<undef> will be ignored.
# new supplied by TAP::Base
my @legal_callback = qw(
my %default_class = (
aggregator_class => 'TAP::Parser::Aggregator',
formatter_class => 'TAP::Formatter::Console',
multiplexer_class => 'TAP::Parser::Multiplexer',
parser_class => 'TAP::Parser',
scheduler_class => 'TAP::Parser::Scheduler',
sub _initialize {
my ( $self, $arg_for ) = @_;
$arg_for ||= {};
$self->SUPER::_initialize( $arg_for, \@legal_callback );
my %arg_for = %$arg_for; # force a shallow copy
for my $name ( sort keys %VALIDATION_FOR ) {
my $property = delete $arg_for{$name};
if ( defined $property ) {
my $validate = $VALIDATION_FOR{$name};
my $value = $self->$validate($property);
if ( $self->_error ) {
$self->jobs(1) unless defined $self->jobs;
local $default_class{formatter_class} = 'TAP::Formatter::File'
unless -t ( $arg_for{stdout} || \*STDOUT ) && !$ENV{HARNESS_NOTTY};
while ( my ( $attr, $class ) = each %default_class ) {
$self->$attr( $self->$attr() || $class );
unless ( $self->formatter ) {
# This is a little bodge to preserve legacy behaviour. It's
# pretty horrible that we know which args are destined for
# the formatter.
my %formatter_args = ( jobs => $self->jobs );
for my $name (@FORMATTER_ARGS) {
if ( defined( my $property = delete $arg_for{$name} ) ) {
$formatter_args{$name} = $property;
$self->_construct( $self->formatter_class, \%formatter_args )
if ( my @props = sort keys %arg_for ) {
$self->_croak("Unknown arguments to TAP::Harness::new (@props)");
return $self;
=head2 Instance Methods
=head3 C<runtests>
Accepts and array of C<@tests> to be run. This should generally be the
names of test files, but this is not required. Each element in C<@tests>
will be passed to C<TAP::Parser::new()> as a C<source>. See
L<TAP::Parser> for more information.
It is possible to provide aliases that will be displayed in place of the
test name by supplying the test as a reference to an array containing
C<< [ $test, $alias ] >>:
$harness->runtests( [ 't/foo.t', 'Foo Once' ],
[ 't/foo.t', 'Foo Twice' ] );
Normally it is an error to attempt to run the same test twice. Aliases
allow you to overcome this limitation by giving each run of the test a
unique name.
Tests will be run in the order found.
If the environment variable C<PERL_TEST_HARNESS_DUMP_TAP> is defined it
should name a directory into which a copy of the raw TAP for each test
will be written. TAP is written to files named for each test.
Subdirectories will be created as needed.
Returns a L<TAP::Parser::Aggregator> containing the test results.
sub runtests {
my ( $self, @tests ) = @_;
my $aggregate = $self->_construct( $self->aggregator_class );
$self->_make_callback( 'before_runtests', $aggregate );
$self->aggregate_tests( $aggregate, @tests );
$self->_make_callback( 'after_runtests', $aggregate );
return $aggregate;
=head3 C<summary>
$harness->summary( $aggregator );
Output the summary for a L<TAP::Parser::Aggregator>.
sub summary {
my ( $self, $aggregate ) = @_;
sub _after_test {
my ( $self, $aggregate, $job, $parser ) = @_;
$self->_make_callback( 'after_test', $job->as_array_ref, $parser );
$aggregate->add( $job->description, $parser );
sub _bailout {
my ( $self, $result ) = @_;
my $explanation = $result->explanation;
die "FAILED--Further testing stopped"
. ( $explanation ? ": $explanation\n" : ".\n" );
sub _aggregate_parallel {
my ( $self, $aggregate, $scheduler ) = @_;
my $jobs = $self->jobs;
my $mux = $self->_construct( $self->multiplexer_class );
# Keep multiplexer topped up
while ( $mux->parsers < $jobs ) {
my $job = $scheduler->get_job;
# If we hit a spinner stop filling and start running.
last FILL if !defined $job || $job->is_spinner;
my ( $parser, $session ) = $self->make_parser($job);
$mux->add( $parser, [ $session, $job ] );
if ( my ( $parser, $stash, $result ) = $mux->next ) {
my ( $session, $job ) = @$stash;
if ( defined $result ) {
$self->_bailout($result) if $result->is_bailout;
else {
# End of parser. Automatically removed from the mux.
$self->finish_parser( $parser, $session );
$self->_after_test( $aggregate, $job, $parser );
redo RESULT;
sub _aggregate_single {
my ( $self, $aggregate, $scheduler ) = @_;
while ( my $job = $scheduler->get_job ) {
next JOB if $job->is_spinner;
my ( $parser, $session ) = $self->make_parser($job);
while ( defined( my $result = $parser->next ) ) {
if ( $result->is_bailout ) {
# Keep reading until input is exhausted in the hope
# of allowing any pending diagnostics to show up.
1 while $parser->next;
$self->finish_parser( $parser, $session );
$self->_after_test( $aggregate, $job, $parser );
=head3 C<aggregate_tests>
$harness->aggregate_tests( $aggregate, @tests );
Run the named tests and display a summary of result. Tests will be run
in the order found.
