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ocaml @ 0d968e3

OCaml 文档中文版

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自从我学习 OCaml 以来,就发现 OCaml 相关的中文材料实在是太少了。印象中只有《Real World OCaml》、《OCaml 语言编程基础教程》、社区网站陈旧的中文版教程以及在各个网站角落里的学习笔记。个人认为,官方文档与手册是在学习过程中非常值得参考的一类资料。然而并不是每个人都能够无障碍、顺畅地阅读原版手册。此外,对于我而言,OCaml 是一个非常符合直觉的编程语言。出于安利这门语言的目的,我决定开始翻译它的相关资料。


请注意阅读文档目录下的 LICENSE 文件,本文档将沿用原始文档的授权。我暂时还不明确翻译文本的授权方式,所以暂且先这样吧。 同时,该项目“OCaml 文档中文版”已经获得文档原作者 Xavier Leroy 教授及其合作作者的授权。



  • 重写 Makefile
  • travis-ci
  • 全文翻译
  • 翻译校对
章节 翻译 校对
核心语言 lkwq007
模块系统 lkwq007
OCaml中的对象 lkwq007
C 接口
unix 库:Unix 系统调用
num 库:任意精度有理运算
str 库:正则表达式与字符串处理
threads 库
graphics 库
dynlink 库:对象文件的动态加载与链接
bigarray 库

由于本人能力(语文差不多还回去了)和精力有限,翻译之中难免会出现错误(或者奇怪的表达),欢迎大家批评指正。在此对各位的校阅、建议表示感谢! 同时,这里也欢迎大家为该文档提供翻译,以加快 OCaml 文档中文化的进度。


  • Any prerequisites required to build OCaml from sources.

  • A LaTeX installation.

  • The HeVeA LaTeX-to-HTML convertor (available in OPAM):

Note that you must make sure hevea.sty is installed into TeX properly. Your package manager may not do this for you. Run kpsewhich hevea.sty to check.


  1. Install the OCaml distribution.

  2. Run make in the manual.

NB: If you already set LD_LIBRARY_PATH (OS X: DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH) in your environment don't forget to add otherlibs/unix:otherlibs/str to it in an absolute way.


In the manual:

  • The HTML Manual is in directory htmlman. The main file is index.html.

  • The plain text manual is in directory textman as file manual.txt.

  • The Info manual is in directory infoman.

  • The PDF manual is in directory texstuff as file manual.pdf.

Source files

The manual is written in an extended dialect of latex and is split in many source files. During the build process, the sources files are converted into classical latex file using the tools available in tools. These files are then converted to the different output formats using either latex or hevea.

Each part of the manual corresponds to a specific directory, and each distinct chapters (or sometimes sections) are mapped to a distinct .etex file:

  • Part I, Introduction to OCaml: tutorials

    • The core language: coreexamples.etex
    • The module system: moduleexamples.etex
    • Objects in OCaml: objectexamples.etex
    • Labels and variants: lablexamples.etex
    • Advanced examples with classes and modules: advexamples.etex
  • Part II, The OCaml language: refman This part is separated in two very distinct chapters; the OCaml language chapter and the Language extensions chapter.

    • The OCaml language: refman.etex This chapter consists in a technical description of the OCaml language. Each section of this chapter is mapped to a separated latex file:

      • lex.etex, values.etex, names.etex, types.etex, const.etex, patterns.etex, expr.etex, typedecl.etex, classes.etex, modtypes.etex, compunit.etex
    • Language extensions: exten.etex This chapter contains a description of all recent features of the OCaml language.

  • Part III, The OCaml tools: 'cmds'

    • Batch compilation (ocamlc): comp.etex
    • The toplevel system (ocaml): top.etex
    • The runtime system (ocamlrun): runtime.etex
    • Native-code compilation (ocamlopt): native.etex
    • Lexer and parser generators (ocamllex, ocamlyacc): lexyacc.etex
    • Dependency generator (ocamldep): ocamldep.etex
    • The browser/editor (ocamlbrowser): browser.etex
    • The documentation generator (ocamldoc): ocamldoc.etex
    • The debugger (ocamldebug): debugger.etex
    • Profiling (ocamlprof): profil.etex
    • The ocamlbuild compilation manager: ocamlbuild.etex
    • Interfacing C with OCaml: intf-c.etex
    • Optimisation with Flambda: flambda.etex
    • Memory profiling with Spacetime: spacetime.etex
    • Fuzzing with afl-fuzz: afl-fuzz.etex

Note that ocamlc,ocamlopt and the toplevel options overlap a lot. Consequently, these options are described together in the file unified-options.etex and then included from comp.etex, native.etex, and top.etex. If you need to update this list of options, the top comment of unified-options.etex contains the relevant information.

