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Windows Shortcut File format specification

Summary

A Windows Shortcut File (LNK) is used by Microsoft Windows to link to multiple types of information like files, network shares, search results, etc. This specification is based on earlier work on the format, the Shell Link Binary File Format specification [MS-SHLLINK] and was enhanced by analyzing test data.

This document is intended as a working document for the Windows Shortcut File (LNK) format specification. Which should allow existing Open Source forensic tooling to be able to process this file type.

Document information

Author(s):

Joachim Metz <joachim.metz@gmail.com>

Abstract:

This document contains information about the Windows Shortcut File format.

Classification:

Public

Keywords:

Windows Shortcut File, Shortcut, LNK

License

Copyright (C) 2009-2018, Joachim Metz <joachim.metz@gmail.com>.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the
terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version
published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no
Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included
in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

Revision history

Version Author Date Comments

0.0.1

J.B. Metz

September 2009

Initial version.

0.0.2

J.B. Metz

September 2009

Changes obtained by reversing the file format for the liblnk implementation.

0.0.3

J.B. Metz

June 2010

Moved Shell Items information to separate document.

0.0.4

J.B. Metz

July 2010

Changes regarding the extra data blocks.

0.0.5

J.B. Metz

September 2010

Fixed some typos.

0.0.6

J.B. Metz

September 2010

Textual changes

0.0.7

J.B. Metz

July 2011

License update

0.0.8

J.B. Metz

May 2012

Updates for Windows 8.

0.0.9

J.B. Metz

August 2012

Email change.

0.0.10

J.B. Metz

November 2012

Applied updates.

0.0.11

J.B. Metz

February 2013

Additional information about Windows 95 shortcut files.

0.0.12

J.B. Metz

March 2013

Fixed some typos.

0.0.13

J.B. Metz

June 2013

Moved Property store definitions to separate document.

0.0.14

J.B. Metz

October 2013

Small textual changes.

0.0.15

J.B. Metz

July 2014

Additional information about network share device name.

0.0.16

J.B. Metz

August 2014

Additional information about metadata property store.

0.0.17

J.B. Metz

October 2014

Corrected format GUID with thanks to J. Sylve.

0.0.18

J.B. Metz

October 2014

Switched to asciidoc format.

0.0.19

J.B. Metz

June 2015

Small changes.

0.0.20

J.B. Metz

February 2016

Additional information regarding corruption scenarios with thanks to B. Spasojevic.

0.0.21

J.B. Metz

December 2016

Additional information regarding Show Window value.

0.0.22

J.B. Metz

March 2017

Additional information.

0.0.23

J.B. Metz

June 2018

Fixed broken link with thanks to T. Schreijer

1. Overview

A Windows Shortcut File (LNK) is used by Microsoft Windows to link to multiple types of information like files, network shares, search results, etc. The Windows Shortcut File format is also known as:

  • The Shell Link Binary File format

A LNK consist of the following distinguishable elements:

  • file header

  • shell item identifiers list

  • location information

  • data strings

    • description

    • relative path

    • working directory

    • command line arguments

    • icon location

  • extra data blocks

    • console properties

    • console codepage

    • Darwin properties

    • environment variables location

    • icon location

    • known folder location

    • metadata property store

    • shim layer properties

    • special folder location

    • distributed link tracker properties

    • vista (and later) shell item identifiers list properties

Characteristics Description

Byte order

little-endian

Date and time values

FILETIME in UTC

Character strings

ASCII strings are Single Byte Character (SBC) or Multi Byte Character (MBC) string stored with a codepage. Sometimes referred to as ANSI string representation.
Though technically maybe incorrect, this document will use term (extended) ASCII string.
Unicode strings are stored in UTF-16 little-endian without the byte order mark (BOM).

