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# PEDA - Python Exploit Development Assistance for GDB
# Copyright (C) 2012 Long Le Dinh <longld at>
# License: see LICENSE file for details
from __future__ import absolute_import
from __future__ import division
from __future__ import print_function
import tempfile
import pprint
import inspect
import sys
import struct
import string
import re
import itertools
import functools
from subprocess import *
import config
import codecs
import six
from six import StringIO
from six.moves import range
from six.moves import input
class memoized(object):
Decorator. Caches a function's return value each time it is called.
If called later with the same arguments, the cached value is returned
(not reevaluated).
def __init__(self, func):
self.func = func
self.instance = None # bind with instance class of decorated method
self.cache = {}
self.__doc__ = inspect.getdoc(self.func)
def __call__(self, *args, **kwargs):
return self.cache[(self.func, self.instance, args) + tuple(kwargs.items())]
except KeyError:
if self.instance is None:
value = self.func(*args, **kwargs)
value = self.func(self.instance, *args, **kwargs)
self.cache[(self.func, self.instance, args) + tuple(kwargs.items())] = value
return value
except TypeError:
# uncachable -- for instance, passing a list as an argument.
# Better to not cache than to blow up entirely.
if self.instance is None:
return self.func(*args, **kwargs)
return self.func(self.instance, *args, **kwargs)
def __repr__(self):
"""Return the function's docstring."""
return self.__doc__
def __get__(self, obj, objtype):
"""Support instance methods."""
if obj is None:
return self
self.instance = obj
return self
def _reset(self):
"""Reset the cache"""
# Make list to prevent modifying dictionary while iterating
for cached in list(self.cache.keys()):
if cached[0] == self.func and cached[1] == self.instance:
del self.cache[cached]
def reset_cache(module=None):
Reset memoized caches of an instance/module
if module is None:
module = sys.modules['__main__']
for m in dir(module):
m = getattr(module, m)
if isinstance(m, memoized):
for f in dir(m):
f = getattr(m, f)
if isinstance(f, memoized):
return True
def tmpfile(pref="peda-", is_binary_file=False):
"""Create and return a temporary file with custom prefix"""
mode = 'w+b' if is_binary_file else 'w+'
return tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile(mode=mode, prefix=pref)
def colorize(text, color=None, attrib=None):
Colorize text using ansicolor
# ansicolor definitions
COLORS = {"black": "30", "red": "31", "green": "32", "yellow": "33",
"blue": "34", "purple": "35", "cyan": "36", "white": "37"}
CATTRS = {"regular": "0", "bold": "1", "underline": "4", "strike": "9",
"light": "1", "dark": "2", "invert": "7"}
CPRE = '\033['
CSUF = '\033[0m'
if config.Option.get("ansicolor") != "on":
return text
ccode = ""
if attrib:
for attr in attrib.lower().split():
attr = attr.strip(",+|")
if attr in CATTRS:
ccode += ";" + CATTRS[attr]
if color in COLORS:
ccode += ";" + COLORS[color]
return CPRE + ccode + "m" + text + CSUF
def green(text, attrib=None):
"""Wrapper for colorize(text, 'green')"""
return colorize(text, "green", attrib)
def red(text, attrib=None):
"""Wrapper for colorize(text, 'red')"""
return colorize(text, "red", attrib)
def yellow(text, attrib=None):
"""Wrapper for colorize(text, 'yellow')"""
return colorize(text, "yellow", attrib)
def blue(text, attrib=None):
"""Wrapper for colorize(text, 'blue')"""
return colorize(text, "blue", attrib)
def clearscreen():
"""Clear terminal screen"""
class message(object):
Generic pretty printer with redirection.
It also suports buffering using bufferize() and flush().
def __init__(self):
self.out = sys.stdout
self.buffering = 0
def bufferize(self, f=None):
"""Activate message's bufferization, can also be used as a decorater."""
if f != None:
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
f(*args, **kwargs)
return wrapper
# If we are still using stdio we need to change it.
if not self.buffering:
self.out = StringIO()
self.buffering += 1
def flush(self):
if not self.buffering:
raise ValueError("Tried to flush a message that is not bufferising.")
