Analyses scripts for LTTng kernel and user-space traces (official repository)
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README.rst

LTTng analyses

Latest version released on PyPi Status of Travis CI Status of LTTng CI

The LTTng analyses are a set of various executable analyses to extract and visualize monitoring data and metrics from LTTng kernel traces on the command line.

As opposed to other "live" diagnostic or monitoring solutions, this approach is based on the following workflow:

  1. Record your system's activity with LTTng, a low-overhead tracer.
  2. Do whatever it takes for your problem to occur.
  3. Diagnose your problem's cause offline (when tracing is stopped).

This solution allows you to target problems that are hard to find and to "dig" until the root cause is found.

Current limitations:

  • The LTTng analyses can be quite slow to execute. There are a number of places where they could be optimized, but using the Python interpreter seems to be an important impediment.

    This project is regarded by its authors as a testing ground to experiment analysis features, user interfaces, and usability in general. It is not considered ready to analyze long traces.

Contents:

Install LTTng analyses

Required dependencies

Optional dependencies

  • LTTng ≥ 2.5: to use the lttng-analyses-record script and to trace the system in general
  • termcolor: color support
  • progressbar: terminal progress bar support (this is not required for the machine interface's progress indication feature)

Install from PyPI (online repository)

To install the latest LTTng analyses release on your system from PyPI:

  1. Install the required dependencies.

  2. Optional: Install the optional dependencies.

  3. Make sure pip for Python 3 is installed on your system. The package is named python3-pip on most distributions (python-pip on Arch Linux).

  4. Use pip3 to install LTTng analyses:

    sudo pip3 install --upgrade lttnganalyses

    Note that you can also install LTTng analyses locally, only for your user:

    pip3 install --user --upgrade lttnganalyses

    Files are installed in ~/.local, therefore ~/.local/bin must be part of your PATH environment variable for the LTTng analyses to be launchable.

Install from a release tarball

To install a specific LTTng analyses release (tarball) on your system:

  1. Install the required dependencies.

  2. Optional: Install the optional dependencies.

  3. Download and extract the desired release tarball.

  4. Use setup.py to install LTTng analyses:

    sudo ./setup.py install

Install from the Git repository

To install LTTng analyses from a specific branch or tag of the project's Git repository:

  1. Install the required dependencies.

  2. Optional: Install the optional dependencies.

  3. Make sure pip for Python 3 is installed on your system. The package is named python3-pip on most distributions (python-pip on Arch Linux).

  4. Use pip3 to install LTTng analyses:

    sudo pip3 install --upgrade git+git://github.com/lttng/lttng-analyses.git@master

    Replace master with the desired branch or tag name to install in the previous URL.

    Note that you can also install LTTng analyses locally, only for your user:

    sudo pip3 install --user --upgrade git+git://github.com/lttng/lttng-analyses.git@master

    Files are installed in ~/.local, therefore ~/.local/bin must be part of your PATH environment variable for the LTTng analyses to be launchable.

Install on Ubuntu

To install LTTng analyses on Ubuntu ≥ 12.04:

  1. Add the LTTng Latest Stable PPA repository:

    sudo apt-get install -y software-properties-common
    sudo apt-add-repository -y ppa:lttng/ppa
    sudo apt-get update

    Replace software-properties-common with python-software-properties on Ubuntu 12.04.

  2. Install the required dependencies:

    sudo apt-get install -y babeltrace
    sudo apt-get install -y python3-babeltrace
    sudo apt-get install -y python3-setuptools

    On Ubuntu > 12.04:

    sudo apt-get install -y python3-pyparsing

    On Ubuntu 12.04:

    sudo pip3 install --upgrade pyparsing
  3. Optional: Install the optional dependencies:

    sudo apt-get install -y lttng-tools
    sudo apt-get install -y lttng-modules-dkms
    sudo apt-get install -y python3-progressbar
    sudo apt-get install -y python3-termcolor
  4. Install LTTng analyses:

    sudo apt-get install -y python3-lttnganalyses

Install on Debian "sid"

To install LTTng analyses on Debian "sid":

  1. Install the required dependencies:

    sudo apt-get install -y babeltrace
    sudo apt-get install -y python3-babeltrace
    sudo apt-get install -y python3-setuptools
    sudo apt-get install -y python3-pyparsing
  2. Optional: Install the optional dependencies:

    sudo apt-get install -y lttng-tools
    sudo apt-get install -y lttng-modules-dkms
    sudo apt-get install -y python3-progressbar
    sudo apt-get install -y python3-termcolor
  3. Install LTTng analyses:

    sudo apt-get install -y python3-lttnganalyses

Record a trace

This section is a quick reminder of how to record an LTTng kernel trace. See LTTng's quick start guide to familiarize with LTTng.

Automatic

LTTng analyses ships with a handy (installed) script, lttng-analyses-record, which automates the steps to record a kernel trace with the events required by the analyses.

To use lttng-analyses-record:

  1. Launch the installed script:

    lttng-analyses-record
  2. Do whatever it takes for your problem to occur.

