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//
// OpenUDID.m
// openudid
//
// initiated by Yann Lechelle (cofounder Appsfire) on 8/28/11.
// Copyright 2011 OpenUDID.org
//
// iOS / MacOS code: https://github.com/ylechelle/OpenUDID
// Android code: https://github.com/vieux/OpenUDID
//
// Contributors:
// https://github.com/ylechelle (initiator & iOS code)
// https://github.com/samrobbins (Mac OS port)
// https://github.com/vieux (Android version)
/*
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of
this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in
the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to
use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies
of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do
so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
SOFTWARE.
*/
#import "OpenUDID.h"
#import <CommonCrypto/CommonDigest.h> // Need to import for CC_MD5 access
#if TARGET_OS_IPHONE || TARGET_IPHONE_SIMULATOR
#import <UIKit/UIPasteboard.h>
#import <UIKit/UIKit.h>
#else
#import <AppKit/NSPasteboard.h>
#endif
//#define OpenUDIDLog(fmt, ...) NSLog((@"%s [Line %d] " fmt), __PRETTY_FUNCTION__, __LINE__, ##__VA_ARGS__);
//#define OpenUDIDLog(fmt, ...) NSLog((@"[Line %d] " fmt), __LINE__, ##__VA_ARGS__);
#define OpenUDIDLog(fmt, ...)
static NSString * kOpenUDIDSessionCache = nil;
static NSString * const kOpenUDIDKey = @"OpenUDID";
static NSString * const kOpenUDIDSlotKey = @"OpenUDID_slot";
static NSString * const kOpenUDIDBIDKey = @"OpenUDID_bundleid";
static NSString * const kOpenUDIDTSKey = @"OpenUDID_createdTS";
static NSString * const kOpenUDIDOOTSKey = @"OpenUDID_optOutTS";
static NSString * const kOpenUDIDDomain = @"org.OpenUDID";
static NSString * const kOpenUDIDSlotPBPrefix = @"org.OpenUDID.slot.";
static int const kOpenUDIDRedundancySlots = 100;
@interface OpenUDID (Private)
+ (void) _setDict:(id)dict forPasteboard:(id)pboard;
+ (NSMutableDictionary*) _getDictFromPasteboard:(id)pboard;
+ (NSString*) _getOpenUDID;
@end
@implementation OpenUDID
// Archive a NSDictionary inside a pasteboard of a given type
// Convenience method to support iOS & Mac OS X
//
+ (void) _setDict:(id)dict forPasteboard:(id)pboard {
#if TARGET_OS_IPHONE || TARGET_IPHONE_SIMULATOR
[pboard setData:[NSKeyedArchiver archivedDataWithRootObject:dict] forPasteboardType:kOpenUDIDDomain];
#else
[pboard setData:[NSKeyedArchiver archivedDataWithRootObject:dict] forType:kOpenUDIDDomain];
#endif
}
// Retrieve an NSDictionary from a pasteboard of a given type
// Convenience method to support iOS & Mac OS X
//
+ (NSMutableDictionary*) _getDictFromPasteboard:(id)pboard {
#if TARGET_OS_IPHONE || TARGET_IPHONE_SIMULATOR
id item = [pboard dataForPasteboardType:kOpenUDIDDomain];
#else
id item = [pboard dataForType:kOpenUDIDDomain];
#endif
if (item)
item = [NSKeyedUnarchiver unarchiveObjectWithData:item];
// return an instance of a MutableDictionary
return [NSMutableDictionary dictionaryWithDictionary:(item == nil || [item isKindOfClass:[NSDictionary class]]) ? item : nil];
}
// Private method to create and return the OpenUDID
// Note that the default behavior on iOS is to return the current UDID if the function is not deprecated
// Theoretically, this function is called once ever per application when calling [OpenUDID value] for the first time.
// After that, the caching/pasteboard/redundancy mechanism inside [OpenUDID value] returns a persistent and cross application OpenUDID
//
+ (NSString*) _getOpenUDID {
NSString* _openUDID = nil;
// 2011: One day, this may no longer be allowed in iOS. When that is, just comment this line out.
// March 25th 2012: this day has come, let's remove this "outlawed" call...
