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#!/usr/bin/env python
# Check Mach-O dependencies.
# See
# Written by Marc Liyanage <>
import subprocess, sys, re, os.path, optparse, collections
from pprint import pprint
class MachOFile:
def __init__(self, image_path, arch, parent = None):
self.image_path = image_path
self._dependencies = []
self._cache = dict(paths = {}, order = [])
self.arch = arch
self.parent = parent
self.header_info = {}
def load_info(self):
if not self.image_path.exists():
def load_header(self):
# Get the mach-o header info, we're interested in the file type (executable, dylib)
cmd = 'otool -arch {0} -h "{1}"'
output =, [self.arch, self.image_path.resolved_path], fatal = True)
if not output:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Unable to load mach header for {0} ({1}), architecture mismatch? Use --arch option to pick architecture'.format(self.image_path.resolved_path, self.arch)
(keys, values) = output.splitlines()[1:]
self.header_info = dict(zip(keys.split(), values.split()))
def load_rpaths(self):
output ='otool -arch {0} -l "{1}"', [self.arch, self.image_path.resolved_path], fatal = True)
load_commands = re.split('Load command (\d+)', output)[1:] # skip file name on first line
self._rpaths = []
load_commands = collections.deque(load_commands)
while load_commands:
load_commands.popleft() # command index
command = load_commands.popleft().strip().splitlines()
if command[0].find('LC_RPATH') == -1:
path = re.findall('path (.+) \(offset \d+\)$', command[2])[0]
image_path = self.image_path_for_recorded_path(path)
image_path.rpath_source = self
def ancestors(self):
ancestors = []
parent = self.parent
while parent:
parent = parent.parent
return ancestors
def self_and_ancestors(self):
return [self] + self.ancestors()
def rpaths(self):
return self._rpaths
def all_rpaths(self):
rpaths = []
for image in self.self_and_ancestors():
return rpaths
def root(self):
if not self.parent:
return self
return self.ancestors()[-1]
def executable_path(self):
root = self.root()
if root.is_executable():
return root.image_path
return None
def filetype(self):
return long(self.header_info.get('filetype', 0))
def is_dylib(self):
return self.filetype() == MachOFile.MH_DYLIB
def is_executable(self):
return self.filetype() == MachOFile.MH_EXECUTE
def all_dependencies(self):
return self.cache()['order']
def walk_dependencies(self, known = {}):
if known.get(self.image_path.resolved_path):
known[self.image_path.resolved_path] = self
for item in self.dependencies():
def dependencies(self):
if not self.image_path.exists():
return []
if self._dependencies:
return self._dependencies
output ='otool -arch {0} -L "{1}"', [self.arch, self.image_path.resolved_path], fatal = True)
output = [line.strip() for line in output.splitlines()]
if self.is_dylib():
del(output[0]) # In the case of dylibs, the first line is the id line
self._dependencies = []
for line in output:
match = re.match('^(.+)\s+(\(.+)\)$', line)
if not match:
recorded_path =
image_path = self.image_path_for_recorded_path(recorded_path)
image = self.lookup_or_make_item(image_path)
return self._dependencies
# The root item holds the cache, all lower-level requests bubble up the parent chain
def cache(self):
if self.parent:
return self.parent.cache()
return self._cache
def add_to_cache(self):
cache = self.cache()
cache['paths'][self.image_path.resolved_path] = self
def cached_item_for_path(self, path):
if not path:
return None
return self.cache()['paths'].get(path)
def lookup_or_make_item(self, image_path):
image = self.cached_item_for_path(image_path.resolved_path)
if not image: # cache miss
image = MachOFile(image_path, self.arch, parent = self)
return image
def image_path_for_recorded_path(self, recorded_path):
path = ImagePath(None, recorded_path)
# handle @executable_path
if recorded_path.startswith(ImagePath.EXECUTABLE_PATH_TOKEN):
executable_image_path = self.executable_path()
if executable_image_path:
path.resolved_path = os.path.normpath(recorded_path.replace(ImagePath.EXECUTABLE_PATH_TOKEN, os.path.dirname(executable_image_path.resolved_path)))
# handle @loader_path
elif recorded_path.startswith(ImagePath.LOADER_PATH_TOKEN):