  3. When you are done recording, press Ctrl+C where the script is running.

Manual

To record an LTTng kernel trace suitable for the LTTng analyses:

  1. Create a tracing session:

    sudo lttng create
  2. Create a channel with a large sub-buffer size:

    sudo lttng enable-channel --kernel chan --subbuf-size=8M
  3. Create event rules to capture the needed events:

    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan block_bio_backmerge
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan block_bio_remap
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan block_rq_complete
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan block_rq_issue
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan irq_handler_entry
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan irq_handler_exit
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan irq_softirq_entry
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan irq_softirq_exit
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan irq_softirq_raise
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan kmem_mm_page_alloc
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan kmem_mm_page_free
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan lttng_statedump_block_device
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan lttng_statedump_file_descriptor
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan lttng_statedump_process_state
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan mm_page_alloc
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan mm_page_free
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan net_dev_xmit
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan netif_receive_skb
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan sched_pi_setprio
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan sched_process_exec
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan sched_process_fork
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan sched_switch
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan sched_wakeup
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan sched_waking
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan softirq_entry
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan softirq_exit
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan softirq_raise
    sudo lttng enable-event --kernel --channel=chan --syscall --all
  4. Start recording:

    sudo lttng start
  5. Do whatever it takes for your problem to occur.

  6. Stop recording and destroy the tracing session to free its resources:

    sudo lttng stop
    sudo lttng destroy

See the LTTng Documentation for other use cases, like sending the trace data over the network instead of recording trace files on the target's file system.

Run an LTTng analysis

The LTTng analyses are a set of various command-line analyses. Each analysis accepts the path to a recorded trace (see Record a trace) as its argument, as well as various command-line options to control the analysis and its output.

Many command-line options are common to all the analyses, so that you can filter by timerange, process name, process ID, minimum and maximum values, and the rest. Also note that the reported timestamps can optionally be expressed in the GMT time zone.

Each analysis is installed as an executable starting with the lttng- prefix.

Available LTTng analyses
Command Description
lttng-cputop Per-TID, per-CPU, and total top CPU usage.
lttng-iolatencyfreq I/O request latency distribution.
lttng-iolatencystats Partition and system call latency statistics.
lttng-iolatencytop Top system call latencies.
lttng-iolog I/O operations log.
lttng-iousagetop I/O usage top.
lttng-irqfreq Interrupt handler duration frequency distribution.
lttng-irqlog Interrupt log.
lttng-irqstats Hardware and software interrupt statistics.
lttng-memtop Per-TID top allocated/freed memory.
lttng-schedfreq Scheduling latency frequency distribution.
lttng-schedlog Scheduling top.
lttng-schedstats Scheduling latency stats.
lttng-schedtop Scheduling top.
lttng-periodlog Period log.
lttng-periodstats Period duration stats.
lttng-periodtop Period duration top.
lttng-periodfreq Period duration frequency distribution.
lttng-syscallstats Per-TID and global system call statistics.

Use the --help option of any command to list the descriptions of the possible command-line options.

Note

You can set the LTTNG_ANALYSES_DEBUG environment variable to 1 when you launch an analysis to enable a debug output. You can also use the general --debug option.

Filtering options

Depending on the analysis, filter options are available. The complete list of filter options is:

Available filtering command-line options
Command-line option Description
--begin

Trace time at which to begin the analysis.

Format: HH:MM:SS[.NNNNNNNNN].

--cpu Comma-delimited list of CPU IDs for which to display the results.
--end

Trace time at which to end the analysis.

Format: HH:MM:SS[.NNNNNNNNN].

--irq List of hardware IRQ numbers for which to display the results.
--limit Maximum number of output rows per table. This option is useful for "top" analyses, like lttng-cputop.
--min Minimum duration (µs) to keep in results.
--minsize Minimum I/O operation size (B) to keep in results.
--max Maximum duration (µs) to keep in results.
--maxsize Maximum I/O operation size (B) to keep in results.
--procname Comma-delimited list of process names for which to display the results.
--softirq List of software IRQ numbers for which to display the results.
--tid Comma-delimited list of thread IDs for which to display the results.

Period options

LTTng analyses feature a powerful "period engine". A period is an interval which begins and ends under specific conditions. When the analysis results are displayed, they are isolated for the periods that were opened and closed during the process.

A period can have a parent. If it's the case, then its parent needs to exist for the period to begin at all. This tree structure of periods is useful to keep a form of custom user state during the generic kernel analysis.

Attention!

The --period and --period-captures options's arguments include characters that are considered special by most shells, like $, *, and &.

Make sure to always single-quote those arguments when running the LTTng analyses on the command line.

Period definition

You can define one or more periods on the command line, when launching an analysis, with the --period option. This option's argument accepts the following form (content within square brackets is optional):

[ NAME [ (PARENT) ] ] : BEGINEXPR [ : ENDEXPR ]
NAME

Optional name of the period definition. All periods opened from this definition have this name.

The syntax of this name is the same as a C identifier.

PARENT

Optional name of a previously defined period which acts as the parent period definition of this definition.

NAME must be set for PARENT to be set.

BEGINEXPR
Matching expression which a given event must match in order for an actual period to be instantiated by this definition.
ENDEXPR

Matching expression which a given event must match in order for an instance of this definition to be closed.

If this part is omitted, BEGINEXPR is used for the ending expression too.

Matching expression

A matching expression is a C-like logical expression. It supports nesting expressions with ( and ), as well as the && (logical AND), || (logical OR), and ! (logical NOT) operators. The precedence of those operators is the same as in the C language.

The atomic operands in those logical expressions are comparisons. For the following comparison syntaxes, consider that:

  • EVT indicates an event source. The available event sources are:

    $evt

    Current event.

