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How to add support for a new instruction to Remill

Note: this document focuses primarily on x86 instructions, but we will extend it with sections for other architectures as the support for them is added to Remill.

Let's assume that you want to add support for lifting a particular instruction, but don't know where to add it, how to name it, or how the code for writing semantics works.

We use the following nomenclature:

  • SEM: The semantics of an instruction. This is code that implements an instruction's behaviour in a generic way (often, with templated operands).
  • ISEL: An instruction 'selection'. Think of this as an instantiation of some semantics for a particular encoding of an instruction, or in C++ terms, as an instantiation of the templated semantic. Different encodings of the same high-level instruction can affect different sizes and types of operands.

Using XED to guide the creation of a new instruction semantic (x86)

Start by finding your instruction within the XED tables document. We will use AND as a running example.

To start off, here are two entries from the tables document:



These entries contain a lot of information and are quite dense. Below are descriptions of the salient parts.

  • AND: The name of the instruction. This is typically the opcode, though sometimes it will be more specific. In general, there is a one-to-one correspondence between an instruction name and its SEM: a generic function that you will define to implement the multiple variants of this instruction.
  • LOGICAL: This is the category of the instruction. This will generally tell you where to put your instruction code. In this case, we would implement the instruction in the LOGICAL.cpp file.
  • AND_GPRv_MEMv: This is the ISEL: an instantiation of your instruction's semantic function.
  • SCALABLE: This tells you that a particular ISEL can actually relate to a number of different operand sizes. We have short forms and naming conventions for writing one ISEL for all the operand sizes; however, this can be done manually as well. One XED convention is that if you see a z or v within the ISEL, then the instruction is probably scalable.
  • EXPLICIT: This is an explicit operand. If you were to try to type out this instruction as assembly code and assemble it, then an explicit operand is one that you must specify after the opcode mnemonic. In Remill, your semantic functions will have at least one argument for each explicit operand.
  • IMPLICIT: This is an implicit operand. You can think of this as being an operand that you might write out in assembly. Alternatively, you can see it as an operand that is explicit in at least one ISEL. Not to be confused with SUPPRESSED.
  • SUPPRESSED: This is an operand that is never written out in assembly, but is operated on internally by the semantics of an instruction. In Remill, you do not associate any arguments in your semantic functions with suppressed operands.
  • R, RW, W, CR, CW, RCW: These per-operand markers indicate how the semantics of the instruction operate on a particular operand, or in other words, they describe the mutability of the operand. R stands for read, W stands for write, and C stands for condition. Therefore, RCW states that the semantics will read and conditionally write to the associated operand.
  • REG, MEM, IMM: These identify the type of the operand within a particular instruction selection (ISEL). Remill has C++ type names associated with each operand type and size, defined in Types.h

In the following code examples we will ignore condition code computation. Most instructions that manipulate condition codes have already been implemented.

The semantics function for the AND instruction will look like this:

template <typename D, typename S1, typename S2>
DEF_SEM(AND, D dst, S1 src1, S2 src2) {
  auto lhs = Read(src1);
  auto rhs = Read(src2);
  auto res = UAnd(lhs, rhs);
  WriteZExt(dst, res);
  // SetFlagsLogical(state, lhs, rhs, res);

The first operand to the DEF_SEM macro – AND – is the SEM, i.e. the name of the instruction. Traditionally in Remill we name the semantic the same as its instruction mnemonic from the Intel x86-64 architecture manuals, but that is not a hard rule. Sometimes, you will need to implement multiple semantic functions, for instance, when a single SEM function cannot generically apply to all ISEL variants.

The remaining operands (D dst, S1 src1, S2 src2) are the templated arguments to the SEM function (note: these are not always 1:1 associated with the operands to the instruction itself). Let's go back to look at the XED tables document and look at the explicit and implicit operands for AND:


As noted above, the SEM operands and the instruction's own operands are not 1:1 related. We see two operands in the XED table, but there are three specified to the DEF_SEM macro. Each XED table operand generates, at most, two arguments to the DEF_SEM macro:

  • If the operand is R, CR, W, or CW, then it will only generate one semantics argument because it is either only-read or only-written.
  • If the operand is RW, CRW, or RCW, then it will generate two semantic arguments. The write version of the operand becomes the first listed argument in the SEM. Relating this back to the semantics code, we see that 0 REG0 EXPLICIT RW expands into the two operands D dst, S1 src1.