Test results will be added to the supplied L<TAP::Parser::Aggregator>.
C<aggregate_tests> may be called multiple times to run several sets of
tests. Multiple C<Test::Harness> instances may be used to pass results
to a single aggregator so that different parts of a complex test suite
may be run using different C<TAP::Harness> settings. This is useful, for
example, in the case where some tests should run in parallel but others
are unsuitable for parallel execution.
my $formatter = TAP::Formatter::Console->new;
my $ser_harness = TAP::Harness->new( { formatter => $formatter } );
my $par_harness = TAP::Harness->new(
{ formatter => $formatter,
jobs => 9
my $aggregator = TAP::Parser::Aggregator->new;
$ser_harness->aggregate_tests( $aggregator, @ser_tests );
$par_harness->aggregate_tests( $aggregator, @par_tests );
Note that for simpler testing requirements it will often be possible to
replace the above code with a single call to C<runtests>.
Each element of the C<@tests> array is either:
=item * the source name of a test to run
=item * a reference to a [ source name, display name ] array
In the case of a perl test suite, typically I<source names> are simply the file
names of the test scripts to run.
When you supply a separate display name it becomes possible to run a
test more than once; the display name is effectively the alias by which
the test is known inside the harness. The harness doesn't care if it
runs the same test more than once when each invocation uses a
different name.
sub aggregate_tests {
my ( $self, $aggregate, @tests ) = @_;
my $jobs = $self->jobs;
my $scheduler = $self->make_scheduler(@tests);
# #12458
if $self->formatter->verbosity > 0;
# Formatter gets only names.
$self->formatter->prepare( map { $_->description } $scheduler->get_all );
if ( $self->jobs > 1 ) {
$self->_aggregate_parallel( $aggregate, $scheduler );
else {
$self->_aggregate_single( $aggregate, $scheduler );
sub _add_descriptions {
my $self = shift;
# Turn unwrapped scalars into anonymous arrays and copy the name as
# the description for tests that have only a name.
return map { @$_ == 1 ? [ $_->[0], $_->[0] ] : $_ }
map { 'ARRAY' eq ref $_ ? $_ : [$_] } @_;
=head3 C<make_scheduler>
Called by the harness when it needs to create a
L<TAP::Parser::Scheduler>. Override in a subclass to provide an
alternative scheduler. C<make_scheduler> is passed the list of tests
that was passed to C<aggregate_tests>.
sub make_scheduler {
my ( $self, @tests ) = @_;
return $self->_construct(
tests => [ $self->_add_descriptions(@tests) ],
rules => $self->rules
=head3 C<jobs>
Gets or sets the number of concurrent test runs the harness is
handling. By default, this value is 1 -- for parallel testing, this
should be set higher.
sub _get_parser_args {
my ( $self, $job ) = @_;
my $test_prog = $job->filename;
my %args = ();
$args{sources} = $self->sources if $self->sources;
my @switches;
@switches = $self->lib if $self->lib;
push @switches => $self->switches if $self->switches;
$args{switches} = \@switches;
$args{spool} = $self->_open_spool($test_prog);
$args{merge} = $self->merge;
$args{ignore_exit} = $self->ignore_exit;
if ( my $exec = $self->exec ) {
= ref $exec eq 'CODE'
? $exec->( $self, $test_prog )
: [ @$exec, $test_prog ];
if ( not defined $args{exec} ) {
$args{source} = $test_prog;
elsif ( ( ref( $args{exec} ) || "" ) ne "ARRAY" ) {
$args{source} = delete $args{exec};
else {
$args{source} = $test_prog;
if ( defined( my $test_args = $self->test_args ) ) {
if ( ref($test_args) eq 'HASH' ) {
# different args for each test
if ( exists( $test_args->{ $job->description } ) ) {
$test_args = $test_args->{ $job->description };
else {
$self->_croak( "TAP::Harness Can't find test_args for "
. $job->description );
$args{test_args} = $test_args;
return \%args;
=head3 C<make_parser>
Make a new parser and display formatter session. Typically used and/or
overridden in subclasses.