    $begin.$evt

    In BEGINEXPR: current event (same as $evt).

    In ENDEXPR: event which, for this period instance, was matched when BEGINEXPR was evaluated.

    $parent.$begin.$evt

    Event which, for the parent period instance of this period instance, was matched when BEGINEXPR of the parent was evaluated.

  • FIELD indicates an event field source. The available event field sources are:

    NAME (direct field name)

    Automatic scope: try to find the field named NAME in the dynamic scopes in this order:

    1. Event payload
    2. Event context
    3. Event header
    4. Stream event context
    5. Packet context
    6. Packet header
    $payload.NAME

    Event payload field named NAME.

    $ctx.NAME

    Event context field named NAME.

    $header.NAME

    Event header field named NAME.

    $stream_ctx.NAME

    Stream event context field named NAME.

    $pkt_ctx.NAME

    Packet context field named NAME.

    $pkt_header.NAME

    Packet header field named NAME.

  • VALUE indicates one of:

    • A constant, decimal number. This can be an integer or a real number, positive or negative, and supports the e scientific notation.

      Examples: 23, -18.28, 7.2e9.

    • A double-quoted literal string. " and \ can be escaped with \.

      Examples: "hello, world!", "here's another \"quoted\" string".

    • An event field, that is, EVT.FIELD, considering the replacements described above.

  • NUMVALUE indicates one of:

    • A constant, decimal number. This can be an integer or a real number, positive or negative, and supports the e scientific notation.

      Examples: 23, -18.28, 7.2e9.

    • An event field, that is, EVT.FIELD, considering the replacements described above.

Available comparison syntaxes for matching expressions
Comparison syntax Description
  1. EVT.$name == "NAME"
  2. EVT.$name != "NAME"
  3. EVT.$name =* "PATTERN"

Name matching:

  1. Name of event source EVT is equal to NAME.
  2. Name of event source EVT is not equal to NAME.
  3. Name of event source EVT satisfies the globbing pattern PATTERN (see fnmatch).
  1. EVT.FIELD == VALUE
  2. EVT.FIELD != VALUE
  3. EVT.FIELD < NUMVALUE
  4. EVT.FIELD <= NUMVALUE
  5. EVT.FIELD > NUMVALUE
  6. EVT.FIELD >= NUMVALUE
  7. EVT.FIELD =* "PATTERN"

Value matching:

  1. The value of the field EVT.FIELD is equal to the value VALUE.
  2. The value of the field EVT.FIELD is not equal to the value VALUE.
  3. The value of the field EVT.FIELD is lesser than the value NUMVALUE.
  4. The value of the field EVT.FIELD is lesser than or equal to the value NUMVALUE.
  5. The value of the field EVT.FIELD is greater than the value NUMVALUE.
  6. The value of the field EVT.FIELD is greater than or equal to the value NUMVALUE.
  7. The value of the field EVT.FIELD satisfies the globbing pattern PATTERN (see fnmatch).

In any case, if EVT.FIELD does not target an existing field, the comparison including it fails. Also, string fields cannot be compared to number values (constant or fields).

Examples
  • Create a period instance named switch when:

    • The current event name is sched_switch.

    End this period instance when:

    • The current event name is sched_switch.

    Period definition:

    switch : $evt.$name == "sched_switch"
    
  • Create a period instance named switch when:

    • The current event name is sched_switch AND
    • The current event's next_tid field is NOT equal to 0.

    End this period instance when:

    • The current event name is sched_switch AND
    • The current event's prev_tid field is equal to the next_tid field of the matched event in the begin expression AND
    • The current event's cpu_id field is equal to the cpu_id field of the matched event in the begin expression.

    Period definition:

    switch
    : $evt.$name == "sched_switch" &&
      $evt.next_tid != 0
    : $evt.$name == "sched_switch" &&
      $evt.prev_tid == $begin.$evt.next_tid &&
      $evt.cpu_id == $begin.$evt.cpu_id
    
  • Create a period instance named irq when:

    • A parent period instance named switch is currently opened.
    • The current event name satisfies the irq_*_entry globbing pattern AND
    • The current event's cpu_id field is equal to the cpu_id field of the matched event in the begin expression of the parent period instance.

    End this period instance when:

    • The current event name is irq_handler_exit AND
    • The current event's cpu_id field is equal to the cpu_id field of the matched event in the begin expression.

    Period definition:

    irq(switch)
    : $evt.$name =* "irq_*_entry" &&
      $evt.cpu_id == $parent.$begin.$evt.cpu_id
    : $evt.$name == "irq_handler_exit" &&
      $evt.cpu_id == $begin.$evt.cpu_id
    
  • Create a period instance named hello when:

    • The current event name satisfies the hello* globbing pattern, but excludes hello world.

    End this period instance when:

    • The current event name is the same as the name of the matched event in the begin expression AND
    • The current event's theid header field is lesser than or equal to 231.

    Period definition:

    hello
    : $evt.$name =* "hello*" &&
      $evt.$name != "hello world"
    : $evt.$name == $begin.$evt.$name &&
      $evt.$header.theid <= 231
    

Period captures

When a period instance begins or ends, the analysis can capture the current values of specific event fields and display them in its results.

You can set period captures with the --period-captures command-line option. This option's argument accepts the following form (content within square brackets is optional):

NAME : BEGINCAPTURES [ : ENDCAPTURES ]
NAME

Name of period instances on which to apply those captures.

