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Kubernetes Cloud Controller Manager for Linode

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The purpose of the CCM

The Linode Cloud Controller Manager (CCM) creates a fully supported Kubernetes experience on Linode.

  • Load balancers, Linode NodeBalancers, are automatically deployed when a Kubernetes Service of type "LoadBalancer" is deployed. This is the most reliable way to allow services running in your cluster to be reachable from the Internet.
  • Linode hostnames and network addresses (private/public IPs) are automatically associated with their corresponding Kubernetes resources, forming the basis for a variety of Kubernetes features.
  • Nodes resources are put into the correct state when Linodes are shut down, allowing pods to be appropriately rescheduled.
  • Nodes are annotated with the Linode region, which is the basis for scheduling based on failure domains.

Kubernetes Supported Versions

Kubernetes 1.9+


LoadBalancer Services

Kubernetes Services of type LoadBalancer will be served through a Linode NodeBalancer which the Cloud Controller Manager will provision on demand. For general feature and usage notes, refer to the Getting Started with Linode NodeBalancers guide.


The Linode CCM accepts several annotations which affect the properties of the underlying NodeBalancer deployment.

All of the service annotation names listed below have been shortened for readability. Each annotation MUST be prefixed with The values, such as http, are case-sensitive.

Annotation (Suffix) Values Default Description
throttle 0-20 (0 to disable) 20 Client Connection Throttle, which limits the number of subsequent new connections per second from the same client IP
default-protocol tcp, http, https tcp This annotation is used to specify the default protocol for Linode NodeBalancer.
default-proxy-protocol none, v1, v2 none Specifies whether to use a version of Proxy Protocol on the underlying NodeBalancer.
port-* json (e.g. { "tls-secret-name": "prod-app-tls", "protocol": "https", "proxy-protocol": "v2"}) Specifies port specific NodeBalancer configuration. See Port Specific Configuration. * is the port being configured, e.g. linode-loadbalancer-port-443
check-type none, connection, http, http_body The type of health check to perform against back-ends to ensure they are serving requests
check-path string The URL path to check on each back-end during health checks
check-body string Text which must be present in the response body to pass the NodeBalancer health check
check-interval int Duration, in seconds, to wait between health checks
check-timeout int (1-30) Duration, in seconds, to wait for a health check to succeed before considering it a failure
check-attempts int (1-30) Number of health check failures necessary to remove a back-end from the service
check-passive bool false When true, 5xx status codes will cause the health check to fail
preserve bool false When true, deleting a LoadBalancer service does not delete the underlying NodeBalancer. This will also prevent deletion of the former LoadBalancer when another one is specified with the nodebalancer-id annotation.
nodebalancer-id string The ID of the NodeBalancer to front the service. When not specified, a new NodeBalancer will be created. This can be configured on service creation or patching
hostname-only-ingress bool false When true, the LoadBalancerStatus for the service will only contain the Hostname. This is useful for bypassing kube-proxy's rerouting of in-cluster requests originally intended for the external LoadBalancer to the service's constituent pod IPs.

Deprecated Annotations

These annotations are deprecated, and will be removed in a future release.

Annotation (Suffix) Values Default Description Scheduled Removal
proxy-protcol none, v1, v2 none Specifies whether to use a version of Proxy Protocol on the underlying NodeBalancer Q4 2021

Annotation bool values

For annotations with bool value types, "1", "t", "T", "True", "true" and "True" are valid string representations of true. Any other values will be interpreted as false. For more details, see strconv.ParseBool.

Port Specific Configuration

These configuration options can be specified via the port-* annotation, encoded in JSON.