Remill Operators

The semantics code can read, write, and operate on operands. In the body of a semantic function, in order to read an operand, one must use a Remill Read operator. Operators are convenience functions that are documented further in the Operators document. In practice, you should only read from "source" operands. There are two operators to write to a "destination" operand: Write(dst, ...) and WriteZExt(dst, ...). The ZExt version specifies that if what is being written to dst may not as wide as dst, then the value being written will be zero-extended to the width of dst. This is an x86-ism that helps us handle things like mov eax, ebx: when compiled as a 64-bit instruction, the value of ebx is zero-extended to 64 bits, and this value is actually written to rax.

Semantics code should be as explicit as possible. We could write auto res = lhs & rhs;, but to be more explicit, we specify that it is an unsigned logical AND of lhs and rhs. There are signed, unsigned, and floating point variants of most operators. The naming of these operators generally follows the naming of LLVM instructions. For example, there are UAdd, SAdd, and FAdd for implementing unsigned, signed, and floating point addition, respectively.

In general, when writing SEM functions, you want to put all your Reads up front, computations in the middle, then Writes to destination arguments, then writes to suppressed operands (e.g. condition codes). The reason for this ordering is to hopefully limit the scope of register and memory state mutations in the face of memory access violations (e.g. segmentation fault).

Semantic Functions as Templated Functions

Most SEM functions will be function templates, and therefore defined with template argument syntax (template <typename D, ...>). Function templates are what enable a SEM to implement multiple ISELs. If we choose to specify the ISEL for the AND_GPRv_MEMv given to us by XED, then we would write the following:

DEF_ISEL(AND_GPRv_MEMv_16) = AND<R16W, R16, M16>;
DEF_ISEL(AND_GPRv_MEMv_32) = AND<R32W, R32, M32>;
IF_64BIT(DEF_ISEL(AND_GPRv_MEMv_64) = AND<R64W, R64, M64>;)

Where AND is the name of our semantic function for the AND instruction. Recall that AND has the SCALABLE attribute. Not every instruction has this attribute. When they do, we suffix the ISEL with an explicit operand size, for example _8, _16, etc.

The operand types follow a predictable format. R8W an 8-bit register destination operand, and the W suffix indicates that the semantics function writes to the register. Read-only operands have no such suffix: R8 is an 8-bit register (the R standing for register, not read), and M8 is an 8-bit value in memory.

Multi-targeted Compilation

The semantics code gets compiled multiple times for different x86 variants: 32-bit and 64-bit, and with or without AVX(512) support. AND_GPRv_MEMv_64 is not valid for a 32-bit build, so we stub it out as only applying to 64-bit builds using the Remill convenience macro IF_64BIT(...), which works like a C++ ternary expression.

A shorter way of specifying the semantics for SCALABLE attributed instructions is:


In this case, the DEF_ISEL_... macro explicitly documents what types of argument type instantiations will be performed.

Vector instructions

Vector instructions follow similar, albeit more nuanced formats. Below is an example implementation of PAND, a vectorized version of AND:

template <typename D, typename S1, typename S2>
DEF_SEM(PAND, D dst, S1 src1, S2 src2) {
  UWriteV32(dst, UAndV32(UReadV32(src1), UReadV32(src2)));

We see the use of the following Remill operators:

  • UReadV32: Reads in a vector of unsigned, 32-bit integers.
  • UAndV32: Performs a logical AND operation on a vector if unsigned, 32-bit integers.
  • UWriteV32 writes to dst a vector of unsigned, 32-bit integers.

The "types" of the operators must always match. If you intend to implement support for new vector instructions, then start by looking at some existing, more complicated examples.