#if TARGET_OS_IPHONE
// if([UIDevice instancesRespondToSelector:@selector(uniqueIdentifier)]){
// _openUDID = [[UIDevice currentDevice] uniqueIdentifier];
// }
#endif
// Take this opportunity to give the simulator a proper UDID (i.e. nullify UDID and create an OpenUDID)
//
#if TARGET_IPHONE_SIMULATOR
_openUDID = nil;
#endif
// Next we try to use an alternative method which uses the host name, process ID, and a time stamp
// We then hash it with md5 to get 32 bytes, and then add 4 extra random bytes
// Collision is possible of course, but unlikely and suitable for most industry needs (e.g.. aggregate tracking)
//
if (_openUDID==nil) {
unsigned char result[16];
const char *cStr = [[[NSProcessInfo processInfo] globallyUniqueString] UTF8String];
CC_MD5( cStr, strlen(cStr), result );
_openUDID = [NSString stringWithFormat:
@"%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%08x",
result[0], result[1], result[2], result[3],
result[4], result[5], result[6], result[7],
result[8], result[9], result[10], result[11],
result[12], result[13], result[14], result[15],
arc4random() % 4294967295];
}
// Call to other developers in the Open Source community:
//
// feel free to suggest better or alternative "UDID" generation code above.
// NOTE that the goal is NOT to find a better hash method, but rather, find a decentralized (i.e. not web-based)
// 160 bits / 20 bytes random string generator with the fewest possible collisions.
//
return _openUDID;
}
// Main public method that returns the OpenUDID
// This method will generate and store the OpenUDID if it doesn't exist, typically the first time it is called
// It will return the null udid (forty zeros) if the user has somehow opted this app out (this is subject to 3rd party implementation)
// Otherwise, it will register the current app and return the OpenUDID
//
+ (NSString*) value {
return [OpenUDID valueWithError:nil];
}
+ (NSString*) valueWithError:(NSError **)error {
if (kOpenUDIDSessionCache!=nil) {
if (error!=nil)
*error = [NSError errorWithDomain:kOpenUDIDDomain
code:kOpenUDIDErrorNone
userInfo:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:@"OpenUDID in cache from first call",@"description", nil]];
return kOpenUDIDSessionCache;
}
NSUserDefaults *defaults = [NSUserDefaults standardUserDefaults];
NSString *bundleid = [[NSBundle mainBundle] bundleIdentifier];
NSString* openUDID = nil;
NSString* myRedundancySlotPBid = nil;
NSDate* optedOutDate = nil;
BOOL optedOut = NO;
BOOL saveLocalDictToDefaults = NO;
BOOL isCompromised = NO;
// Do we have a local copy of the OpenUDID dictionary?
// This local copy contains a copy of the openUDID, myRedundancySlotPBid (and unused in this block, the local bundleid, and the timestamp)
//
id localDict = [defaults objectForKey:kOpenUDIDKey];
if ([localDict isKindOfClass:[NSDictionary class]]) {
localDict = [NSMutableDictionary dictionaryWithDictionary:localDict]; // we might need to set/overwrite the redundancy slot
openUDID = [localDict objectForKey:kOpenUDIDKey];
myRedundancySlotPBid = [localDict objectForKey:kOpenUDIDSlotKey];
OpenUDIDLog(@"localDict = %@",localDict);
}
// Here we go through a sequence of slots, each of which being a UIPasteboard created by each participating app
// The idea behind this is to both multiple and redundant representations of OpenUDIDs, as well as serve as placeholder for potential opt-out
//
NSString* availableSlotPBid = nil;
NSMutableDictionary* frequencyDict = [NSMutableDictionary dictionaryWithCapacity:kOpenUDIDRedundancySlots];
for (int n=0; n<kOpenUDIDRedundancySlots; n++) {
NSString* slotPBid = [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%@%d",kOpenUDIDSlotPBPrefix,n];
#if TARGET_OS_IPHONE || TARGET_IPHONE_SIMULATOR
UIPasteboard* slotPB = [UIPasteboard pasteboardWithName:slotPBid create:NO];
#else
NSPasteboard* slotPB = [NSPasteboard pasteboardWithName:slotPBid];
#endif
OpenUDIDLog(@"SlotPB name = %@",slotPBid);
if (slotPB==nil) {
// assign availableSlotPBid to be the first one available
if (availableSlotPBid==nil) availableSlotPBid = slotPBid;
} else {
NSDictionary* dict = [OpenUDID _getDictFromPasteboard:slotPB];
NSString* oudid = [dict objectForKey:kOpenUDIDKey];
OpenUDIDLog(@"SlotPB dict = %@",dict);
if (oudid==nil) {
// availableSlotPBid could inside a non null slot where no oudid can be found
if (availableSlotPBid==nil) availableSlotPBid = slotPBid;
} else {
// increment the frequency of this oudid key
int count = [[frequencyDict valueForKey:oudid] intValue];
[frequencyDict setObject:[NSNumber numberWithInt:++count] forKey:oudid];