A --period option in the same command line must define this name.

BEGINCAPTURES
Comma-delimited list of event fields to capture when the beginning expression of the period definition named NAME is matched.
ENDCAPTURES

Comma-delimited list of event fields to capture when the ending expression of the period definition named NAME is matched.

If this part is omitted, there are no end captures.

The format of BEGINCAPTURES and ENDCAPTURES is a comma-delimited list of tokens having this format:

[ CAPTURENAME = ] EVT.FIELD

or:

[ CAPTURENAME = ] EVT.$name
CAPTURENAME

Custom name for this capture. The syntax of this name is the same as a C identifier.

If this part is omitted, the literal expression used for EVT.FIELD is used.

EVT and FIELD
See Matching expression.

Period select and aggregate parameters

With lttng-periodlog, it is possible to see the list of periods in the context of their parent. By specifying the --aggregate-by, the lines in the log present on the same line the timerange of the period specified by the --select argument at the timerange of the parent period that contains it. In lttng-periodstats and lttng-periodfreq, these two flags are used as filter to limit the output to only the relevant periods. If omitted, all existing combinations of parent/child statistics and frequency distributions are output.

Grouping

When fields are captured during the period analyses, it is possible to compute the statistics and frequency distribution grouped by values of the these fields, instead of globally for the trace. The format is:

--group-by "PERIODNAME.CAPTURENAME[, PERIODNAME.CAPTURENAME]"

If multiple values are passed, the analysis outputs one list of tables (statistics and/or frequency distribution) for each unique combination of the field's values.

For example, if we track the open system call and we are interested in the average duration of this call by filename, we only have to capture the filename field and group the results by open.filename.

Examples

Begin captures only:

switch
: $evt.next_tid,
  name = $evt.$name,
  msg_id = $parent.$begin.$evt.id

Begin and end captures:

hello
: beginning = $evt.$ctx.begin_ts,
  $evt.received_bytes
: $evt.send_bytes,
  $evt.$name,
  begin = $begin.$evt.$ctx.begin_ts
  end = $evt.$ctx.end_ts

Top scheduling latency (delay between sched_waking(tid=$TID) and sched_switch(next_tid=$TID)) with recording of the procname of the waker (dependant of the procname context in the trace), priority and target CPU:

lttng-periodtop /path/to/trace \
    --period 'wake : $evt.$name == "sched_waking" : $evt.$name == "sched_switch" && $evt.next_tid == $begin.$evt.$payload.tid' \
    --period-capture 'wake : waker = $evt.procname, prio = $evt.prio : wakee = $evt.next_comm, cpu = $evt.cpu_id'
Timerange: [2016-07-21 17:07:47.832234248, 2016-07-21 17:07:48.948152659]
Period top
Begin                End                   Duration (us) Name            Begin capture                       End capture
[17:07:47.835338581, 17:07:47.946834976]      111496.395 wake            waker = lttng-consumerd             wakee = kworker/0:2
                                                                         prio = 20                           cpu = 0
[17:07:47.850409057, 17:07:47.946829256]       96420.199 wake            waker = swapper/2                   wakee = migration/0
                                                                         prio = -100                         cpu = 0
[17:07:48.300313282, 17:07:48.300993892]         680.610 wake            waker = Xorg                        wakee = ibus-ui-gtk3
                                                                         prio = 20                           cpu = 3
[17:07:48.300330060, 17:07:48.300920648]         590.588 wake            waker = Xorg                        wakee = ibus-x11
                                                                         prio = 20                           cpu = 3

Log of all the IRQ handled while a user-space process was running, capture the procname of the process interrupted, the name and number of the IRQ:

lttng-periodlog /path/to/trace \
    --period 'switch : $evt.$name == "sched_switch" && $evt.next_tid != 0 : $evt.$name == "sched_switch" && $evt.prev_tid == $begin.$evt.next_tid && $evt.cpu_id == $begin.$evt.cpu_id' \
    --period 'irq(switch) : $evt.$name == "irq_handler_entry" && $evt.cpu_id == $parent.$begin.$evt.cpu_id : $evt.$name == "irq_handler_exit" && $evt.cpu_id == $begin.$evt.cpu_id' \
    --period-capture 'irq : name = $evt.name, irq = $evt.irq, current = $parent.$begin.$evt.next_comm'
Period log
Begin                End                   Duration (us) Name            Begin capture                       End capture
[10:58:26.169238875, 10:58:26.169244920]           6.045 switch
[10:58:26.169598385, 10:58:26.169602967]           4.582 irq             name = ahci
                                                                         irq = 41
                                                                         current = lttng-consumerd
[10:58:26.169811553, 10:58:26.169816218]           4.665 irq             name = ahci
                                                                         irq = 41
                                                                         current = lttng-consumerd
[10:58:26.170025600, 10:58:26.170030197]           4.597 irq             name = ahci
                                                                         irq = 41
                                                                         current = lttng-consumerd
[10:58:26.169236842, 10:58:26.170105711]         868.869 switch