  • Part IV, The OCaml library: 'libref' This parts contains an brief presentation of all libraries bundled with the compilers and the api documentation generated for these libraries.
    • The core library: core.etex
    • The standard library: stdlib.etex
    • The compiler front-end: compilerlibs.etex
    • The unix library: Unix system calls: libunix.etex
    • The legacy num library: this library has been removed from the core distribution, see libnum.etex
    • The str library: regular expressions and string processing: libstr.etex
    • The threads library: libthreads.etex
    • The graphics library: libgraph.etex
    • The dynlink library: dynamic loading and linking of object files: libdynlink.etex
    • The bigarray library: libbigarray.etex

Latex extensions

Caml environments

The tool tools/caml-tex is used to generate the latex code for the examples in the introduction and language extension parts of the manual. It implements two pseudo-environments: caml_example and caml_eval.

The pseudo-environment caml_example evaluates its contents using an ocaml interpreter and then translates both the input code and the interpreter output to latex code, e.g.

let f x = x;;

Note that the toplevel output can be suppressed by using a * suffix:

let f x = x

The {verbatim} or {toplevel} argument of the environment corresponds to the the mode of the example, three modes are available toplevel, verbatim and signature. The toplevel mode mimics the appearance and behavior of the toplevel. In particular, toplevel examples must end with a double semi-colon ;;, otherwise an error would be raised. The verbatim does not require a final ;; and is intended to be a lighter mode for code examples. If you want to declare a signature instead of ocaml code, you must use the {signature} argument to the caml_example environment.

val none : 'a option

By default, caml-tex raises an error and stops if the output of one the caml_example environment contains an unexpected error or warning. If such an error or warning is, in fact, expected, it is necessary to indicate the expected output status to caml-tex by adding either an option to the caml_example environment:

1 + 2. ;;
 or for warning
let f None = None;;

or an annotation to the concerned phrase:

1 + 2. [@@expect error] ;;
let f None = None [@@expect warning 8];;
3 + 4 [@@expect ok];;

It is also possible to elide a code fragment by annotating it with an [@ellipsis] attribute

let f: type a. a list -> int = List.length[@ellipsis] ;;

For module components, it might be easier to hide them by using [@@@ellipsis.start] and [@@@ellipsis.stop]:

module M = struct
  type t = T
  let x = 0

Another possibility to avoid displaying distracting code is to use the caml_eval environment. This environment is a companion environment to caml_example and can be used to evaluate OCaml expressions in the toplevel without printing anything:

let pi = 4. *. atan 1.;;
let f x = x +. pi;;

Beware that the detection code for these pseudo-environments is quite brittle and the environments must start and end at the beginning of the line.


The tool tools/texquote2 provides support for verbatim-like quotes using \" delimiters. More precisely, outside of caml environments and verbatim environments, texquote2 translates double quotes "text" to \machine{escaped_text}.

BNF grammar notation

The tool tools/transf provides support for BNF grammar notations and special quotes for non-terminal. When transf is used, the environment syntax can be used to describe grammars using BNF notation:

  | constant
  | '(' expr ')'
  | 'begin' expr 'end'
  | '(' expr ':' typexpr ')'
  | expr {{',' expr}}
  | constr expr
  | "`"tag-name expr
  | expr '::' expr
  | '[' expr { ';' expr } [';'] ']'
  | '[|' expr { ';' expr } [';'] '|]'
  | '{' field [':' typexpr] '=' expr%
    { ';' field [':' typexpr] '=' expr } [';'] '}'

Notice that terminal symbols are quoted using ' delimiters. Moreover, outside of the syntax environment, @-quotes can be used to introduce fragment of grammar: @'(' module-expr ')'@. As a consequence, when this extension is used @ characters must be escaped as \@. This extension is used mainly in the language reference part of the manual. and a more complete description of the notation used is available in the first subsection of refman/refman.etex.

Consistency tests

The tests folder contains consistency tests that checks that the manual and the rest of the compiler sources stay synced.

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