Testing instructions

After implementing an instruction semantic, you must implement the associated instruction test cases before committing and making a pull request. Do not make a pull request until all tests pass. Again, recall that you can make incremental pull requests: you don't need to finish all milestones of a particular issue in order to contribute.

Writing your first tests

We will revisit the above example of the AND instruction. Start by creating AND.S within the category- and architecture-specific sub-directory of the tests directory. Then, add that file as an #include statement to the appropriate place in remill/tests/X86/Tests.S.

Each ISEL should be tested separately. For example, a test for the AND_GPRv_GPRv_32 ISEL would be:

TEST_BEGIN(ANDr32r32, 2)
    0, 0,
    1, 0,
    0xFFFFFFFF, 1,
    0x7FFFFFFF, 1,
    0, 0x10,
    0x7F, 0x10)

    and ARG1_32, ARG2_32

This expands into some assembly functions and data structures via black magic. Here's what the various parts mean:

  • TEST_BEGIN or TEST_BEGIN_64: All tests begin with this macro invocation.
  • ANDr32r32: This is the name of the test case. It only needs to be unique.
  • The operand 2 is the number of input arguments that each execution of the instruction test case requires. Generally speaking you will use the same number here as the number of unique inputs to the instruction, but you are free to supply only 2 of 3 inputs and hardcode the third, etc.
  • TEST_IGNORE_FLAGS(AF): This says that the AND instruction will leave the AF condition code in an undefined state (see the x86 manuals).
  • TEST_INPUTS: This specifies the inputs to the test. All the inputs are listed out in sequence, but we specified that the test takes two arguments. So the test runner will evaluate the instruction on each comma-separated pair of inputs. We list them with two inputs per line to indicate this to the reader.
  • ARG1_32: indicates that the first argument is a 32-bit register containing the first input supplied to the test. There are other variants, such as ARG1_64, ARG1_16, etc.
  • and ...: This is the assembly code of the instruction that will be tested.
  • TEST_END or TEST_END_64: This denotes the end of the test. It must match the test-begin macro (TEST_BEGIN_64 pairs with TEST_END_64).

A single ISEL test case is executed multiple times: one for each of the test inputs, and each of those is executed multiple times with varying permutations of CPU flags.

Build and run the tests using:

make -j5 test_dependencies
make test

Because building tests for all instructions in Remill is tedious, you probably want to modify Tests.S first, to conditionally exclude all but the test you are interested in.

Adding support for a new instruction (aarch64)

Much of the process is as described for x86 above, but here we will document what is different.

Setting up the ISEL

Currently, instructions that alias to another instruction (MOV, CMP, etc) are extracted as the instruction that they alias, and are not their own separate class.

All of the ISEL function-extracting-and-decoding shells are auto-generated by the tool at remill/Arch/AArch64/Etc/, which literally parses the architecture documentation reference, to produce the following files:

  • remill/Arch/AArch64/Extract.cpp is responsible for parsing the bit sequence of an instruction and assigning it to a corresponding selector. It also populates the InstData structure with the correct fields, which can be located at remill/Arch/AArch64/Decode.h.

  • Any logical processing other than passing down the raw bit values should be done in the semantic definition, not here or in the decoding pipeline.

  • remill/Arch/AArch64/Decode.cpp is filled with function skeletons that will receive the populated InstData struct and use it to push Operand objects into our Instruction class that will be later used in the semantic definition. Cut and paste the skeleton into ./Arch.cpp and fill it out accordingly, using other functions in the file as a reference.

  • The order in which operands (immediates, registers, memory displacements, etc.) is important and will be reflected in the semantic definition parameters.

  • inst.function of type Instruction contains the semantic name of the target. You can manipulate this to give you a greater granularity at the semantic level later on by, for example, appending a conditional qualifier like _EQ or _GE to the semantic.

Defining the semantic

Under remill/Arch/AArch64/Semantics/, figure out which class of functions your instruction fits under. If creating a new semantic class file, make sure it is included in ../Instructions.cpp.