Log of all the open system call periods aggregated by the sched_switch in which they occurred:

lttng-periodlog /path/to/trace \
    --period 'switch : $evt.$name == "sched_switch" : $evt.$name == "sched_switch" && $begin.$evt.next_tid == $evt.prev_tid && $begin.$evt.cpu_id == $evt.cpu_id' \
    --period 'open(switch) : $evt.$name == "syscall_entry_open" && $parent.$begin.$evt.cpu_id == $evt.cpu_id : $evt.$name == "syscall_exit_open" && $begin.$evt.cpu_id == $evt.cpu_id' \
    --period-captures 'switch : comm = $evt.next_comm, cpu = $evt.cpu_id, tid = $evt.next_tid' \
    --period-captures 'open : filename = $evt.filename : fd = $evt.ret' \
    --select open
    --aggregate-by switch
Aggregated log
Aggregation of (open) by switch
                                    Parent                                  |                                     |                           Durations (us)                        |
Begin                End                      Duration (us) Name            | Child name                    Count |        Min          Avg          Max         Stdev      Runtime | Parent captures
[10:58:26.222823677, 10:58:26.224039381]           1215.704 switch          | switch/open                       3 |      7.517        9.548       11.248        1.887        28.644 | switch.comm = bash, switch.cpu = 3, switch.tid = 12420
[10:58:26.856224058, 10:58:26.856589867]            365.809 switch          | switch/open                       1 |     77.620       77.620       77.620            ?        77.620 | switch.comm = ntpd, switch.cpu = 0, switch.tid = 11132
[10:58:27.000068031, 10:58:27.000954859]            886.828 switch          | switch/open                      15 |      9.224       16.126       37.190        6.681       241.894 | switch.comm = irqbalance, switch.cpu = 0, switch.tid = 1656
[10:58:27.225474282, 10:58:27.229160014]           3685.732 switch          | switch/open                      22 |      5.797        6.767        9.308        0.972       148.881 | switch.comm = bash, switch.cpu = 1, switch.tid = 12421

Statistics about the memory allocation performed within an open system call within a single sched_switch (no blocking or preemption):

lttng-periodstats /path/to/trace \
    --period 'switch : $evt.$name == "sched_switch" : $evt.$name == "sched_switch" && $begin.$evt.next_tid == $evt.prev_tid && $begin.$evt.cpu_id == $evt.cpu_id' \
    --period 'open(switch) : $evt.$name == "syscall_entry_open" && $parent.$begin.$evt.cpu_id == $evt.cpu_id : $evt.$name == "syscall_exit_open" && $begin.$evt.cpu_id == $evt.cpu_id' \
    --period 'alloc(open) : $evt.$name == "kmem_cache_alloc" && $parent.$begin.$evt.cpu_id == $evt.cpu_id : $evt.$name == "kmem_cache_free" && $evt.ptr == $begin.$evt.ptr' \
    --period-captures 'switch : comm = $evt.next_comm, cpu = $evt.cpu_id, tid = $evt.next_tid' \
    --period-captures 'open : filename = $evt.filename : fd = $evt.ret' \
    --period-captures 'alloc : ptr = $evt.ptr'
Timerange: [2015-01-06 10:58:26.140545481, 2015-01-06 10:58:27.229358936]
Period tree:
switch
|-- open
    |-- alloc

Period statistics (us)
Period                       Count           Min           Avg           Max         Stdev      Runtime
switch                         831         2.824      5233.363    172056.802     16197.531  4348924.614
switch/open                     41         5.797        12.123        77.620        12.076      497.039
switch/open/alloc               44         1.152        10.277        74.476        11.582      452.175

Per-parent period duration statistics (us)
With active children
Period                    Parent                              Min           Avg           Max         Stdev
switch/open               switch                           28.644       124.260       241.894        92.667
switch/open/alloc         switch                           24.036       113.044       229.713        87.827
switch/open/alloc         switch/open                       4.550        11.029        74.476        11.768

Per-parent duration ratio (%)
With active children
Period                    Parent                              Min           Avg           Max         Stdev
switch/open               switch                                2        13.723            27        12.421
switch/open/alloc         switch                                1        12.901            25        12.041
switch/open/alloc         switch/open                          76        88.146           115         7.529

Per-parent period count statistics
With active children
Period                    Parent                              Min           Avg           Max         Stdev
switch/open               switch                                1        10.250            22         9.979
switch/open/alloc         switch                                1        11.000            22        10.551
switch/open/alloc         switch/open                           1         1.073             2         0.264

Per-parent period duration statistics (us)
Globally
Period                    Parent                              Min           Avg           Max         Stdev
switch/open               switch                            0.000         0.598       241.894        10.251
switch/open/alloc         switch                            0.000         0.544       229.713         9.443
switch/open/alloc         switch/open                       4.550        11.029        74.476        11.768

Per-parent duration ratio (%)
Globally
Period                    Parent                              Min           Avg           Max         Stdev
switch/open               switch                                0         0.066            27         1.209
switch/open/alloc         switch                                0         0.062            25         1.150
switch/open/alloc         switch/open                          76        88.146           115         7.529

Per-parent period count statistics
Globally
Period                    Parent                              Min           Avg           Max         Stdev
switch/open               switch                                0         0.049            22         0.929
switch/open/alloc         switch                                0         0.053            22         0.991
switch/open/alloc         switch/open                           1         1.073             2         0.264

These statistics can also be scoped by value of the FD returned by the open system, by appending --group-by "open.fd" to the previous command line. That way previous tables will be output for each value of FD returned, so it is possible to observe the behaviour based on the parameters of a system call.

Using the lttng-periodfreq or the --freq parameter, these tables can also be presented as frequency distributions.

