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package URI::db;
# db:engine:dbname
# db:engine:/path/to/some.db
# db:engine://dbname
# db:engine:///path/to/some.db
# db:engine:../relative.db
# db:engine://../relative.db
# db:engine://[netloc][:port][/dbname][?param1=value1&...]
# db:engine://[user[:password]@][netloc][:port][/dbname][?param1=value1&...]
use strict;
use 5.008001;
use base 'URI::Nested';
use URI::_db;
our $VERSION = '0.20';
sub prefix { 'db' }
sub nested_class { 'URI::_db' }
=head1 Name
URI::db - Database URIs
=head1 Synopsis
use URI;
my $db_uri = URI->new('db:pg://user@localhost');
my $pg_uri = URI->new('postgres://');
my $sl_uri = URI->new('sqlite:/var/db/widgets.db');
=head1 Description
This class provides support for database URIs. They're inspired by
L<JDBC URIs|> and
L<PostgreSQL URIs|>,
though they're a bit more formal. The specification for their format is
documented in L<F<>|https:/>.
B<Warning:> This is an alpha release. I will do my best to preserve
functionality going forward, especially as L<Sqitch|App::Sqitch> uses this
module. However, as the database URI specification moves forward, changes
I<may> require backwards-incompatible changes. Caveat Hackor.
=head3 Format
A database URI is made up of these parts:
=item C<db>
The literal string C<db> is the scheme that defines a database URI. Optional
for well-known engines.
=item C<engine>
A string identifying the database engine.
=item C<user>
The user name to use when connecting to the database.
=item C<password>
The password to use when connecting to the database.
=item C<host>
The host address to connect to.
=item C<port>
The network port to connect to.
=item C<dbname>
The name of the database. For some engines, this will be a file name, in which
case it may be a complete or local path, as appropriate.
=item C<params>
A URI-standard GET query string representing additional parameters to be
passed to the engine.
=item C<fragment>
Identifies a database part, such as a table or view.
=head3 Examples
Some examples:
=item * C<db:sqlite>
=item * C<db:sqlite:dbname>
=item * C<db:sqlite:/path/to/some.db>
=item * C<sqlite:../relative.db>
=item * C<db:firebird://localhost/%2Fpath/to/some.db>
=item * C<db:firebird://localhost//path/to/some.db>
=item * C<firebird://localhost/relative.db>
=item * C<db:pg://>
=item * C<db:pg://localhost>
=item * C<db:pg://localhost:5433>
=item * C<db:pg://localhost/mydb>
=item * C<db:pg://user@localhost>
=item * C<db:pg://user:secret@/mydb>
=item * C<pg:///mydb>
=item * C<pg://other@localhost/otherdb?connect_timeout=10&application_name=myapp>
=item * C<db://localhost/mydb>
=item * C<db:unknown://>
=head1 Interface
The following differences exist compared to the C<URI> class interface:
=head2 Class Method
=head3 C<default_port>
Returns the default port for the engine. This is a class method value defined
by each recognized URI engine.
=head2 Constructors
=head3 C<new>
my $uri = URI::db->new($string);
my $uri = URI::db->new($string, $base);
Always returns a URI::db object. C<$base> may be another URI object or string.
Unlike in L<URI>'s C<new()>, the scheme will always be applied to the URI if
it does not already have one.
=head2 Accessors
=head3 C<scheme>
my $scheme = $uri->scheme;
$uri->scheme( $new_scheme );
Gets or sets the scheme part of the URI. For C<db:> URIs, the scheme cannot be
changed to any value other than "db" (or any case variation thereof). For
non-C<db:> URIs, the scheme may be changed to any value, though the URI object
may no longer be a database URI.
=head3 C<engine>
my $engine = $uri->engine;
$uri->engine( $new_engine );
Gets or sets the engine part of the URI, which may be any valid URI scheme
value, though recognized engines provide additional context, such as the
C<default_port()> and a driver-specific C<dbi_dsn()>.
If called with an argument, it updates the engine, possibly changing the class
of the URI, and returns the old engine value.
=head3 C<canonical_engine>
my $canonical_engine = $uri->canonical_engine;
Returns the canonical engine. A number of engine names are aliases for other
engines. This method will return the non-aliased engine name. For example, the
C<postgres> engine will return the canonical engine C<pg>, the C<sqlite3>
returns the canonical engine C<sqlite>, and C<maria> returns the canonical
engine C<mysql>.