}
// if we have a match with the bundleid, then let's look if the external UIPasteboard representation marks this app as OptedOut
NSString* bid = [dict objectForKey:kOpenUDIDBIDKey];
if (bid!=nil && [bid isEqualToString:bundleid]) {
myRedundancySlotPBid = slotPBid;
optedOutDate = [dict objectForKey:kOpenUDIDOOTSKey];
optedOut = optedOutDate!=nil;
}
}
}
// sort the Frequency dict with highest occurence count of the same OpenUDID (redundancy, failsafe)
// highest is last in the list
//
NSArray* arrayOfUDIDs = [frequencyDict keysSortedByValueUsingSelector:@selector(compare:)];
NSString* mostReliableOpenUDID = (arrayOfUDIDs!=nil && [arrayOfUDIDs count]>0)? [arrayOfUDIDs lastObject] : nil;
OpenUDIDLog(@"Freq Dict = %@\nMost reliable %@",frequencyDict,mostReliableOpenUDID);
// if openUDID was not retrieved from the local preferences, then let's try to get it from the frequency dictionary above
//
if (openUDID==nil) {
if (mostReliableOpenUDID==nil) {
// this is the case where this app instance is likely to be the first one to use OpenUDID on this device
// we create the OpenUDID, legacy or semi-random (i.e. most certainly unique)
//
openUDID = [OpenUDID _getOpenUDID];
} else {
// or we leverage the OpenUDID shared by other apps that have already gone through the process
//
openUDID = mostReliableOpenUDID;
}
// then we create a local representation
//
if (localDict==nil) {
localDict = [NSMutableDictionary dictionaryWithCapacity:4];
[localDict setObject:openUDID forKey:kOpenUDIDKey];
[localDict setObject:bundleid forKey:kOpenUDIDBIDKey];
[localDict setObject:[NSDate date] forKey:kOpenUDIDTSKey];
if (optedOut) [localDict setObject:optedOutDate forKey:kOpenUDIDTSKey];
saveLocalDictToDefaults = YES;
}
}
else {
// Sanity/tampering check
//
if (mostReliableOpenUDID!=nil && ![mostReliableOpenUDID isEqualToString:openUDID])
isCompromised = YES;
}
// Here we store in the available PB slot, if applicable
//
OpenUDIDLog(@"Available Slot %@ Existing Slot %@",availableSlotPBid,myRedundancySlotPBid);
if (availableSlotPBid!=nil && (myRedundancySlotPBid==nil || [availableSlotPBid isEqualToString:myRedundancySlotPBid])) {
#if TARGET_OS_IPHONE || TARGET_IPHONE_SIMULATOR
UIPasteboard* slotPB = [UIPasteboard pasteboardWithName:availableSlotPBid create:YES];
[slotPB setPersistent:YES];
#else
NSPasteboard* slotPB = [NSPasteboard pasteboardWithName:availableSlotPBid];
#endif
// save slotPBid to the defaults, and remember to save later
//
if (localDict) {
[localDict setObject:availableSlotPBid forKey:kOpenUDIDSlotKey];
saveLocalDictToDefaults = YES;
}
// Save the local dictionary to the corresponding UIPasteboard slot
//
if (openUDID && localDict)
[OpenUDID _setDict:localDict forPasteboard:slotPB];
}
// Save the dictionary locally if applicable
//
if (localDict && saveLocalDictToDefaults)
[defaults setObject:localDict forKey:kOpenUDIDKey];
// If the UIPasteboard externa representation marks this app as opted-out, then to respect privacy, we return the ZERO OpenUDID, a sequence of 40 zeros...
// This is a *new* case that developers have to deal with. Unlikely, statistically low, but still.
// To circumvent this and maintain good tracking (conversion ratios, etc.), developers are invited to calculate how many of their users have opted-out from the full set of users.
// This ratio will let them extrapolate convertion ratios more accurately.
//
if (optedOut) {
if (error!=nil) *error = [NSError errorWithDomain:kOpenUDIDDomain
code:kOpenUDIDErrorOptedOut
userInfo:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:[NSString stringWithFormat:@"Application %@ is opted-out from OpenUDID as of %@",bundleid,optedOutDate],@"description", nil]];
kOpenUDIDSessionCache = [[NSString stringWithFormat:@"%040x",0] retain];
return kOpenUDIDSessionCache;
}
// return the well earned openUDID!
//
if (error!=nil) {
if (isCompromised)
*error = [NSError errorWithDomain:kOpenUDIDDomain
code:kOpenUDIDErrorCompromised
userInfo:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:@"Found a discrepancy between stored OpenUDID (reliable) and redundant copies; one of the apps on the device is most likely corrupting the OpenUDID protocol",@"description", nil]];
else
*error = [NSError errorWithDomain:kOpenUDIDDomain
code:kOpenUDIDErrorNone
userInfo:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:@"OpenUDID succesfully retrieved",@"description", nil]];
}
kOpenUDIDSessionCache = [openUDID retain];
return kOpenUDIDSessionCache;
}
@end
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