Progress options

If the progressbar optional dependency is installed, a progress bar is available to indicate the progress of the analysis.

By default, the progress bar is based on the current event's timestamp.

Progress options are:

Available progress command-line options
Command-line option Description
--no-progress Disable the progress bar.
--progress-use-size Use the approximate event size instead of the current event's timestamp to estimate the progress value.

Machine interface

If you want to display LTTng analyses results in a custom viewer, you can use the JSON-based LTTng analyses machine interface (LAMI). Each command in the previous table has its corresponding LAMI version with the -mi suffix. For example, the LAMI version of lttng-cputop is lttng-cputop-mi.

This version of LTTng analyses conforms to LAMI 1.0.

The LAMI output can be used in TraceCompass (>=2.1) to create graphs based on the output of the scripts.

Examples

This section shows a few examples of using some LTTng analyses.

I/O

Partition and system call latency statistics

lttng-iolatencystats /path/to/trace
Timerange: [2015-01-06 10:58:26.140545481, 2015-01-06 10:58:27.229358936]
Syscalls latency statistics (usec):
Type                    Count            Min        Average            Max          Stdev
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Open                       45          5.562         13.835         77.683         15.263
Read                      109          0.316          5.774         62.569          9.277
Write                     101          0.256          7.060         48.531          8.555
Sync                      207         19.384         40.664        160.188         21.201

Disk latency statistics (usec):
Name                    Count            Min        Average            Max          Stdev
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
dm-0                      108          0.001          0.004          0.007          1.306

I/O request latency distribution

lttng-iolatencyfreq /path/to/trace
Timerange: [2015-01-06 10:58:26.140545481, 2015-01-06 10:58:27.229358936]
Open latency distribution (usec)
###############################################################################
 5.562 ███████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████  25
 9.168 ██████████                                                            4
12.774 █████████████████████                                                 8
16.380 ████████                                                              3
19.986 █████                                                                 2
23.592                                                                       0
27.198                                                                       0
30.804                                                                       0
34.410 ██                                                                    1
38.016                                                                       0
41.623                                                                       0
45.229                                                                       0
48.835                                                                       0
52.441                                                                       0
56.047                                                                       0
59.653                                                                       0
63.259                                                                       0
66.865                                                                       0
70.471                                                                       0
74.077 █████                                                                 2

Top system call latencies

lttng-iolatencytop /path/to/trace --limit=3 --minsize=2
Checking the trace for lost events...
Timerange: [2015-01-15 12:18:37.216484041, 2015-01-15 12:18:53.821580313]
Top open syscall latencies (usec)
Begin               End                  Name             Duration (usec)         Size  Proc                     PID      Filename
[12:18:50.432950815,12:18:50.870648568]  open                  437697.753          N/A  apache2                  31517    /var/lib/php5/sess_0ifir2hangm8ggaljdphl9o5b5 (fd=13)
[12:18:52.946080165,12:18:52.946132278]  open                      52.113          N/A  apache2                  31588    /var/lib/php5/sess_mr9045p1k55vin1h0vg7rhgd63 (fd=13)
[12:18:46.800846035,12:18:46.800874916]  open                      28.881          N/A  apache2                  31591    /var/lib/php5/sess_r7c12pccfvjtas15g3j69u14h0 (fd=13)
[12:18:51.389797604,12:18:51.389824426]  open                      26.822          N/A  apache2                  31520    /var/lib/php5/sess_4sdb1rtjkhb78sabnoj8gpbl00 (fd=13)

Top read syscall latencies (usec)
Begin               End                  Name             Duration (usec)         Size  Proc                     PID      Filename
[12:18:37.256073107,12:18:37.256555967]  read                     482.860       7.00 B  bash                     10237    unknown (origin not found) (fd=3)
[12:18:52.000209798,12:18:52.000252304]  read                      42.506      1.00 KB  irqbalance               1337     /proc/interrupts (fd=3)
[12:18:37.256559439,12:18:37.256601615]  read                      42.176       5.00 B  bash                     10237    unknown (origin not found) (fd=3)
[12:18:42.000281918,12:18:42.000320016]  read                      38.098      1.00 KB  irqbalance               1337     /proc/interrupts (fd=3)

Top write syscall latencies (usec)
Begin               End                  Name             Duration (usec)         Size  Proc                     PID      Filename
[12:18:49.913241516,12:18:49.915908862]  write                   2667.346      95.00 B  apache2                  31584    /var/log/apache2/access.log (fd=8)
[12:18:37.472823631,12:18:37.472859836]  writev                    36.205     21.97 KB  apache2                  31544    unknown (origin not found) (fd=12)
[12:18:37.991578372,12:18:37.991612724]  writev                    34.352     21.97 KB  apache2                  31589    unknown (origin not found) (fd=12)
[12:18:39.547778549,12:18:39.547812515]  writev                    33.966     21.97 KB  apache2                  31584    unknown (origin not found) (fd=12)

