Skip to content


Switch branches/tags

Name already in use

A tag already exists with the provided branch name. Many Git commands accept both tag and branch names, so creating this branch may cause unexpected behavior. Are you sure you want to create this branch?

Latest commit


Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time

LingRex: Linguistic Reconstruction with LingPy

Build Status DOI PyPI version

LingRex offers the code needed for the automatic inference of sound correspondence patterns as described in the following paper:

List, J.-M. (2019): Automatic inference of sound correspondence patterns across multiple languages. Computational Linguistics 45.1. 137-161. DOI: 10.1162/coli_a_00344

To test this workflow, please check the workflow code example in tests/workflows/list-2019.

LingRex offers also the code needed for a baseline algorithm for automatic word prediction or automatic phonological reconstruction in a supervised fashion.

List, J.-M. and R. Forkel and N. W. Hill (forthcoming): A New Framework for Fast Automated Phonological Reconstruction Using Trimmed Alignments and Sound Correspondence Patterns. Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Computational Approaches to Historical Language Change (LChange 2022). Dublin. Ireland.

This algorithm is also used as a baseline for an upcoming Shared Task on the Prediction of Cognate Reflexes (, organized as part of the SIGTYP Workshop at NAACL 2022.

When using this package in your research, please make sure to quote the respective papers, depending on the algorithms you use, and quote the software package as follows:

List, J.-M. and R. Forkel (2022): LingRex: Linguistic Reconstruction with LingPy. [Computer software, Version 1.2.0]. Geneva: Zenodo. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1544943

Since this software package itself makes use of LingPy's alignment algorithms, you should also quote the LingPy package itself.

List, J.-M. and R. Forkel (2021): LingPy. A Python library for quantitative tasks in historical linguistics. Version 2.6.9. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology: Leipzig.


Install the package via pip:

pip install lingrex

Further Examples

The borrowing detection algorithm implemented in LingRex is introduced in the paper:

List, J.-M. and R. Forkel (2021): Automated identification of borrowings in multilingual wordlists [version 1; peer review: 3 approved, 1 approved with reservations]. Open Research Europe 1.79. 1-11. DOI: 10.12688/openreseurope.13843.1

If you use this algorithm, please cite LingRex and this paper.

In addition to the paper in which the correspondence pattern inference algorithm was first introduced, LingRex also offers the code to compute the workflow described in the following paper:

Wu, M.-S., N. Schweikhard, T. Bodt, N. Hill, and J.-M. List (2020): Computer-Assisted Language Comparison. State of the Art. Journal of Open Humanities Data 6.2. 1-14. DOI: 10.5334/johd.12

To test this workflow, please check the workflow code example in tests/workflows/wu-2020.

If you use this workflow in your work, please quote this paper as well.

In addition, our experiment (with T. Bodt) on predicting words with the help of sound correspondence patterns also made use of the LingRex package.

Bodt, T. and J.-M. List (2021): Reflex prediction. A case study of Western Kho-Bwa. Diachronica 0.0. 1-38. DOI: 10.1075/dia.20009.bod

To test this workflow, please check the workflow code example in tests/workflows/bodt-2019.