Key Values Default Description
protocol tcp, http, https tcp Specifies protocol of the NodeBalancer port. Overwrites default-protocol.
proxy-protocol none, v1, v2 none Specifies whether to use a version of Proxy Protocol on the underlying NodeBalancer. Overwrites default-proxy-protocol.
tls-secret-name string Specifies a secret to use for TLS. The secret type should be

Example usage

kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
  name: https-lb
  annotations: "4" "http" |
        "tls-secret-name": "example-secret",
        "protocol": "https"
  type: LoadBalancer
    app: nginx-https-example
    - name: http
      protocol: TCP
      port: 80
      targetPort: http
    - name: https
      protocol: TCP
      port: 443
      targetPort: https

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
  name: nginx-https-deployment
  replicas: 2
      app: nginx-https-example
        app: nginx-https-example
      - name: nginx
        image: nginx
          - name: http
            containerPort: 80
            protocol: TCP
          - name: https
            containerPort: 80
            protocol: TCP

See more in the examples directory

Why stickiness and algorithm annotations don't exist

As kube-proxy will simply double-hop the traffic to a random backend Pod anyway, it doesn't matter which backend Node traffic is forwarded-to for the sake of session stickiness. These annotations are not necessary to implement session stickiness, as kube-proxy will simply double-hop the packets to a random backend Pod. It would not make a difference to set a backend Node that would receive the network traffic in an attempt to set session stickiness.

How to use sessionAffinity

In Kubernetes, sessionAffinity refers to a mechanism that allows a client always to be redirected to the same pod when the client hits a service.

To enable sessionAffinity service.spec.sessionAffinity field must be set to ClientIP as the following service yaml:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
  name: wordpress-lsmnl-wordpress
  namespace: wordpress-lsmnl
    app: wordpress-lsmnl-wordpress
  type: LoadBalancer
    app: wordpress-lsmnl-wordpress
  sessionAffinity: ClientIP

The max session sticky time can be set by setting the field service.spec.sessionAffinityConfig.clientIP.timeoutSeconds as below:

    timeoutSeconds: 100

Generating a Manifest for Deployment

Use the script located at ./deploy/ to generate a self-contained deployment manifest for the Linode CCM. Two arguments are required.

The first argument must be a Linode APIv4 Personal Access Token with all permissions. (

The second argument must be a Linode region. (


./deploy/ $LINODE_API_TOKEN us-east

This will create a file ccm-linode.yaml which you can use to deploy the CCM.

kubectl apply -f ccm-linode.yaml

Note: Your kubelets, controller-manager, and apiserver must be started with --cloud-provider=external as noted in the following documentation.

Upstream Documentation Including Deployment Instructions

Kubernetes Cloud Controller Manager.

Upstream Developer Documentation

Developing a Cloud Controller Manager.

Development Guide

Building the Linode Cloud Controller Manager

Some of the Linode Cloud Controller Manager development helper scripts rely on a fairly up-to-date GNU tools environment, so most recent Linux distros should work just fine out-of-the-box.

Setup Go

The Linode Cloud Controller Manager is written in Google's Go programming language. Currently, the Linode Cloud Controller Manager is developed and tested on Go 1.8.3. If you haven't set up a Go development environment, please follow these instructions to install Go.

On macOS, Homebrew has a nice package

brew install golang

Download Source

go get
cd $(go env GOPATH)/src/

Install Dev tools

To install various dev tools for Pharm Controller Manager, run the following command:


Build Binary

Use the following Make targets to build and run a local binary

$ make build
$ make run
# You can also run the binary directly to pass additional args
$ dist/linode-cloud-controller-manager run

Dependency management

Linode Cloud Controller Manager uses Dep to manage dependencies. Dependencies are already checked in the vendor folder. If you want to update/add dependencies, run:

dep ensure

Building Docker images

To build and push a Docker image, use the following make targets.

# Set the repo/image:tag with the TAG environment variable
# Then run the docker-build make target
$ IMG=linode/linode-cloud-controller-manager:canary make docker-build

# Push Image
$ IMG=linode/linode-cloud-controller-manager:canary make docker-push

Then, to run the image

docker run -ti linode/linode-cloud-controller-manager:canary

Contribution Guidelines

Want to improve the linode-cloud-controller-manager? Please start here.

Join the Kubernetes Community

For general help or discussion, join us in #linode on the Kubernetes Slack. To sign up, use the Kubernetes Slack inviter.