Top sync syscall latencies (usec)
Begin               End                  Name             Duration (usec)         Size  Proc                     PID      Filename
[12:18:50.162776739,12:18:51.157522361]  sync                  994745.622          N/A  sync                     22791    None (fd=None)
[12:18:37.227867532,12:18:37.232289687]  sync_file_range         4422.155          N/A  lttng-consumerd          19964    /home/julien/lttng-traces/analysis-20150115-120942/kernel/metadata (fd=32)
[12:18:37.238076585,12:18:37.239012027]  sync_file_range          935.442          N/A  lttng-consumerd          19964    /home/julien/lttng-traces/analysis-20150115-120942/kernel/metadata (fd=32)
[12:18:37.220974711,12:18:37.221647124]  sync_file_range          672.413          N/A  lttng-consumerd          19964    /home/julien/lttng-traces/analysis-20150115-120942/kernel/metadata (fd=32)

I/O operations log

lttng-iolog /path/to/trace
[10:58:26.221618530,10:58:26.221620659]  write                      2.129       8.00 B  /usr/bin/x-term          11793    anon_inode:[eventfd] (fd=5)
[10:58:26.221623609,10:58:26.221628055]  read                       4.446      50.00 B  /usr/bin/x-term          11793    /dev/ptmx (fd=24)
[10:58:26.221638929,10:58:26.221640008]  write                      1.079       8.00 B  /usr/bin/x-term          11793    anon_inode:[eventfd] (fd=5)
[10:58:26.221676232,10:58:26.221677385]  read                       1.153       8.00 B  /usr/bin/x-term          11793    anon_inode:[eventfd] (fd=5)
[10:58:26.223401804,10:58:26.223411683]  open                       9.879          N/A  sleep                    12420    /etc/ld.so.cache (fd=3)
[10:58:26.223448060,10:58:26.223455577]  open                       7.517          N/A  sleep                    12420    /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6 (fd=3)
[10:58:26.223456522,10:58:26.223458898]  read                       2.376     832.00 B  sleep                    12420    /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6 (fd=3)
[10:58:26.223918068,10:58:26.223929316]  open                      11.248          N/A  sleep                    12420     (fd=3)
[10:58:26.231881565,10:58:26.231895970]  writev                    14.405      16.00 B  /usr/bin/x-term          11793    socket:[45650] (fd=4)
[10:58:26.231979636,10:58:26.231988446]  recvmsg                    8.810      16.00 B  Xorg                     1827     socket:[47480] (fd=38)

I/O usage top

lttng-iousagetop /path/to/trace
Timerange: [2014-10-07 16:36:00.733214969, 2014-10-07 16:36:18.804584183]
Per-process I/O Read
###############################################################################
██████████████████████████████████████████████████    16.00 MB lttng-consumerd (2619)         0 B  file   4.00 B  net  16.00 MB unknown
█████                                                  1.72 MB lttng-consumerd (2619)         0 B  file      0 B  net   1.72 MB unknown
█                                                    398.13 KB postgres (4219)           121.05 KB file 277.07 KB net   8.00 B  unknown
                                                     256.09 KB postgres (1348)                0 B  file 255.97 KB net 117.00 B  unknown
                                                     204.81 KB postgres (4218)           204.81 KB file      0 B  net      0 B  unknown
                                                     123.77 KB postgres (4220)           117.50 KB file   6.26 KB net   8.00 B  unknown
Per-process I/O Write
###############################################################################
██████████████████████████████████████████████████    16.00 MB lttng-consumerd (2619)         0 B  file   8.00 MB net   8.00 MB unknown
██████                                                 2.20 MB postgres (4219)             2.00 MB file 202.23 KB net      0 B  unknown
█████                                                  1.73 MB lttng-consumerd (2619)         0 B  file 887.73 KB net 882.58 KB unknown
██                                                   726.33 KB postgres (1165)             8.00 KB file   6.33 KB net 712.00 KB unknown
                                                     158.69 KB postgres (1168)           158.69 KB file      0 B  net      0 B  unknown
                                                      80.66 KB postgres (1348)                0 B  file  80.66 KB net      0 B  unknown
Files Read
###############################################################################
██████████████████████████████████████████████████     8.00 MB anon_inode:[lttng_stream] (lttng-consumerd) 'fd 32 in lttng-consumerd (2619)'
█████                                                834.41 KB base/16384/pg_internal.init 'fd 7 in postgres (4219)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4220)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4221)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4222)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4223)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4224)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4225)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4226)'
█                                                    256.09 KB socket:[8893] (postgres) 'fd 9 in postgres (1348)'
█                                                    174.69 KB pg_stat_tmp/pgstat.stat 'fd 9 in postgres (4218)', 'fd 9 in postgres (1167)'
                                                     109.48 KB global/pg_internal.init 'fd 7 in postgres (4218)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4219)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4220)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4221)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4222)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4223)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4224)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4225)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4226)'
                                                     104.30 KB base/11951/pg_internal.init 'fd 7 in postgres (4218)'
                                                      12.85 KB socket (lttng-sessiond) 'fd 30 in lttng-sessiond (384)'
                                                       4.50 KB global/pg_filenode.map 'fd 7 in postgres (4218)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4219)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4220)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4221)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4222)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4223)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4224)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4225)', 'fd 7 in postgres (4226)'
                                                       4.16 KB socket (postgres) 'fd 9 in postgres (4226)'
                                                       4.00 KB /proc/interrupts 'fd 3 in irqbalance (1104)'
Files Write
###############################################################################
██████████████████████████████████████████████████     8.00 MB socket:[56371] (lttng-consumerd) 'fd 30 in lttng-consumerd (2619)'
█████████████████████████████████████████████████      8.00 MB pipe:[53306] (lttng-consumerd) 'fd 12 in lttng-consumerd (2619)'
██████████                                             1.76 MB pg_xlog/00000001000000000000000B 'fd 31 in postgres (4219)'
█████                                                887.82 KB socket:[56369] (lttng-consumerd) 'fd 26 in lttng-consumerd (2619)'
█████                                                882.58 KB pipe:[53309] (lttng-consumerd) 'fd 18 in lttng-consumerd (2619)'
                                                     160.00 KB /var/lib/postgresql/9.1/main/base/16384/16602 'fd 14 in postgres (1165)'
                                                     158.69 KB pg_stat_tmp/pgstat.tmp 'fd 3 in postgres (1168)'
                                                     144.00 KB /var/lib/postgresql/9.1/main/base/16384/16613 'fd 12 in postgres (1165)'
                                                      88.00 KB /var/lib/postgresql/9.1/main/base/16384/16609 'fd 11 in postgres (1165)'
                                                      78.28 KB socket:[8893] (postgres) 'fd 9 in postgres (1348)'
Block I/O Read
###############################################################################
Block I/O Write
###############################################################################
██████████████████████████████████████████████████     1.76 MB postgres (pid=4219)
████                                                 160.00 KB postgres (pid=1168)
██                                                   100.00 KB kworker/u8:0 (pid=1540)
██                                                    96.00 KB jbd2/vda1-8 (pid=257)
█                                                     40.00 KB postgres (pid=1166)
                                                       8.00 KB kworker/u9:0 (pid=4197)
                                                       4.00 KB kworker/u9:2 (pid=1381)
Disk nr_sector
###############################################################################
███████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████  4416.00 sectors  vda1
Disk nr_requests
###############################################################################
████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████  177.00 requests  vda1
Disk request time/sector
###############################################################################
██████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████   0.01 ms  vda1
Network recv_bytes
###############################################################################
███████████████████████████████████████████████████████  739.50 KB eth0
█████                                                    80.27 KB lo
Network sent_bytes
###############################################################################
████████████████████████████████████████████████████████  9.36 MB eth0