Similar to X86 semantics, you will use the DEF_ISEL and DEF_COND_ISEL to implement the semantic. Below are some interesting gotchas:

  • SIMD registers and floating point registers will always have the type of V128W if they are the target of a write operation, regardless of their actual width class. In the semantic write, however, using width-specific variants of the UWriteV or FWriteV Remill operators, you must match them with the width specifier.
  • For floating point operations, you need to be careful about setting the different exception flags in the status register. See ./Flags.cpp for some functions that seek to do this procedurally; however, there are corner cases that need to be further inspected.
  • For branches, the decoding function should populate an operand that acts as a "write" destination for the evaluated condition of the branch that needs to be set for the lifter. Make sure you do that.
  • For instructions that alter the status of the flag registers, make sure you set them accordingly.

Writing and running the test

Mirroring X86, the tests can be found under remill/tests/AArch64/*. When adding a test, make sure it is included in the ./Tests.S file. Below is a useful set of steps to partially recompile/build for quickly fixing tests (from the remill-build directory):


set -e
touch ../remill/Arch/AArch64/Runtime/BasicBlock.cpp
touch ../remill/Arch/AArch64/Runtime/Instructions.cpp
rm -f tests/AArch64/lift-*
rm -f tests/AArch64/run-*
make test_dependencies

If you come across errors in the build process that "an instruction matching the test could not be found", double check to make sure your DEF_ISEL and test class match up (this will test against whatever was set for the instr.function string).

Tips for Debugging a Failing Test Case

Debugging with gdb can be helpful in narrowing down where exactly a mismatch between "native" and "lifted" code occurs. For the structs we will discuss here, refer to the State struct located at remill/Arch/AArch64/Runtime/State.h (for AArch64) or remill/Arch/X86/Runtime/State.h (for X86).

In the following example, the AArch64 test case we are debugging is:

TEST_BEGIN(UDIV_32_DP_2SRC, udiv_w3_w0_w1, 2)
    0, 0,
    1, 0,
    0xffffffff, 1,
    1, 0xffffffff,
    0xffffffff, 0xffffffff,
    1, 2,
    5, 2,
    5, 3,
    5, 4)

    udiv w3, ARG1_32, ARG2_32

Fire up gdb by running it against the Remill project's lifted-code tester:

gdb remill-build/tests/AArch64/run-aarch64-tests

The first steps you want to do in gdb are to alias the State structs of the respective native and lifted code semantics:

set $native = (State *)&gNativeState
set $lifted = (State *)&gLiftedState

Afterwards, we can set breakpoints at udiv_w3_w0_w1_2 for the native and (naming convention is testname_N where N is the number of arguments you specify in the test) udiv_w3_w0_w1_2_lifted for our semantic test.

Pro-tip: eliminate the tedium of typing and re-typing gdb commands by passing them all in from the shell. For example on X86, to break at the point where you can examine the differences between the resulting lifted and native states in a failing test case:

set $bp_line = `grep -n "Lifted and native states did not match." /remill/tests/X86/Run.cpp | cut -f1 -d:`
gdb ./tests/X86/run-x86-tests -ex "b /remill/tests/X86/Run.cpp:$bp_line" -ex "set \$native = (State *)&gNativeState" -ex "set \$lifted = (State *)&gLiftedState" -ex run

Usually it is sufficient to narrow down the differences between the particular registers/status fields involved, but a complete diff of the entire State struct is also helpful. In the lifter, some state fields are intentionally zeroed out to avoid being compared, so make sure to account for those). A contrived debugging example:

Breakpoint 1, 0x000000000329b5d0 in fmadd_s_pos_floatdp3_2_lifted ()
=> 0x000000000329b5d0 <fmadd_s_pos_floatdp3_2_lifted+0>:        ea 0f 1c fc     str     d10, [sp,#-64]!
(gdb) n
Single stepping until exit from function fmadd_s_pos_floatdp3_2_lifted,
which has no line number information.
__remill_missing_block (memory=0x0) at /home/chris/tob/remill/tests/AArch64/Run.cpp:168
168       return memory;
=> 0x000000000044299c <__remill_missing_block(AArch64State&, addr_t, Memory*)+0>:       e0 03 02 aa     mov     x0, x2
   0x00000000004429a0 <__remill_missing_block(AArch64State&, addr_t, Memory*)+4>:       c0 03 5f d6     ret
(gdb) n
RunWithFlags (info=0x3306400, flags=..., desc=<incomplete type>, arg1=0, arg2=0, arg3=<optimized out>) at /home/chris/tob/remill/tests/AArch64/Run.cpp:306
306       native_state->gpr.pc.qword = info->test_end;
=> 0x00000000004432fc <RunWithFlags(test::TestInfo const*, NZCV, std::__cxx11::basic_string<char, std::char_traits<char>, std::allocator<char> >, unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long)+776>:    c8 06 40 f9ldr     x8, [x22,#8]
(gdb) n
322       EXPECT_TRUE(lifted_state->sr.n == native_state->sr.n);
=> 0x0000000000443300 <RunWithFlags(test::TestInfo const*, NZCV, std::__cxx11::basic_string<char, std::char_traits<char>, std::allocator<char> >, unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long)+780>:    89 c6 51 39ldrb    w9, [x20,#1137]
(gdb) p/x $native->sr
$1 = {_0 = 0x0, tpidr_el0 = {{dword = 0xb7ff06f0, qword = 0xffffb7ff06f0}}, _1 = 0x0, tpidrro_el0 = {{dword = 0x0, qword = 0x0}}, _2 = 0x0, n = 0x0, _3 = 0x0, z = 0x0, _4 = 0x0, c = 0x0, _5 = 0x0, v = 0x0, _6 = 0x0, ixc = 0x0, _7 = 0x0, ofc = 0x0, _8 = 0x0, ufc = 0x0, _9 = 0x0, idc = 0x0}
(gdb) p/x $lifted->sr
$2 = {_0 = 0x0, tpidr_el0 = {{dword = 0xb7ff06f0, qword = 0xffffb7ff06f0}}, _1 = 0x0, tpidrro_el0 = {{dword = 0x0, qword = 0x0}}, _2 = 0x0, n = 0x0, _3 = 0x0, z = 0x0, _4 = 0x0, c = 0x0, _5 = 0x0, v = 0x0, _6 = 0x0, ixc = 0x0, _7 = 0x0, ofc = 0x0, _8 = 0x0, ufc = 0x0, _9 = 0x0, idc = 0x0}
(gdb) p/x $native->simd.v[3]
$3 = {dqwords = {elems = {0x00000000000000000000000041100000}}, bytes = {elems = {0x0, 0x0, 0x10, 0x41, 0x0 <repeats 12 times>}}, words = {elems = {0x0, 0x4110, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0}}, dwords = {elems = {0x41100000, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0}}, qwords = {elems = {0x41100000, 0x0}}, floats = {elems = {0x9, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0}}, doubles = {elems = {0x0, 0x0}}, sbytes = {elems = {0x0, 0x0, 0x10, 0x41, 0x0 <repeats 12 times>}}, swords = {elems = {0x0, 0x4110, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0}}, sdwords = {elems = {0x41100000, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0}}, sqwords = {elems = {0x41100000, 0x0}}, sdqwords = {elems = {0x00000000000000000000000041100000}}}
(gdb) p/x $lifted->simd.v[3]
$4 = {dqwords = {elems = {0x00000000000000000000000041100000}}, bytes = {elems = {0x0, 0x0, 0x10, 0x41, 0x0 <repeats 12 times>}}, words = {elems = {0x0, 0x4110, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0}}, dwords = {elems = {0x41100000, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0}}, qwords = {elems = {0x41100000, 0x0}}, floats = {elems = {0x9, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0}}, doubles = {elems = {0x0, 0x0}}, sbytes = {elems = {0x0, 0x0, 0x10, 0x41, 0x0 <repeats 12 times>}}, swords = {elems = {0x0, 0x4110, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0}}, sdwords = {elems = {0x41100000, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0}}, sqwords = {elems = {0x41100000, 0x0}}, sdqwords = {elems = {0x00000000000000000000000041100000}}}

When comparing these long structs, you may find it convenient to copy/paste them into DiffChecker.