1.1. Test version

The following version of programs were used to test the information within this document:

  • Windows 95

  • Windows 98

  • TODO: Windows Me

  • Windows NT4

  • Windows 2000

  • Windows XP

  • Windows 2003

  • Windows Vista

  • Windows 2008

  • Windows 7

  • Windows 8

  • TODO: Windows 2012

  • Windows 10

2. File header

The file header (ShellLinkHeader) is 76 bytes of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

4

0x0000004c (76)

The header size

4

16

The LNK class identifier
GUID: {00021401-0000-0000-c000-000000000046}

20

4

Data flags

24

4

File attribute flags
See section: File attribute flags

28

8

Creation date and time
Contains a FILETIME or 0 if not set

36

8

Last access date and time
Contains a FILETIME or 0 if not set

44

8

Last modification date and time
Contains a FILETIME or 0 if not set

52

4

File size in bytes
Contains an unsigned integer

56

4

Icon index value
Contains a signed integer

60

4

ShowWindow value
Contains an unsigned integer
See section: Show Window definitions

64

2

Hot key
See section: Hot Key definitions

66

2

0

Unknown (Reserved)

68

4

0

Unknown (Reserved)

72

4

0

Unknown (Reserved)

2.1. Data flags

The data flags consist of the following values:

Value Identifier Description

0x00000001

HasTargetIDList

The LNK file contains a link target identifier

0x00000002

HasLinkInfo

The LNK file contains location information

0x00000004

HasName

The LNK file contains a description data string

0x00000008

HasRelativePath

The LNK file contains a relative path data string

0x00000010

HasWorkingDir

The LNK file contains a working directory data string

0x00000020

HasArguments

The LNK file contains a command line arguments data string

0x00000040

HasIconLocation

The LNK file contains a custom icon location

0x00000080

IsUnicode

The data strings in the LNK file are stored in Unicode (UTF-16 little-endian) instead of ASCII

0x00000100

ForceNoLinkInfo

The location information is ignored

0x00000200

HasExpString

The LNK file contains environment variables location data block

0x00000400

RunInSeparateProcess

A 16-bit target application is run in a separate virtual machine.

0x00000800

Unknown (Reserved)

0x00001000

HasDarwinID

The LNK file contains a Darwin (Mac OS-X) properties data block

0x00002000

RunAsUser

The target application is run as a different user.

0x00004000

HasExpIcon

The LNK file contains an icon location data block

0x00008000

NoPidlAlias

The file system location is represented in the shell namespace when the path to an item is parsed into the link target identifiers
Contains a known folder location data block?

0x00010000

Unknown (Reserved)

Windows Vista and later?

0x00020000

RunWithShimLayer

The target application is run with the shim layer. The LNK file contains shim layer properties data block.

0x00040000

ForceNoLinkTrack

The LNK does not contain a distributed link tracking data block

0x00080000

EnableTargetMetadata

The LNK file contains a metadata property store data block

0x00100000

DisableLinkPathTracking

The environment variables location block should be ignored

0x00200000

DisableKnownFolderTracking

Unknown

0x00400000

DisableKnownFolderAlias

Unknown

0x00800000

AllowLinkToLink

Unknown

0x01000000

UnaliasOnSave

Unknown

0x02000000

PreferEnvironmentPath

Unknown

0x04000000

KeepLocalIDListForUNCTarget

Unknown

Note
LNK files in Windows XP and earlier do not use the ForceNoLinkTrack flag.

The link target identifier contains a (shell) item identifier list. The data flags define if the link target identifier is present or not.

The link target identifier is variable of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

2

The size of the link target identifier shell item identifiers list

2

…​

The shell item identifiers list
See: [LIBFWSI].

4. Location information

The data flags define if the (link) location information is present or not.