path.resolved_path = os.path.normpath(recorded_path.replace(ImagePath.LOADER_PATH_TOKEN, os.path.dirname(self.image_path.resolved_path)))
# handle @rpath
elif recorded_path.startswith(ImagePath.RPATH_TOKEN):
for rpath in self.all_rpaths():
resolved_path = os.path.normpath(recorded_path.replace(ImagePath.RPATH_TOKEN, rpath.resolved_path))
if os.path.exists(resolved_path):
path.resolved_path = resolved_path
path.rpath_source = rpath.rpath_source
# handle absolute path
elif recorded_path.startswith('/'):
path.resolved_path = recorded_path
return path
def __repr__(self):
return str(self.image_path)
def dump(self):
print self.image_path
for dependency in self.dependencies():
print '\t{0}'.format(dependency)
def shell(cmd_format, args, fatal = False):
cmd = cmd_format.format(*args)
popen = subprocess.Popen(cmd, shell = True, stdout = subprocess.PIPE)
output = popen.communicate()[0]
if popen.returncode and fatal:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Nonzero exit status for shell command "{0}"'.format(cmd)
return output
def architectures_for_image_at_path(cls, path):
output ='file "{}"', [path])
file_architectures = re.findall(r' executable (\w+)', output)
ordering = 'x86_64 i386'.split()
file_architectures = sorted(file_architectures, lambda a, b: cmp(ordering.index(a), ordering.index(b)))
return file_architectures
MH_DYLIB = 0x6
# ANSI terminal coloring sequences
class Color:
HEADER = '\033[95m'
BLUE = '\033[94m'
GREEN = '\033[92m'
RED = '\033[91m'
ENDC = '\033[0m'
def red(string):
return Color.wrap(string, Color.RED)
def blue(string):
return Color.wrap(string, Color.BLUE)
def wrap(string, color):
return Color.HEADER + color + string + Color.ENDC
# This class holds path information for a mach-0 image file. It holds the path as it was recorded
# in the loading binary as well as the effective, resolved file system path.
# The former can contain @-replacement tokens.
# In the case where the recorded path contains an @rpath token that was resolved successfully, we also
# capture the path of the binary that supplied the rpath value that was used.
# That path itself can contain replacement tokens such as @loader_path.
class ImagePath:
def __init__(self, resolved_path, recorded_path = None):
self.recorded_path = recorded_path
self.resolved_path = resolved_path
self.rpath_source = None
def __repr__(self):
description = None
if self.resolved_equals_recorded() or self.recorded_path == None:
description = self.resolved_path
description = '{0} ({1})'.format(self.resolved_path, self.recorded_path)
if (not self.is_system_location()) and (not self.uses_dyld_token()):
description =
if self.rpath_source:
description += ' (rpath source: {0})'.format(self.rpath_source.image_path.resolved_path)
if not self.exists():
description +=' (missing)')
return description
def exists(self):
return self.resolved_path and os.path.exists(self.resolved_path)
def resolved_equals_recorded(self):
return self.resolved_path and self.recorded_path and self.resolved_path == self.recorded_path
def uses_dyld_token(self):
return self.recorded_path and self.recorded_path.startswith('@')
def is_system_location(self):
system_prefixes = ['/System/Library', '/usr/lib']
for prefix in system_prefixes:
if self.resolved_path and self.resolved_path.startswith(prefix):
return True
EXECUTABLE_PATH_TOKEN = '@executable_path'
LOADER_PATH_TOKEN = '@loader_path'
RPATH_TOKEN = '@rpath'
# Command line driver
parser = optparse.OptionParser(usage = "Usage: %prog [options] path_to_mach_o_file")
parser.add_option("--arch", dest = "arch", help = "architecture", metavar = "ARCH")
parser.add_option("--all", dest = "include_system_libraries", help = "Include system frameworks and libraries", action="store_true")
(options, args) = parser.parse_args()
if len(args) < 1:
archs = MachOFile.architectures_for_image_at_path(args[0])
if archs and not options.arch:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Analyzing architecture {}, override with --arch if needed'.format(archs[0])
options.arch = archs[0]
toplevel_image = MachOFile(ImagePath(args[0]), options.arch)
for dependency in toplevel_image.all_dependencies():
if dependency.image_path.exists() and (not options.include_system_libraries) and dependency.image_path.is_system_location():