self.buffering -= 1
# We only need to flush if this is the lowest recursion level.
if not self.buffering:
self.out = sys.stdout
def __call__(self, text, color=None, attrib=None, teefd=None):
if not teefd:
teefd = config.Option.get("_teefd")
if isinstance(text, six.string_types) and "\x00" not in text:
print(colorize(text, color, attrib), file=self.out)
if teefd:
print(colorize(text, color, attrib), file=teefd)
pprint.pprint(text, self.out)
if teefd:
pprint.pprint(text, teefd)
msg = message()
def warning_msg(text):
"""Colorize warning message with prefix"""
msg(colorize("Warning: " + str(text), "yellow"))
def error_msg(text):
"""Colorize error message with prefix"""
msg(colorize("Error: " + str(text), "red"))
def debug_msg(text, prefix="Debug"):
"""Colorize debug message with prefix"""
msg(colorize("%s: %s" % (prefix, str(text)), "cyan"))
def trim(docstring):
Handle docstring indentation, ref: PEP257
if not docstring:
return ''
# Convert tabs to spaces (following the normal Python rules)
# and split into a list of lines:
lines = docstring.expandtabs().splitlines()
# Determine minimum indentation (first line doesn't count):
max_indent = sys.maxsize
indent = max_indent
for line in lines[1:]:
stripped = line.lstrip()
if stripped:
indent = min(indent, len(line) - len(stripped))
# Remove indentation (first line is special):
trimmed = [lines[0].strip()]
if indent < max_indent:
for line in lines[1:]:
# Strip off trailing and leading blank lines:
while trimmed and not trimmed[-1]:
while trimmed and not trimmed[0]:
# Return a single string:
return '\n'.join(trimmed)
def pager(text, pagesize=None):
Paging output, mimic external command less/more
if not pagesize:
pagesize = config.Option.get("pagesize")
if pagesize <= 0:
i = 1
text = text.splitlines()
l = len(text)
for line in text:
if i % pagesize == 0:
ans = input("--More--(%d/%d)" % (i, l))
if ans.lower().strip() == "q":
i += 1
def execute_external_command(command, cmd_input=None):
Execute external command and capture its output
- command (String)
- output of command (String)
result = ""
P = Popen([command], stdout=PIPE, stdin=PIPE, stderr=PIPE, shell=True)
(result, err) = P.communicate(cmd_input)
if err and config.Option.get("debug") == "on":
return decode_string_escape(result)
def is_printable(text, printables=""):
Check if a string is printable
if six.PY3 and isinstance(text, six.string_types):
text = six.b(text)
return set(text) - set(six.b(string.printable) + six.b(printables)) == set()
def is_math_exp(str):
Check if a string is a math exprssion
charset = set("0123456789abcdefx+-*/%^")
opers = set("+-*/%^")
exp = set(str.lower())
return (exp & opers != set()) and (exp - charset == set())
def normalize_argv(args, size=0):
Normalize argv to list with predefined length
args = list(args)
for (idx, val) in enumerate(args):
if to_int(val) is not None:
args[idx] = to_int(val)
if size and idx == size:
return args[:idx]
if size == 0:
return args
for i in range(len(args), size):
args += [None]
return args
def to_hexstr(str_):
Convert a binary string to hex escape format
return "".join(["\\x%02x" % ord(i) for i in bytes_iterator(str_)])
def to_hex(num):
Convert a number to hex format
if num < 0:
return "-0x%x" % (-num)
return "0x%x" % num
def to_address(num):
Convert a number to address format in hex
if num < 0:
return to_hex(num)
if num > 0xffffffff: # 64 bit
return "0x%016x" % num
return "0x%08x" % num
def to_int(val):
Convert a string to int number
return int(str(val), 0)
return None
def str2hex(str):
Convert a string to hex encoded format
result = codecs.encode(str, 'hex')
return result
def hex2str(hexnum, intsize=4):
Convert a number in hex format to string
if not isinstance(hexnum, six.string_types):
nbits = intsize * 8
hexnum = "0x%x" % ((hexnum + (1 << nbits)) % (1 << nbits))
s = hexnum[2:]
if len(s) % 2 != 0:
s = "0" + s
result = codecs.decode(s, 'hex')[::-1]
return result
def int2hexstr(num, intsize=4):
Convert a number to hexified string
if intsize == 8:
if num < 0:
result = struct.pack("<q", num)
result = struct.pack("<Q", num)
if num < 0:
result = struct.pack("<l", num)
result = struct.pack("<L", num)
return result
def list2hexstr(intlist, intsize=4):
Convert a list of number/string to hexified string