The location information is variable of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

4

The size of the location information
including the 4 bytes of the size itself
Location information header

4

4

Location information header size

8

4

Location flags

12

4

Offset to the volume information
The offset is relative to the start of the location information

16

4

Offset to the local path
The offset is relative to the start of the location information

20

4

Offset to the network share information
The offset is relative to the start of the location information

24

4

Offset to the common path
The offset is relative to the start of the location information

If location information header size > 28

…​

…​

Offset to the Unicode local path

If location information header size > 32

…​

…​

Offset to the Unicode common path

Location information data

…​

…​

The volume information

…​

…​

The local path string
ASCII string terminated by an end-of-string character

The network share information

…​

…​

The common path
ASCII string terminated by an end-of-string character

If location information header size > 28

…​

…​

The Unicode local path string
Unicode string terminated by an end-of-string character

If location information header size > 32

…​

…​

The Unicode common path
Unicode string terminated by an end-of-string character

The full filename can be determined by:

  • combining the local path and the common path

  • combining the network share name (in the network share information) with the common path

Note
The network share name is not necessarily terminated by a path separator. Currently it is assumed that the same applies to the local path. Also the file can contain an empty common path where the local path contains the full path.

Although [MS-SHLLINK] states that when the CommonNetworkRelativeLinkAndPathSuffix location flag is not set the offset to the network share information should be zero, the value can still be set, but is not necessarily valid. This behavior was seen on Windows95.

4.1. Location flags

The location flags consist of the following values:

Value Identifier Description

0x0001

VolumeIDAndLocalBasePath

The linked file is on a volume
If set the volume information and the local path contain data

0x0002

CommonNetworkRelativeLinkAndPathSuffix

The linked file is on a network share
If set the network share information and common path contain data

4.2. Volume information

The volume information is variable of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

Volume information header

0

4

The size of the volume information
including the 4 bytes of the size itself

4

4

Drive type

8

4

Drive serial number

12

4

Offset to the volume label
The offset is relative to the start of the volume information

Offset to the volume label > 16

16

4

Offset to the Unicode volume label
The offset is relative to the start of the volume information

Volume information data

…​

…​

The volume label
ASCII string terminated by an end-of-string character

…​

…​

The Unicode volume label
Unicode string terminated by an end-of-string character

4.2.1. Drive types

This drive type consist of one of the following values:

Value Identifier Description

0

DRIVE_UNKNOWN

Unknown

1

DRIVE_NO_ROOT_DIR

No root directory

2

DRIVE_REMOVABLE

Removable storage media (floppy, usb)

3

DRIVE_FIXED

Fixed storage media (harddisk)

4

DRIVE_REMOTE

Remote storage

5

DRIVE_CDROM

Optical disc (CD-ROM, DVD, BD)

6

DRIVE_RAMDISK

RAM drive

4.3. Network share information

The network share information is variable of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

Network share information header

0

4

The size of the network share information

4

4

Network share flags

8

4

Offset to the network share name
The offset is relative to the start of the network share information

12

4

Offset to the device name
The offset is relative to the start of the network share information or 0 if not present

16

4

Network provider type

Offset to the network share name > 20

20

4

Offset to the Unicode network share name
The offset is relative to the start of the network share information

24

4

Offset to the Unicode device name
The offset is relative to the start of the network share information or 0 if not present

Network share information data

…​

…​

The network share name
ASCII string terminated by an end-of-string character

…​

…​

The device name
ASCII string terminated by an end-of-string character

…​

…​

The Unicode network share name
Unicode string terminated by an end-of-string character

…​

…​

The Unicode device name
Unicode string terminated by an end-of-string character

Note
The network share name is not necessarily terminated by a path separator.

4.3.1. Network share flags

The network share flags consist of the following values:

Value Identifier Description

0x0001

ValidDevice

If set the device name contains data

0x0002

ValidNetType

If set the network provider type contains data

4.3.2. Network provider types

The network provider types consist of one of the following values:

Value Identifier Description

0x001a0000

WNNC_NET_AVID

0x001b0000

WNNC_NET_DOCUSPACE

0x001c0000

WNNC_NET_MANGOSOFT

0x001d0000

WNNC_NET_SERNET

0x001e0000

WNNC_NET_RIVERFRONT1

0x001f0000

WNNC_NET_RIVERFRONT2

0x00200000

WNNC_NET_DECORB

0x00210000

WNNC_NET_PROTSTOR

0x00220000

WNNC_NET_FJ_REDIR

0x00230000

WNNC_NET_DISTINCT

0x00240000

WNNC_NET_TWINS

0x00250000

WNNC_NET_RDR2SAMPLE

0x00260000

WNNC_NET_CSC

0x00270000

WNNC_NET_3IN1

0x00290000

WNNC_NET_EXTENDNET

0x002a0000

WNNC_NET_STAC

0x002b0000

WNNC_NET_FOXBAT

0x002c0000

WNNC_NET_YAHOO

0x002d0000

WNNC_NET_EXIFS

0x002e0000

WNNC_NET_DAV

0x002f0000

WNNC_NET_KNOWARE

0x00300000

WNNC_NET_OBJECT_DIRE

0x00310000

WNNC_NET_MASFAX

0x00320000

WNNC_NET_HOB_NFS

0x00330000

WNNC_NET_SHIVA

0x00340000

WNNC_NET_IBMAL

0x00350000

WNNC_NET_LOCK

0x00360000

WNNC_NET_TERMSRV

0x00370000

WNNC_NET_SRT

0x00380000

WNNC_NET_QUINCY

0x00390000

WNNC_NET_OPENAFS

0x003a0000

WNNC_NET_AVID1

0x003b0000

WNNC_NET_DFS

0x003c0000

WNNC_NET_KWNP

0x003d0000

WNNC_NET_ZENWORKS

0x003e0000

WNNC_NET_DRIVEONWEB

0x003f0000

WNNC_NET_VMWARE

0x00400000

WNNC_NET_RSFX

0x00410000

WNNC_NET_MFILES

0x00420000

WNNC_NET_MS_NFS

0x00430000

WNNC_NET_GOOGLE

5. Data strings

Dependent on the flags in the file header the following data strings are present or not. They are stored in the following order directly after the location information:

  • description

  • relative path

  • working directory

  • command line arguments

  • icon location

A data string is variable of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

2

The number of characters in the string

2

…​

The string
ASCII or Unicode string

6. Extra data

The extra data is variable of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

…​

Extra data blocks

…​

4

0

Terminal block
Signifies the end of the extra data blocks

The extra data consist of extra data blocks terminated by the terminal block (an empty extra data block).

The extra data blocks are stored in the following order directly after the last data string:

  • console properties

  • console codepage

  • Darwin properties

  • environment variables location

  • icon location

  • known folder location

  • metadata property store

  • shim layer properties

  • special folder location

  • distributed link tracker properties

  • Vista (and later) shell item identifiers list properties

Note
Not all extra data blocks are controlled by the data flags in the file header.

6.1. The environment variables location data block

The environment variables location data block is 788 bytes of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

4

0x00000314 (788)

Size of the data
Includes 4 bytes of the size

4

4

0xa0000001

The extra block signature

8

260

Environment variables location
ASCII string terminated by an end-of-string character
Unused bytes can contain remnant data

268

520

Unicode environment variables location
Unicode string terminated by an end-of-string character
Unused bytes can contain remnant data

The environment variables location contains the path to the environment variables information.

6.2. The console properties data block

The console properties data block is 204 bytes of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

4

0x000000cc (204)

Size of the data
Includes 4 bytes of the size

4

4

0xa0000002

The extra block signature

8

2

Color flags

10

2

Pop-up fill attributes

12

2

Screen width buffer size

14

2

Screen height buffer size

16

2

Window width

18

2

Window height

20

2

Window origin x-coordinate

22

2

Window origin y-coordinate

24

4

0

Unknown (Reserved)

28

4

0

Unknown (Reserved)

32

4

Font size

36

4

Font family value

40

4

Font weight
value < 700 (regular)
value >= 700 (bold)

44

64

Face name
Unicode string terminated by an end-of-string character

108

4

Cursor size
value ⇐ 25 (small)
[26, 50] (normal)
[51, 100] (large)

112

4

Full screen
A value of 0 represents windowed-mode another value full screen mode

116

4

Insert mode
A value of 0 represents insert mode is disabled another value enabled

120

4

Automatic positioning
A value of 0 represents automatic positioning is disabled another value enabled. When automatic positioning is off the window origin x and y-coordinates are used to position the window.