=head3 C<dbname>
my $dbname = $uri->dbname;
$uri->dbname( $new_dbname );
Gets or sets the name of the database. If called with an argument, the path
will also be updated.
=head3 C<host>
my $host = $uri->host;
$uri->host( $new_host );
Gets or sets the host to connect to.
=head3 C<port>
my $port = $uri->port;
$uri->port( $new_port );
Gets or sets the port to connect to.
=head3 C<user>
my $user = $uri->user;
$uri->user( $new_user );
Gets or sets the user name.
=head3 C<password>
my $password = $uri->password;
$uri->password( $new_password );
Gets or sets the password.
=head3 C<uri>
Returns the underlying engine URI. For URIs starting with C<db:>, this will be
the URI that follows. For database URIs without C<db:>, the URI itself will be
=head2 Instance Methods
=head3 C<has_recognized_engine>
my $has_recognized_engine = $uri->has_recognized_engine;
Returns true if the engine is recognized by URI::db, and false if it is not. A
recognized engine is simply one that inherits from C<URI::_db>.
=head3 C<query_params>
my @params = $uri->query_params;
Returns a list of key/value pairs representing all query parameters.
Parameters specified more than once will be returned more than once, so avoid
assigning to a hash. If you want a hash, use L<URI::QueryParam>'s
C<query_from_hash()>, where duplicate keys lead to an array of values for that
use URI::QueryParam;
my $params = $uri->query_form_hash;
=head3 C<dbi_driver>
if ( my $driver = $uri->dbi_driver ) {
eval "require DBD::$driver" or die;
Returns a string representing the L<DBI> driver name for the database engine,
if one is known. Returns C<undef> if no driver is known.
=head3 C<dbi_dsn>
DBI->connect( $uri->dbi_dsn, $uri->user, $uri->password );
Returns a L<DBI> DSN appropriate for use in a call to C<< DBI->connect >>. The
attributes will usually be pulled from the URI host name, port, and database
name, as well as the query parameters. If no driver is known for the URI, the
C<dbi:$driver:> part of the DSN will be omitted, in which case you can use the
C<$DBI_DRIVER> environment variable to identify an appropriate driver. If the
URI supports multiple drivers, pass the name of the one you want to
C<dbi_dsn()>. Currently only URI::myssql supports alternate drivers, ADO,
ODBC, or Sybase. Otherwise, each database URI does its best to create a valid
DBI DSN. Some examples:
| URI | DSN |
| db:pg:try | dbi:Pg:dbname=try |
| db:mysql://localhost:33/foo | dbi:mysql:host=localhost;port=33;database=foo |
| db:db2://localhost:33/foo | dbi:DB2:HOSTNAME=localhost;PORT=33;DATABASE=foo |
| db:vertica:dbadmin | dbi:ODBC:DSN=dbadmin |
| db:mssql:// |;Database=pubs;Driver=MSSQL |
=head3 C<dbi_params>
my @params = $uri->dbi_params;
Returns a list of key/value pairs used as parameters in the L<DBI> DSN,
including query parameters. Parameters specified more than once will be
returned more than once, so avoid assigning to a hash.
=head3 C<abs>
my $abs = $uri->abs( $base_uri );
For C<db:> URIs, simply returns the URI::db object itself. For Non-C<db:>
URIs, the behavior is the same as for L<URI> including respect for
=head3 C<rel>
my $rel = $uri->rel( $base_uri );
For C<db:> URIs, simply returns the URI::db object itself. For Non-C<db:>
URIs, the behavior is the same as for L<URI>.
=head3 C<canonical>
my $canonical_uri = $uri->canonical;
Returns a normalized version of the URI. This behavior is the same for other
URIs, except that the engine will be replaced with the value of
C<canonical_engine> if it is not already the canonical engine.
=head1 Support
This module is stored in an open
L<GitHub repository|>. Feel free to fork and
Please file bug reports via
L<GitHub Issues|> or by sending mail to
=head1 Author
David E. Wheeler <>
=head1 Copyright and License
Copyright (c) 2013-2016 David E. Wheeler. Some Rights Reserved.
This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as Perl itself.