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区块链就技术层面而言,共识(consensus)是核心。

共识是为了防双花(double spending)

区块链中的共识主要有四类:

  • PBFT: Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance,实用拜占庭容错
  • PoW: Proof of Work, 工作量证明
  • PoS: Proof of Stake, 权益证明
  • DPoS: Delegated Proof of Stake, 委托权益证明

除了区块链共识,现在还经常提到一个概念:DAG(Directed Acyclic Graph,有向无环图)

PoW

代表:Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Zcash, Dogecoin

难度最大的链

PoS

DPoS

PoA

参考:

[1] 浅谈区块链共识机制与分布式一致性算法

[2] Concensus in Blockchain Systems. In Short.

[3] [4] A Hitchhiker’s Guide to Consensus Algorithms