124

4

History buffer size

128

4

Number of history buffers

132

4

Duplicates allowed in history
A value of 0 represents that duplicates are not allowed in the history another value otherwise.

136

64

Color table

6.2.1. Console color flags

The console color flags consist of the following values:

Value Identifier Description

0x0001

FOREGROUND_BLUE

The color of the text is blue

0x0002

FOREGROUND_GREEN

The color of the text is green

0x0004

FOREGROUND_RED

The color of the text is red

0x0008

FOREGROUND_INTENSITY

The color of the text is intensified

0x0010

BACKGROUND_BLUE

The color of the background is blue

0x0020

BACKGROUND_GREEN

The color of the background is green

0x0040

BACKGROUND_RED

The color of the background is red

0x0080

BACKGROUND_INTENSITY

The color of the background is intensified

6.2.2. Console font family value

The console font family value consist of the following values:

Value Identifier Description

0x0000

FF_DONTCARE

Unknown font

0x0010

FF_ROMAN

Variable-width font with serifs

0x0020

FW_SWISS

Variable-width font without serifs

0x0030

FF_MODERN

Fixed-width font with or without serifs

0x0040

FF_SCRIPT

Handwriting like font

0x0050

FF_DECORATIVE

Novelty font

The distributed link tracker properties data block is 96 bytes of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

4

0x00000060 (96)

Size of the data
Includes 4 bytes of the size

4

4

0xa0000003

The extra block signature

8

4

88

Size of the distributed link tracker data

12

4

0

Version of the distributed link tracker data

16

16

Machine identifier string
ASCII string terminated by an end-of-string character
Unused bytes are set to 0

32

16

Droid volume identifier
GUID containing an NTFS object identifier

48

16

Droid file identifier
GUID containing an NTFS object identifier

64

16

Birth droid volume identifier
GUID containing an NTFS object identifier

80

16

Birth droid file identifier
GUID containing an NTFS object identifier

Droid in this context refers to CDomainRelativeObjId.

The droid volume identifier can be found in the NTFS $OBJECT_ID attribute of the $Volume file system metadata file. The LSB in the droid volume identifier contains the cross volume move flag. This flag is set if a file is moved across volumes.

The droid file identifier can be found in the NTFS $OBJECT_ID attribute of the corresponding file.

6.4. The console codepage data block

The console codepage data block is 12 bytes of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

4

0x0000000c (12)

Size of the data
Includes 4 bytes of the size

4

4

0xa0000004

The extra block signature

8

4

Codepage

6.4.1. Console codepage value

The console codepage value consist of the following values:

Value Identifier Description

TODO add values

6.5. The special folder location data block

The special folder location data block is 16 bytes of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

4

0x00000010 (16)

Size of the data
Includes 4 bytes of the size

4

4

0xa0000005

The extra block signature

8

4

Special folder identifier

12

4

First child segment offset

The first child segment offset refers to the location of the (shell) item identifier of the first child segment of the (shell) item identifiers list specified by the known folder identifier. The offset contains the number of bytes relative from the start of the (shell) item identifiers list.

6.6. The Darwin properties data block

The Darwin properties data block is 788 bytes of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

4

0x00000314 (788)

Size of the data
Includes 4 bytes of the size

4

4

0xa0000006

The extra block signature

8

260

Darwin application identifier
ASCII string terminated by an end-of-string character
Unused bytes are set to 0

268

520

Unicode Darwin application identifier
Unicode string terminated by an end-of-string character
Unused bytes are set to 0

6.7. The icon location data block

The icon location data block is 788 bytes of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

4

0x00000314 (788)

Size of the data
Includes 4 bytes of the size

4

4

0xa0000007

The extra block signature

8

260

Icon location
ASCII string terminated by an end-of-string character
Unused bytes can contain remnant data

268

520

Unicode icon location
Unicode string terminated by an end-of-string character
Unused bytes can contain remnant data

The icon location contains the path to the icon information which includes the use of environment variables.

