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Indexing

Louis Chatriot edited this page Jun 21, 2013 · 1 revision

NeDB supports indexing. It gives a very nice speed boost and can be used to enforce a unique constraint on a field. You can index any field, including fields in nested documents using the dot notation. For now, indexes are only used to speed up basic queries and queries using $in, $lt, $lte, $gt and $gte.

To create an index, use datastore.ensureIndex(options, cb), where callback is optional and get passed an error if any (usually a unique constraint that was violated). ensureIndex can be called when you want, even after some data was inserted, though it's best to call it at application startup. The options are:

  • fieldName (required): name of the field to index. Use the dot notation to index a field in a nested document.
  • unique (optional, defaults to false): enforce field uniqueness. Note that a unique index will raise an error if you try to index two documents for which the field is not defined.
  • sparse (optional, defaults to false): don't index documents for which the field is not defined. Use this option along with "unique" if you want to accept multiple documents for which it is not defined.

Note: the _id is automatically indexed with a unique constraint, no need to call ensureIndex on it.

db.ensureIndex({ fieldName: 'somefield' }, function (err) {
  // If there was an error, err is not null
});

// Using a unique constraint with the index
db.ensureIndex({ fieldName: 'somefield', unique: true }, function (err) {
});

// Using a sparse unique index
db.ensureIndex({ fieldName: 'somefield', unique: true, sparse: true }, function (err) {
});


// Format of the error message when the unique constraint is not met
db.insert({ somefield: 'nedb' }, function (err) {
  // err is null
  db.insert({ somefiled: 'nedb' }, function (err) {
    // err is { errorType: 'uniqueViolated'
    //        , key: 'name'
    //        , message: 'Unique constraint violated for key name' }
  });
});

Note: the ensureIndex function creates the index synchronously, so it's best to use it at application startup. It's quite fast so it doesn't increase startup time much (35 ms for a collection containing 10,000 documents).

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