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# -*- test-case-name: openid.test.test_fetchers -*-
This module contains the HTTP fetcher interface and several implementations.
__all__ = ['fetch', 'getDefaultFetcher', 'setDefaultFetcher', 'HTTPResponse',
'HTTPFetcher', 'createHTTPFetcher', 'HTTPFetchingError',
import urllib2
import time
import cStringIO
import sys
import openid
import openid.urinorm
# Try to import httplib2 for caching support
import httplib2
except ImportError:
# httplib2 not available
httplib2 = None
# try to import pycurl, which will let us use CurlHTTPFetcher
import pycurl
except ImportError:
pycurl = None
USER_AGENT = "python-openid/%s (%s)" % (openid.__version__, sys.platform)
def fetch(url, body=None, headers=None):
"""Invoke the fetch method on the default fetcher. Most users
should need only this method.
@raises Exception: any exceptions that may be raised by the default fetcher
fetcher = getDefaultFetcher()
return fetcher.fetch(url, body, headers)
def createHTTPFetcher():
"""Create a default HTTP fetcher instance
prefers Curl to urllib2."""
if pycurl is None:
fetcher = Urllib2Fetcher()
fetcher = CurlHTTPFetcher()
return fetcher
# Contains the currently set HTTP fetcher. If it is set to None, the
# library will call createHTTPFetcher() to set it. Do not access this
# variable outside of this module.
_default_fetcher = None
def getDefaultFetcher():
"""Return the default fetcher instance
if no fetcher has been set, it will create a default fetcher.
@return: the default fetcher
@rtype: HTTPFetcher
global _default_fetcher
if _default_fetcher is None:
return _default_fetcher
def setDefaultFetcher(fetcher, wrap_exceptions=True):
"""Set the default fetcher
@param fetcher: The fetcher to use as the default HTTP fetcher
@type fetcher: HTTPFetcher
@param wrap_exceptions: Whether to wrap exceptions thrown by the
fetcher wil HTTPFetchingError so that they may be caught
easier. By default, exceptions will be wrapped. In general,
unwrapped fetchers are useful for debugging of fetching errors
or if your fetcher raises well-known exceptions that you would
like to catch.
@type wrap_exceptions: bool
global _default_fetcher
if fetcher is None or not wrap_exceptions:
_default_fetcher = fetcher
_default_fetcher = ExceptionWrappingFetcher(fetcher)
def usingCurl():
"""Whether the currently set HTTP fetcher is a Curl HTTP fetcher."""
return isinstance(getDefaultFetcher(), CurlHTTPFetcher)
class HTTPResponse(object):
"""XXX document attributes"""
headers = None
status = None
body = None
final_url = None
def __init__(self, final_url=None, status=None, headers=None, body=None):
self.final_url = final_url
self.status = status
self.headers = headers
self.body = body
def __repr__(self):
return "<%s status %s for %s>" % (self.__class__.__name__,
class HTTPFetcher(object):
This class is the interface for openid HTTP fetchers. This
interface is only important if you need to write a new fetcher for
some reason.
def fetch(self, url, body=None, headers=None):
This performs an HTTP POST or GET, following redirects along
the way. If a body is specified, then the request will be a
POST. Otherwise, it will be a GET.
@param headers: HTTP headers to include with the request
@type headers: {str:str}
@return: An object representing the server's HTTP response. If
there are network or protocol errors, an exception will be
raised. HTTP error responses, like 404 or 500, do not
cause exceptions.
@rtype: L{HTTPResponse}
@raise Exception: Different implementations will raise
different errors based on the underlying HTTP library.
raise NotImplementedError
def _allowedURL(url):
return url.startswith('http://') or url.startswith('https://')
class HTTPFetchingError(Exception):
"""Exception that is wrapped around all exceptions that are raised
by the underlying fetcher when using the ExceptionWrappingFetcher
@ivar why: The exception that caused this exception
def __init__(self, why=None):
Exception.__init__(self, why)
self.why = why
class ExceptionWrappingFetcher(HTTPFetcher):
"""Fetcher that wraps another fetcher, causing all exceptions
@cvar uncaught_exceptions: Exceptions that should be exposed to the
user if they are raised by the fetch call
uncaught_exceptions = (SystemExit, KeyboardInterrupt, MemoryError)
def __init__(self, fetcher):
self.fetcher = fetcher
def fetch(self, *args, **kwargs):
return self.fetcher.fetch(*args, **kwargs)
except self.uncaught_exceptions:
exc_cls, exc_inst = sys.exc_info()[:2]
if exc_inst is None:
# string exceptions
exc_inst = exc_cls
raise HTTPFetchingError(why=exc_inst)
class Urllib2Fetcher(HTTPFetcher):
"""An C{L{HTTPFetcher}} that uses urllib2.
# Parameterized for the benefit of testing frameworks, see
urlopen = staticmethod(urllib2.urlopen)
def fetch(self, url, body=None, headers=None):
if not _allowedURL(url):
raise ValueError('Bad URL scheme: %r' % (url,))
if headers is None:
headers = {}
"%s Python-urllib/%s" % (USER_AGENT, urllib2.__version__,))
'0-%s' % (1024*MAX_RESPONSE_KB,))
req = urllib2.Request(url, data=body, headers=headers)
f = self.urlopen(req)
return self._makeResponse(f)
except urllib2.HTTPError, why:
return self._makeResponse(why)
def _makeResponse(self, urllib2_response):
resp = HTTPResponse()
resp.body = * 1024)
resp.final_url = urllib2_response.geturl()
resp.headers = dict(
if hasattr(urllib2_response, 'code'):
resp.status = urllib2_response.code
resp.status = 200
return resp
class HTTPError(HTTPFetchingError):
This exception is raised by the C{L{CurlHTTPFetcher}} when it
encounters an exceptional situation fetching a URL.