6.7.1. The shim layer properties data block

The shim is an intermediate layer and was added in Windows Vista.

The shim layer properties data block is variable of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

4

Size of the data
Includes 4 bytes of the size
The value should be ⇒ 136

4

4

0xa0000008

The extra block signature

8

…​

Name of the shim layer
Unicode string terminated by an end-of-string character
Unused bytes are set to 0

6.8. The metadata property store data block

The metadata property store data block is variable of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

4

Size of the data
Includes 4 bytes of the size
The value should be >= 12

4

4

0xa0000009

The extra block signature

8

…​

Property store data
Contains one or more property stores
See: [LIBFWPS].

6.8.1. The property set class identifier

The following property set identifiers are known to be used. For more information about the property sets and values see: [LIBFWPS].

Class identifier (GUID) Description

46588ae2-4cbc-4338-bbfc-139326986dce

Unknown

6.9. The known folder location data block

The known folder data block is 28 bytes of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

4

0x0000001c (28)

Size of the data
Includes 4 bytes of the size

4

4

0xa000000b

The extra block signature

8

16

Known folder identifier
Contains a GUID

24

4

First child segment offset

The first child segment offset refers to the location of the (shell) item identifier of the first child segment of the (shell) item identifiers list specified by the known folder identifier. The offset contains the number of bytes relative from the start of the (shell) item identifiers list.

6.10. The shell item identifiers list data block

The shell item identifiers list data block was added in Windows Vista.

The shell item identifiers list data block is variable of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description

0

4

Size of the data
Includes 4 bytes of the size
The value should be >= 10

4

4

0xa000000c

The extra block signature

8

…​

The shell item identifiers list
See: [LIBFWSI].

7. Windows definitions

7.1. File attribute flags

The file attribute flags consist of the following values:

Value Identifier Description

0x00000001

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY

Is read-only

0x00000002

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_HIDDEN

Is hidden

0x00000004

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM

Is a system file or directory

0x00000008

Reserved, not used by the LNK format
Is a volume label

0x00000010

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY

Is a directory

0x00000020

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ARCHIVE

Should be archived

0x00000040

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DEVICE

Reserved, not used by the LNK format
Is a device

0x00000080

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL

Is normal
None of the other flags should be set

0x00000100

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_TEMPORARY

Is temporary

0x00000200

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE

Is a sparse file

0x00000400

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT

Is a reparse point or symbolic link

0x00000800

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED

Is compressed

0x00001000

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_OFFLINE

Is offline
The data of the file is stored on an offline storage.

0x00002000

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NOT_CONTENT_INDEXED

Do not index content
The content of the file or directory should not be indexed by the indexing service.

0x00004000

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED

Is encrypted

0x00008000

Unknown (seen on Windows 95 FAT)

0x00010000

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_VIRTUAL

Currently reserved for future use, not used by the LNK format
Is virtual

7.2. Show Window definitions

The Show Window value contains a value used by the ShowWindow function. This value consist of one of the following values:

Value Identifier Description

0

SW_HIDE

Hides the window and activates another window.

1

SW_NORMAL
SW_SHOWNORMAL

Activates and displays the window. The window is restored to its original size and position if the window is minimized or maximized.

2

SW_SHOWMINIMIZED

Activates and minimizes the window.

3

SW_MAXIMIZE
SW_SHOWMAXIMIZED

Activates and maximizes the window.

4

SW_SHOWNOACTIVATE

Display the window in its most recent position and size without activating it.

5

SW_SHOW

Activates the window and displays it in its current size and position.

6

SW_MINIMIZE

Minimizes the window and activates the next top-level windows (in order of depth (Z order))

7

SW_SHOWMINNOACTIVE

Display the window as minimized without activating it.

8

SW_SHOWNA

Display the window in its current size and position without activating it.

9

SW_RESTORE

Activates and displays the window. The window is restored to its original size and position if the window is minimized or maximized.