result = ""
for value in intlist:
if isinstance(value, str):
result += value
result += int2hexstr(value, intsize)
return result
def str2intlist(data, intsize=4):
Convert a string to list of int
result = []
data = decode_string_escape(data)[::-1]
l = len(data)
data = ("\x00" * (intsize - l%intsize) + data) if l%intsize != 0 else data
for i in range(0, l, intsize):
if intsize == 8:
val = struct.unpack(">Q", data[i:i+intsize])[0]
val = struct.unpack(">L", data[i:i+intsize])[0]
result = [val] + result
return result
def check_badchars(data, chars=None):
Check an address or a value if it contains badchars
if to_int(data) is None:
to_search = data
data = to_hex(to_int(data))[2:]
if len(data) % 2 != 0:
data = "0" + data
to_search = codecs.decode(data, 'hex')
if not chars:
chars = config.Option.get("badchars")
if chars:
for c in chars:
if c in to_search:
return True
return False
def format_address(addr, type):
"""Colorize an address"""
colorcodes = {
"data": "blue",
"code": "red",
"rodata": "green",
"value": None
return colorize(addr, colorcodes[type])
def format_reference_chain(chain):
Colorize a chain of references
v = t = vn = None
text = ""
if not chain:
text += "Cannot access memory address"
first = True
for (v, t, vn) in chain:
if t != "value":
text += "%s%s " % ("--> " if not first else "", format_address(v, t))
text += "%s%s " % ("--> " if not first else "", v)
first = False
if vn:
text += "(%s)" % vn
if v != "0x0":
s = hex2str(v)
if is_printable(s, "\x00"):
text += "(%s)" % string_repr(s.split(b"\x00")[0])
return text
# vulnerable C functions, source: rats/flawfinder
"exec", "system", "gets", "popen", "getenv", "strcpy", "strncpy", "strcat", "strncat",
"memcpy", "bcopy", "printf", "sprintf", "snprintf", "scanf", "getchar", "getc", "read",
"recv", "tmp", "temp"
def format_disasm_code(code, nearby=None):
Format output of disassemble command with colors to highlight:
- dangerous functions (rats/flawfinder)
- branching: jmp, call, ret
- testing: cmp, test
- code: input asm code (String)
- nearby: address for nearby style format (Int)
- colorized text code (String)
colorcodes = {
"cmp": "red",
"test": "red",
"call": "green",
"j": "yellow", # jump
"ret": "blue",
result = ""
if not code:
return result
if to_int(nearby) is not None:
target = to_int(nearby)
target = 0
for line in code.splitlines():
if ":" not in line: # not an assembly line
result += line + "\n"
color = style = None
m =".*(0x[^ ]*).*:\s*([^ ]*)", line)
if not m: # failed to parse
result += line + "\n"
addr, opcode = to_int(,
for c in colorcodes:
if c in opcode:
color = colorcodes[c]
if c == "call":
if f in line.split(":\t", 1)[-1]:
style = "bold, underline"
color = "red"
prefix = line.split(":\t")[0]
addr ="(0x[^\s]*)", prefix)
if addr:
addr = to_int(
addr = -1
line = "\t" + line.split(":\t", 1)[-1]
if addr < target:
style = "dark"
elif addr == target:
style = "bold"
color = "green"
code = colorize(line.split(";")[0], color, style)
if ";" in line:
comment = colorize(";" + line.split(";", 1)[1], color, "dark")
comment = ""
line = "%s:%s%s" % (prefix, code, comment)
result += line + "\n"
return result.rstrip()
def cyclic_pattern_charset(charset_type=None):
Generate charset for cyclic pattern
- charset_type: charset type
0: basic (0-9A-Za-z)
1: extended (default)
2: maximum (almost printable chars)
- list of charset
charset = []
charset += ["ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ"] # string.uppercase
charset += ["abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"] # string.lowercase
charset += ["0123456789"] # string.digits
if not charset_type:
charset_type = config.Option.get("pattern")
if charset_type == 1: # extended type
charset[1] = "%$-;" + re.sub("[sn]", "", charset[1])
charset[2] = "sn()" + charset[2]
if charset_type == 2: # maximum type
charset += ['!"#$%&\()*+,-./:;<=>?@[]^_{|}~'] # string.punctuation
mixed_charset = mixed = ''
k = 0
while True:
for i in range(0, len(charset)): mixed += charset[i][k:k+1]
if not mixed: break
mixed_charset += mixed
mixed = ''
return mixed_charset
def de_bruijn(charset, n, maxlen):
Generate the De Bruijn Sequence up to `maxlen` characters for the charset `charset`
and subsequences of length `n`.