my ( $parser, $session ) = $harness->make_parser;
sub make_parser {
my ( $self, $job ) = @_;
my $args = $self->_get_parser_args($job);
$self->_make_callback( 'parser_args', $args, $job->as_array_ref );
my $parser = $self->_construct( $self->parser_class, $args );
$self->_make_callback( 'made_parser', $parser, $job->as_array_ref );
my $session = $self->formatter->open_test( $job->description, $parser );
return ( $parser, $session );
=head3 C<finish_parser>
Terminate use of a parser. Typically used and/or overridden in
subclasses. The parser isn't destroyed as a result of this.
sub finish_parser {
my ( $self, $parser, $session ) = @_;
return $parser;
sub _open_spool {
my $self = shift;
my $test = shift;
if ( my $spool_dir = $ENV{PERL_TEST_HARNESS_DUMP_TAP} ) {
my $spool = File::Spec->catfile( $spool_dir, $test );
# Make the directory
my ( $vol, $dir, undef ) = File::Spec->splitpath($spool);
my $path = File::Spec->catpath( $vol, $dir, '' );
eval { mkpath($path) };
$self->_croak($@) if $@;
my $spool_handle = IO::Handle->new;
open( $spool_handle, ">$spool" )
or $self->_croak(" Can't write $spool ( $! ) ");
return $spool_handle;
sub _close_spool {
my $self = shift;
my ($parser) = @_;
if ( my $spool_handle = $parser->delete_spool ) {
or $self->_croak(" Error closing TAP spool file( $! ) \n ");
sub _croak {
my ( $self, $message ) = @_;
unless ($message) {
$message = $self->_error;
C<TAP::Harness> is designed to be easy to configure.
=head2 Plugins
C<TAP::Parser> plugins let you change the way TAP is I<input> to and I<output>
from the parser.
L<TAP::Parser::SourceHandler>s handle TAP I<input>. You can configure them
and load custom handlers using the C<sources> parameter to L</new>.
L<TAP::Formatter>s handle TAP I<output>. You can load custom formatters by
using the C<formatter_class> parameter to L</new>. To configure a formatter,
you currently need to instantiate it outside of L<TAP::Harness> and pass it in
with the C<formatter> parameter to L</new>. This I<may> be addressed by adding
a I<formatters> parameter to L</new> in the future.
=head2 C<Module::Build>
L<Module::Build> version C<0.30> supports C<TAP::Harness>.
To load C<TAP::Harness> plugins, you'll need to use the C<tap_harness_args>
parameter to C<new>, typically from your C<Build.PL>. For example:
module_name => 'MyApp',
test_file_exts => [qw(.t .tap .txt)],
use_tap_harness => 1,
tap_harness_args => {
sources => {
MyCustom => {},
File => {
extensions => ['.tap', '.txt'],
formatter => 'TAP::Formatter::HTML',
build_requires => {
'Module::Build' => '0.30',
'TAP::Harness' => '3.18',
See L</new>
=head2 C<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>
L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker> does not support L<TAP::Harness> out-of-the-box.
=head2 C<prove>
L<prove> supports C<TAP::Harness> plugins, and has a plugin system of its
own. See L<prove/FORMATTERS>, L<prove/SOURCE HANDLERS> and L<App::Prove>
for more details.
If you can't configure C<TAP::Harness> to do what you want, and you can't find
an existing plugin, consider writing one.
The two primary use cases supported by L<TAP::Harness> for plugins are I<input>
and I<output>:
=over 2
=item Customize how TAP gets into the parser
To do this, you can either extend an existing L<TAP::Parser::SourceHandler>,
or write your own. It's a pretty simple API, and they can be loaded and
configured using the C<sources> parameter to L</new>.
=item Customize how TAP results are output from the parser
To do this, you can either extend an existing L<TAP::Formatter>, or write your
own. Writing formatters are a bit more involved than writing a
I<SourceHandler>, as you'll need to understand the L<TAP::Parser> API. A
good place to start is by understanding how L</aggregate_tests> works.
Custom formatters can be loaded configured using the C<formatter_class>
parameter to L</new>.
If you can't configure C<TAP::Harness> to do exactly what you want, and writing
a plugin isn't an option, consider extending it. It is designed to be (mostly)
easy to subclass, though the cases when sub-classing is necessary should be few
and far between.
=head2 Methods
The following methods are ones you may wish to override if you want to
subclass C<TAP::Harness>.
=over 4
=item L</new>
=item L</runtests>
=item L</summary>
If you like the C<prove> utility and L<TAP::Parser> but you want your
own harness, all you need to do is write one and provide C<new> and
C<runtests> methods. Then you can use the C<prove> utility like so:
prove --harness My::Test::Harness
Note that while C<prove> accepts a list of tests (or things to be
tested), C<new> has a fairly rich set of arguments. You'll probably want
to read over this code carefully to see how all of them are being used.
=head1 SEE ALSO
# vim:ts=4:sw=4:et:sta
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