10

SW_SHOWDEFAULT

Set the show state based on the ShowWindow values specified during the creation of the process.

11

SW_FORCEMINIMIZE

Minimizes a window, even if the thread that owns the window is not responding.

0xcc

SW_NORMALNA

Undocumented according to wine project.

Note
According to [MS-SHLLINK] All values other than SW_SHOWNORMAL, SW_SHOWMAXIMIZED or SW_SHOWMINNOACTIVE must be treated as SW_SHOWNORMAL.

7.3. Hot Key definitions

The Hot Key values consists of 2 bytes each bytes contains part of the corresponding hot key.

7.3.1. Lower HotKey byte value

Value Identifier Description

0x30 – 0x39

Numeric keys 0 - 9

0x41 – 0x5a

Upper case alphabetical keys A- Z

0x70

VK_F1

Function key 1

0x71

VK_F2

Function key 2

0x72

VK_F3

Function key 3

0x73

VK_F4

Function key 4

0x74

VK_F5

Function key 5

0x75

VK_F6

Function key 6

0x76

VK_F7

Function key 7

0x77

VK_F8

Function key 8

0x78

VK_F9

Function key 9

0x79

VK_F10

Function key 10

0x7a

VK_F11

Function key 11

0x7b

VK_F12

Function key 12

0x7c

VK_F13

Function key 13

0x7d

VK_F14

Function key 14

0x7e

VK_F15

Function key 15

0x7f

VK_F16

Function key 16

0x80

VK_F17

Function key 17

0x81

VK_F18

Function key 18

0x82

VK_F19

Function key 19

0x83

VK_F20

Function key 20

0x84

VK_F21

Function key 21

0x85

VK_F22

Function key 22

0x86

VK_F23

Function key 23

0x87

VK_F24

Function key 24

0x90

VK_NUMLOCK

Num lock key

0x91

VK_SCROLL

Scroll lock key

7.3.2. Upper HotKey byte value

Value Identifier Description

0x01

HOTKEYF_SHIFT

The shift key

0x02

HOTKEYF_CONTROL

The control key

0x04

HOTKEYF_ALT

The alt key

8. Corruption scenarios

8.1. Empty location information

In this scenario the HasLinkInfo is set but the location information is filled with 0-byte values.

Note
Windows Explorer considers this valid LNK data.

Appendix A: References

[PARSONAGE08]

Title: The Meaning of Linkfiles In Forensic Examinations

Author(s):

Harry Parsonage

Date:

September 2008

URL:

http://computerforensics.parsonage.co.uk/downloads/TheMeaningofLIFE.pdf

[HAGER]

Title: The Windows Shortcut File Format

Author(s):

Jesse Hager

URL:

https://github.com/libyal/documentation/blob/master/reference/lnk_the_windows_shortcut_file_format.pdf

[MSDN]

Title: Microsoft Developer Network

URL:

http://msdn.microsoft.com/

[MS-SHLLINK]

Title: [MS-SHLLINK] Shell Link (.LNK) Binary File Format

Date:

August 12, 2009

URL:

http://msdn.microsoft.com/

[LIBFWSI]

Title: Windows Shell Item format

Author(s):

Joachim Metz

Date:

June 2010

URL:

https://github.com/libyal/libfwsi/blob/master/documentation/Windows%20Shell%20Item%20format.asciidoc

[LIBFWPS]

Title: Windows Property Store format

Author(s):

Joachim Metz

Date:

June 2013

URL:

https://github.com/libyal/libfwps/blob/master/documentation/Windows%20Property%20Store%20format.asciidoc

Appendix B: GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.3, 3 November 2008 Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

0. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies of the Document to the public.

A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.

2. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

4. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

  1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.

  2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.

  3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.

  4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

  5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.

  6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.

  7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice.

  8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

  9. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.

  10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.

  11. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

  12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

  13. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.

  14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

  15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".

6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

8. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

9. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.

10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

11. RELICENSING

"Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

"CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.

"Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

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