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"""This module contains general utility code that is used throughout
the library.
For users of this library, the C{L{log}} function is probably the most
__all__ = ['log', 'appendArgs', 'toBase64', 'fromBase64', 'autoSubmitHTML']
import binascii
import sys
import urlparse
from urllib import urlencode
elementtree_modules = [
def autoSubmitHTML(form, title='OpenID transaction in progress'):
return """
<body onload="document.forms[0].submit();">
var elements = document.forms[0].elements;
for (var i = 0; i < elements.length; i++) {
elements[i].style.display = "none";
""" % (title, form)
def importElementTree(module_names=None):
"""Find a working ElementTree implementation, trying the standard
places that such a thing might show up.
>>> ElementTree = importElementTree()
@param module_names: The names of modules to try to use as
ElementTree. Defaults to C{L{elementtree_modules}}
@returns: An ElementTree module
if module_names is None:
module_names = elementtree_modules
for mod_name in module_names:
ElementTree = __import__(mod_name, None, None, ['unused'])
except ImportError:
# Make sure it can actually parse XML
except (SystemExit, MemoryError, AssertionError):
why = sys.exc_info()[1]
log('Not using ElementTree library %r because it failed to '
'parse a trivial document: %s' % (mod_name, why))
return ElementTree
raise ImportError('No ElementTree library found. '
'You may need to install one. '
'Tried importing %r' % (module_names,)
def log(message, level=0):
"""Handle a log message from the OpenID library.
This implementation writes the string it to C{sys.stderr},
followed by a newline.
Currently, the library does not use the second parameter to this
function, but that may change in the future.
To install your own logging hook::
from openid import oidutil
def myLoggingFunction(message, level):
oidutil.log = myLoggingFunction
@param message: A string containing a debugging message from the
OpenID library
@type message: str
@param level: The severity of the log message. This parameter is
currently unused, but in the future, the library may indicate
more important information with a higher level value.
@type level: int or None
@returns: Nothing.
def appendArgs(url, args):
"""Append query arguments to a HTTP(s) URL. If the URL already has
query arguemtns, these arguments will be added, and the existing
arguments will be preserved. Duplicate arguments will not be
detected or collapsed (both will appear in the output).
@param url: The url to which the arguments will be appended
@type url: str
@param args: The query arguments to add to the URL. If a
dictionary is passed, the items will be sorted before
appending them to the URL. If a sequence of pairs is passed,
the order of the sequence will be preserved.
@type args: A dictionary from string to string, or a sequence of
pairs of strings.
@returns: The URL with the parameters added
@rtype: str
if hasattr(args, 'items'):
args = args.items()
args = list(args)
if len(args) == 0:
return url
if '?' in url:
sep = '&'
sep = '?'
# Map unicode to UTF-8 if present. Do not make any assumptions
# about the encodings of plain bytes (str).
i = 0
for k, v in args:
if type(k) is not str:
k = k.encode('UTF-8')
if type(v) is not str:
v = v.encode('UTF-8')
args[i] = (k, v)
i += 1
return '%s%s%s' % (url, sep, urlencode(args))
def toBase64(s):
"""Represent string s as base64, omitting newlines"""
return binascii.b2a_base64(s)[:-1]
def fromBase64(s):
return binascii.a2b_base64(s)
except binascii.Error, why:
# Convert to a common exception type
raise ValueError(why[0])
class Symbol(object):
"""This class implements an object that compares equal to others
of the same type that have the same name. These are distict from
str or unicode objects.
def __init__(self, name): = name
def __eq__(self, other):
return type(self) is type(other) and ==
def __ne__(self, other):
return not (self == other)
def __hash__(self):
return hash((self.__class__,
def __repr__(self):
return '<Symbol %s>' % (,)
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