Algorithm modified from wikipedia
k = len(charset)
a = [0] * k * n
sequence = []
def db(t, p):
if len(sequence) == maxlen:
if t > n:
if n % p == 0:
for j in range(1, p + 1):
if len(sequence) == maxlen:
a[t] = a[t - p]
db(t + 1, p)
for j in range(a[t - p] + 1, k):
a[t] = j
db(t + 1, t)
return ''.join(sequence)
def cyclic_pattern(size=None, start=None, charset_type=None):
Generate a cyclic pattern
- size: size of generated pattern (Int)
- start: the start offset of the generated pattern (Int)
- charset_type: charset type
0: basic (0-9A-Za-z)
1: extended (default)
2: maximum (almost printable chars)
- pattern text (byte string) (str in Python 2; bytes in Python 3)
charset = config.Option.get("p_charset")
if not charset:
charset = cyclic_pattern_charset(charset)
charset = ''.join(set(charset))
if start is None:
start = 0
if size is None:
size = 0x10000
size += start
pattern = de_bruijn(charset, 3, size)
return pattern[start:size].encode('utf-8')
def cyclic_pattern_offset(value):
Search a value if it is a part of cyclic pattern
- value: value to search for (String/Int)
- offset in pattern if found
pattern = cyclic_pattern()
if to_int(value) is None:
search = value.encode('utf-8')
search = hex2str(to_int(value))
pos = pattern.find(search)
return pos if pos != -1 else None
def cyclic_pattern_search(buf):
Search all cyclic pattern pieces in a buffer
- buf: buffer to search for (String)
- list of tuple (buffer_offset, pattern_len, pattern_offset)
result = []
pattern = cyclic_pattern()
p = re.compile(b"[" + re.escape(to_binary_string(cyclic_pattern_charset())) + b"]{4,}")
found = p.finditer(buf)
found = list(found)
for m in found:
s = buf[m.start():m.end()]
i = pattern.find(s)
k = 0
while i == -1 and len(s) > 4:
s = s[1:]
k += 1
i = pattern.find(s)
if i != -1:
result += [(m.start()+k, len(s), i)]
return result
def _decode_string_escape_py2(str_):
Python2 string escape
Do not use directly, instead use decode_string.
return str_.decode('string_escape')
def _decode_string_escape_py3(str_):
Python3 string escape
Do not use directly, instead use decode_string.
# Based on:
return codecs.decode(str_, "unicode_escape")
def decode_string_escape(str_):
"""Generic Python string escape"""
raise Exception('Should be overriden')
def bytes_iterator(bytes_):
Returns iterator over a bytestring. In Python 2, this is just a str. In
Python 3, this is a bytes.
Wrap this around a bytestring when you need to iterate to be compatible
with Python 2 and Python 3.
raise Exception('Should be overriden')
def _bytes_iterator_py2(bytes_):
Returns iterator over a bytestring in Python 2.
Do not call directly, use bytes_iterator instead
for b in bytes_:
yield b
def _bytes_iterator_py3(bytes_):
Returns iterator over a bytestring in Python 3.
Do not call directly, use bytes_iterator instead
for b in bytes_:
yield bytes([b])
def bytes_chr(i):
Returns a byte string of length 1 whose ordinal value is i. In Python 2,
this is just a str. In Python 3, this is a bytes.
Use this instead of chr to be compatible with Python 2 and Python 3.
raise Exception('Should be overriden')
def _bytes_chr_py2(i):
Returns a byte string of length 1 whose ordinal value is i in Python 2.
Do not call directly, use bytes_chr instead.
return chr(i)
def _bytes_chr_py3(i):
Returns a byte string of length 1 whose ordinal value is i in Python 3.
Do not call directly, use bytes_chr instead.
return bytes([i])
def to_binary_string(text):
Converts a string to a binary string if it is not already one. Returns a str
in Python 2 and a bytes in Python3.
Use this instead of six.b when the text may already be a binary type
raise Exception('Should be overriden')
def _to_binary_string_py2(text):
Converts a string to a binary string if it is not already one. Returns a str
in Python 2 and a bytes in Python3.
Do not use directly, use to_binary_string instead.
return str(text)
def _to_binary_string_py3(text):
Converts a string to a binary string if it is not already one. Returns a str
in Python 2 and a bytes in Python3.
Do not use directly, use to_binary_string instead.
if isinstance(text, six.binary_type):
return text
elif isinstance(text, six.string_types):
return six.b(text)
raise Exception('only takes string types')
# Select functions based on Python version
if six.PY2:
decode_string_escape = _decode_string_escape_py2
bytes_iterator = _bytes_iterator_py2
bytes_chr = _bytes_chr_py2
to_binary_string = _to_binary_string_py2
elif six.PY3:
decode_string_escape = _decode_string_escape_py3
bytes_iterator = _bytes_iterator_py3
bytes_chr = _bytes_chr_py3
to_binary_string = _to_binary_string_py3
raise Exception("Could not identify Python major version")
def dbg_print_vars(*args):
"""Prints name and repr of each arg on a separate line"""
import inspect
parent_locals = inspect.currentframe().f_back.f_locals
maps = []
for arg in args:
for name, value in parent_locals.items():
if id(arg) == id(value):
maps.append((name, repr(value)))
print('\n'.join(name + '=' + value for name, value in maps))
def string_repr(text, show_quotes=True):
Prints the repr of a string. Eliminates the leading 'b' in the repr in
Python 3.
Optionally can show or include quotes.
if six.PY3 and isinstance(text, six.binary_type):
# Skip leading 'b' at the beginning of repr
output = repr(text)[1:]
output = repr(text)
if show_quotes:
return output
return output[1:-1]