# XXX: define what we mean by paranoid, and make sure it is.
class CurlHTTPFetcher(HTTPFetcher):
An C{L{HTTPFetcher}} that uses pycurl for fetching.
See U{}.
ALLOWED_TIME = 20 # seconds
def __init__(self):
if pycurl is None:
raise RuntimeError('Cannot find pycurl library')
def _parseHeaders(self, header_file):
# Remove the status line from the beginning of the input
unused_http_status_line = header_file.readline()
lines = [line.strip() for line in header_file]
# and the blank line from the end
empty_line = lines.pop()
if empty_line:
raise HTTPError("No blank line at end of headers: %r" % (line,))
headers = {}
for line in lines:
name, value = line.split(':', 1)
except ValueError:
raise HTTPError(
"Malformed HTTP header line in response: %r" % (line,))
value = value.strip()
# HTTP headers are case-insensitive
name = name.lower()
headers[name] = value
return headers
def _checkURL(self, url):
# XXX: document that this can be overridden to match desired policy
# XXX: make sure url is well-formed and routeable
return _allowedURL(url)
def fetch(self, url, body=None, headers=None):
stop = int(time.time()) + self.ALLOWED_TIME
off = self.ALLOWED_TIME
if headers is None:
headers = {}
"%s %s" % (USER_AGENT, pycurl.version,))
header_list = []
if headers is not None:
for header_name, header_value in headers.iteritems():
header_list.append('%s: %s' % (header_name, header_value))
c = pycurl.Curl()
c.setopt(pycurl.NOSIGNAL, 1)
if header_list:
c.setopt(pycurl.HTTPHEADER, header_list)
# Presence of a body indicates that we should do a POST
if body is not None:
c.setopt(pycurl.POST, 1)
c.setopt(pycurl.POSTFIELDS, body)
while off > 0:
if not self._checkURL(url):
raise HTTPError("Fetching URL not allowed: %r" % (url,))
data = cStringIO.StringIO()
def write_data(chunk):
if data.tell() > 1024*MAX_RESPONSE_KB:
return 0
return data.write(chunk)
response_header_data = cStringIO.StringIO()
c.setopt(pycurl.WRITEFUNCTION, write_data)
c.setopt(pycurl.HEADERFUNCTION, response_header_data.write)
c.setopt(pycurl.TIMEOUT, off)
c.setopt(pycurl.URL, openid.urinorm.urinorm(url))
c.setopt(pycurl.RANGE, '0-%s'%(MAX_RESPONSE_KB*1024))
response_headers = self._parseHeaders(response_header_data)
code = c.getinfo(pycurl.RESPONSE_CODE)
if code in [301, 302, 303, 307]:
url = response_headers.get('location')
if url is None:
raise HTTPError(
'Redirect (%s) returned without a location' % code)
# Redirects are always GETs
c.setopt(pycurl.POST, 0)
# There is no way to reset POSTFIELDS to empty and
# reuse the connection, but we only use it once.
resp = HTTPResponse()
resp.headers = response_headers
resp.status = code
resp.final_url = url
resp.body = data.getvalue()
return resp
off = stop - int(time.time())
raise HTTPError("Timed out fetching: %r" % (url,))
class HTTPLib2Fetcher(HTTPFetcher):
"""A fetcher that uses C{httplib2} for performing HTTP
requests. This implementation supports HTTP caching.
def __init__(self, cache=None):
"""@param cache: An object suitable for use as an C{httplib2}
cache. If a string is passed, it is assumed to be a
directory name.
if httplib2 is None:
raise RuntimeError('Cannot find httplib2 library. '
super(HTTPLib2Fetcher, self).__init__()
# An instance of the httplib2 object that performs HTTP requests
self.httplib2 = httplib2.Http(cache)
# We want httplib2 to raise exceptions for errors, just like
# the other fetchers.
self.httplib2.force_exception_to_status_code = False
def fetch(self, url, body=None, headers=None):
"""Perform an HTTP request
@raises Exception: Any exception that can be raised by httplib2
@see: C{L{HTTPFetcher.fetch}}
if body:
method = 'POST'
method = 'GET'
if headers is None:
headers = {}
'0-%s' % (1024*MAX_RESPONSE_KB,))
# httplib2 doesn't check to make sure that the URL's scheme is
# 'http' so we do it here.
if not (url.startswith('http://') or url.startswith('https://')):
raise ValueError('URL is not a HTTP URL: %r' % (url,))
httplib2_response, content = self.httplib2.request(
url, method, body=body, headers=headers)
# Translate the httplib2 response to our HTTP response abstraction
# When a 400 is returned, there is no "content-location"
# header set. This seems like a bug to me. I can't think of a
# case where we really care about the final URL when it is an
# error response, but being careful about it can't hurt.
final_url = httplib2_response['content-location']
except KeyError:
# We're assuming that no redirects occurred
assert not httplib2_response.previous
# And this should never happen for a successful response
assert httplib2_response.status != 200
final_url = url
return HTTPResponse(