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A comprehensive cloud reachability study accepted at The Web Conference 2021. We compare global cloud access latency against known human perception thresholds and we draw inferences on the suitability of the current cloud infrastructure to support novel time-sensitive applications.

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☁️Surrounded by the Clouds: a Comprehensive Cloud Reachability Study☁️☁️

Lorenzo Corneo1, Maximilian Eder2, Nitinder Mohan2, Aleksandr Zavodovski1, Suzan Bayhan3, Walter Wong4, Per Gunningberg1, Jussi Kangasharju4, Jörg Ott2

Uppsala University1, Technical University of Munich2, University of Twente3, University of Helsinki4


This repository contains useful code to replicate the results that are included in our publication Surrounded by the Clouds: A Comprehensive Cloud Reachability Study, which is accepted at The Web Conference 2021. Check the paper out here📃📃


Abstract

In the early days of cloud computing, datacenters were sparsely deployed at distant locations far from end-users with high end-to-end communication latency. However, today's cloud datacenters have become more geographically spread, the bandwidth of the networks keeps increasing, pushing the end-users latency down. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive cloud reachability study as we perform extensive global client-to-cloud latency measurements towards 189 datacenters from all major cloud providers. We leverage the well-known measurement platform RIPE Atlas, involving up to 8500 probes deployed in heterogeneous environments, e.g., home and offices. Our goal is to evaluate the suitability of modern cloud environments for various current and predicted applications. We achieve this by comparing our latency measurements against known human perception thresholds and are able to draw inferences on the suitability of current clouds for novel applications, such as augmented reality. Our results indicate that the current cloud coverage can easily support several latency-critical applications, like cloud gaming, for the majority of the world’s population.


RIPE Atlas vantage points

We used up to 8500 RIPE Atlas probes in our measurements. Here is their density distribution.

Vantage points distribution


Cloud datacenters

We targeted virtual machines hosted in 189 datacenters around the world.

Vantage points distribution


Dataset

The raw dataset is available at mediaTUM with detailed information on how to set it up. We encourage to cite this dataset in academic publications upon usage.

@inproceedings{corneo2021surrounded,
  author       = {Corneo, Lorenzo and Eder, Maximilian and Mohan,
                  Nitinder and Zavodovski, Aleksandr and Bayhan, Suzan
                  and Wong, Walter and Gunningberg, Per and
                  Kangasharju, Jussi and Ott, J\"{o}rg},
  title        = {Surrounded by the Clouds: A Comprehensive Cloud
                  Reachability Study},
  year         = 2021,
  isbn         = 9781450383127,
  publisher    = {Association for Computing Machinery},
  address      = {New York, NY, USA},
  url          = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3442381.3449854},
  doi          = {10.1145/3442381.3449854},
  abstract     = { In the early days of cloud computing, datacenters
                  were sparsely deployed at distant locations far from
                  end-users with high end-to-end communication
                  latency. However, today’s cloud datacenters have
                  become more geographically spread, the bandwidth of
                  the networks keeps increasing, pushing the end-users
                  latency down. In this paper, we provide a
                  comprehensive cloud reachability study as we perform
                  extensive global client-to-cloud latency
                  measurements towards 189 datacenters from all major
                  cloud providers. We leverage the well-known
                  measurement platform RIPE Atlas, involving up to
                  8500 probes deployed in heterogeneous environments,
                  e.g., home and offices. Our goal is to evaluate the
                  suitability of modern cloud environments for various
                  current and predicted applications. We achieve this
                  by comparing our latency measurements against known
                  human perception thresholds and are able to draw
                  inferences on the suitability of current clouds for
                  novel applications, such as augmented reality. Our
                  results indicate that the current cloud coverage can
                  easily support several latency-critical
                  applications, like cloud gaming, for the majority of
                  the world’s population.},
  booktitle    = {Proceedings of the Web Conference 2021},
  pages        = {295–304},
  numpages     = 10,
  keywords     = {Internet measurements, Cloud reachability},
  location     = {Ljubljana, Slovenia},
  series       = {WWW '21}
}

The data consists of a 60GB SQLite3 database that contains all the measurements taken with the RIPE Atlas platform. The dataset includes both pings, traceroutes and information regarding the ownership of the identified IP addresses.


Usage instructions

In order to reproduce our results, some non-default Python libraries need to be installed with the following command:

pip install -r requirements.txt

In order to make the results replication smoother, we provide pre-fetched data and avoid extremely time-consuming queries to the SQLite3 database. However, these pre-fetcehd data were extracted by the very same databese. In order to access such data, unzip data/data.zip and delete the compressed file (if you wish). Then, run the following command, from the folder's root, to generate all the figures from the paper.

sh generate_figures.sh

The output of the script will be placed in the figures/ folder and each figure will be named after the figure identifier from the paper.


Contact

Please feel free to contact me for further details at lorenzo.corneo@it.uu.se.

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A comprehensive cloud reachability study accepted at The Web Conference 2021. We compare global cloud access latency against known human perception thresholds and we draw inferences on the suitability of the current cloud infrastructure to support novel time-sensitive applications.

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