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SSHFS

filesystem client based on SSH

Manual section:1
Manual group:User Commands

Synopsis

To mount a filesystem:

sshfs [user@]host:[dir] mountpoint [options]

If host is a numeric IPv6 address, it needs to be enclosed in square brackets.

To unmount it:

fusermount3 -u mountpoint   # Linux
umount mountpoint           # OS X, FreeBSD

Description

SSHFS allows you to mount a remote filesystem using SSH (more precisely, the SFTP subsystem). Most SSH servers support and enable this SFTP access by default, so SSHFS is very simple to use - there's nothing to do on the server-side.

SSHFS uses FUSE (Filesystem in Userspace) and should work on any operating system that provides a FUSE implementation. Currently, this includes Linux, FreeBSD and Mac OS X.

It is recommended to run SSHFS as regular user (not as root). For this to work the mountpoint must be owned by the user. If username is omitted SSHFS will use the local username. If the directory is omitted, SSHFS will mount the (remote) home directory. If you need to enter a password sshfs will ask for it (actually it just runs ssh which ask for the password if needed).

Options

-o opt,[opt...]
mount options, see below for details. A a variety of SSH options can be given here as well, see the manual pages for sftp(1) and ssh_config(5).
-h, --help print help and exit.
-V, --version print version information and exit.
-d, --debug print debugging information.
-p PORT equivalent to '-o port=PORT'
-f do not daemonize, stay in foreground.
-s Single threaded operation.
-C equivalent to '-o compression=yes'
-F ssh_configfile
 specifies alternative ssh configuration file
-1 equivalent to '-o ssh_protocol=1'
-o reconnect automatically reconnect to server if connection is interrupted. Attempts to access files that were opened before the reconnection will give errors and need to be re-opened.
-o delay_connect
 Don't immediately connect to server, wait until mountpoint is first accessed.
-o sshfs_sync synchronous writes. This will slow things down, but may be useful in some situations.
-o no_readahead
 Only read exactly the data that was requested, instead of speculatively reading more to anticipate the next read request.
-o sync_readdir
 synchronous readdir. This will slow things down, but may be useful in some situations.
-o workaround=LIST

Enable the specified workaround. See the Caveats section below for some additional information. Possible values are:

rename:Emulate overwriting an existing file by deleting and renaming.
renamexdev:Make rename fail with EXDEV instead of the default EPERM to allow moving files across remote filesystems.
truncate:Work around servers that don't support truncate by coping the whole file, truncating it locally, and sending it back.
fstat:Work around broken servers that don't support fstat() by using stat instead.
buflimit:Work around OpenSSH "buffer fillup" bug.
createmode:Work around broken servers that produce an error when passing a non-zero mode to create, by always passing a mode of 0.
-o idmap=TYPE

How to map remote UID/GIDs to local values. Possible values are:

none:no translation of the ID space (default).
user:map the UID/GID of the remote user to UID/GID of the mounting user.
file:translate UIDs/GIDs based upon the contents of --uidfile and --gidfile.
-o uidfile=FILE
file containing username:uid mappings for -o idmap=file
-o gidfile=FILE
file containing groupname:gid mappings for -o idmap=file
-o nomap=TYPE

with idmap=file, how to handle missing mappings:

ignore:don't do any re-mapping
error:return an error (default)
-o ssh_command=CMD
execute CMD instead of 'ssh'
-o ssh_protocol=N
ssh protocol to use (default: 2)
-o sftp_server=SERV
path to sftp server or subsystem (default: sftp)
-o directport=PORT
directly connect to PORT bypassing ssh
-o slave communicate over stdin and stdout bypassing network
-o disable_hardlink
 With this option set, attempts to call link(2) will fail with error code ENOSYS.
-o transform_symlinks
 transform absolute symlinks on remote side to relative symlinks. This means that if e.g. on the server side /foo/bar/com is a symlink to /foo/blub, SSHFS will transform the link target to ../blub on the client side.
-o follow_symlinks
 follow symlinks on the server, i.e. present them as regular files on the client. If a symlink is dangling (i.e, the target does not exist) the behavior depends on the remote server - the entry may appear as a symlink on the client, or it may appear as a regular file that cannot be accessed.
-o no_check_root
 don't check for existence of 'dir' on server
-o password_stdin
 read password from stdin (only for pam_mount!)
-o dir_cache=BOOL
Enables (yes) or disables (no) the SSHFS directory cache. The directory cache holds the names of directory entries. Enabling it allows readdir(3) system calls to be processed without network access.
-o dcache_max_size=N
sets the maximum size of the directory cache.
-o dcache_timeout=N
sets timeout for directory cache in seconds.
-o dcache_{stat,link,dir}_timeout=N
sets separate timeout for {attributes, symlinks, names} in the directory cache.
-o dcache_clean_interval=N
sets the interval for automatic cleaning of the directory cache.
-o dcache_min_clean_interval=N
sets the interval for forced cleaning of the directory cache when full.

In addition, SSHFS accepts several options common to all FUSE file systems. These are described in the mount.fuse manpage (look for "general", "libfuse specific", and "high-level API" options).

Caveats / Workarounds

Hardlinks

If the SSH server supports the hardlinks extension, SSHFS will allow you to create hardlinks. However, hardlinks will always appear as individual files when seen through an SSHFS mount, i.e. they will appear to have different inodes and an st_nlink value of 1.

Rename

Some SSH servers do not support atomically overwriting the destination when renaming a file. In this case you will get an error when you attempt to rename a file and the destination already exists. A workaround is to first remove the destination file, and then do the rename. SSHFS can do this automatically if you call it with -o workaround=rename. However, in this case it is still possible that someone (or something) recreates the destination file after SSHFS has removed it, but before SSHFS had the time to rename the old file. In this case, the rename will still fail.

Permission denied when moving files across remote filesystems

Most SFTP servers return only a generic "failure" when failing to rename across filesystem boundaries (EXDEV). sshfs normally converts this generic failure to a permission denied error (EPERM). If the option -o workaround=renamexdev is given, generic failures will be considered EXDEV errors which will make programs like mv(1) attempt to actually move the file after the failed rename.

SSHFS hangs

In some cases, attempts to access the SSHFS mountpoint may freeze if no filesystem activity has occured for some time. This is typically caused by the SSH connection being dropped because of inactivity without SSHFS being informed about that. As a workaround, you can try to mount with -o ServerAliveInterval=15. This will force the SSH connection to stay alive even if you have no activity.

Mounting from /etc/fstab

To mount an SSHFS filesystem from /etc/fstab, simply use sshfs` as the file system type. (For backwards compatibility, you may also use ``fuse.sshfs).

See also

The mount.fuse(8) manpage.

Getting Help

If you need help, please ask on the <fuse-sshfs@lists.sourceforge.net> mailing list (subscribe at https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/fuse-sshfs).

Please report any bugs on the GitHub issue tracker at https://github.com/libfuse/libfuse/issues.

Authors

SSHFS is currently maintained by Nikolaus Rath <Nikolaus@rath.org>, and was created by Miklos Szeredi <miklos@szeredi.hu>.

This man page was originally written by Bartosz Fenski <fenio@debian.org> for the Debian GNU/Linux distribution (but it may be used by others).