System calls

Per-TID and global system call statistics

lttng-syscallstats /path/to/trace
Timerange: [2015-01-15 12:18:37.216484041, 2015-01-15 12:18:53.821580313]
Per-TID syscalls statistics (usec)
find (22785)                          Count            Min        Average          Max      Stdev  Return values
 - getdents                           14240          0.380        364.301    43372.450   1629.390  {'success': 14240}
 - close                              14236          0.233          0.506        4.932      0.217  {'success': 14236}
 - fchdir                             14231          0.252          0.407        5.769      0.117  {'success': 14231}
 - open                                7123          0.779          2.321       12.697      0.936  {'success': 7119, 'ENOENT': 4}
 - newfstatat                          7118          1.457        143.562    28103.532   1410.281  {'success': 7118}
 - openat                              7118          1.525          2.411        9.107      0.771  {'success': 7118}
 - newfstat                            7117          0.272          0.654        8.707      0.248  {'success': 7117}
 - write                                573          0.298          0.715        8.584      0.391  {'success': 573}
 - brk                                   27          0.615          5.768       30.792      7.830  {'success': 27}
 - rt_sigaction                          22          0.227          0.283        0.589      0.098  {'success': 22}
 - mmap                                  12          1.116          2.116        3.597      0.762  {'success': 12}
 - mprotect                               6          1.185          2.235        3.923      1.148  {'success': 6}
 - read                                   5          0.925          2.101        6.300      2.351  {'success': 5}
 - ioctl                                  4          0.342          1.151        2.280      0.873  {'success': 2, 'ENOTTY': 2}
 - access                                 4          1.166          2.530        4.202      1.527  {'ENOENT': 4}
 - rt_sigprocmask                         3          0.325          0.570        0.979      0.357  {'success': 3}
 - dup2                                   2          0.250          0.562        0.874          ?  {'success': 2}
 - munmap                                 2          3.006          5.399        7.792          ?  {'success': 2}
 - execve                                 1       7277.974       7277.974     7277.974          ?  {'success': 1}
 - setpgid                                1          0.945          0.945        0.945          ?  {'success': 1}
 - fcntl                                  1              ?          0.000        0.000          ?  {}
 - newuname                               1          1.240          1.240        1.240          ?  {'success': 1}
Total:                                71847
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
apache2 (31517)                       Count            Min        Average          Max      Stdev  Return values
 - fcntl                                192              ?          0.000        0.000          ?  {}
 - newfstat                             156          0.237          0.484        1.102      0.222  {'success': 156}
 - read                                 144          0.307          1.602       16.307      1.698  {'success': 117, 'EAGAIN': 27}
 - access                                96          0.705          1.580        3.364      0.670  {'success': 12, 'ENOENT': 84}
 - newlstat                              84          0.459          0.738        1.456      0.186  {'success': 63, 'ENOENT': 21}
 - newstat                               74          0.735          2.266       11.212      1.772  {'success': 50, 'ENOENT': 24}
 - lseek                                 72          0.317          0.522        0.915      0.112  {'success': 72}
 - close                                 39          0.471          0.615        0.867      0.069  {'success': 39}
 - open                                  36          2.219      12162.689   437697.753  72948.868  {'success': 36}
 - getcwd                                28          0.287          0.701        1.331      0.277  {'success': 28}
 - poll                                  27          1.080       1139.669     2851.163    856.723  {'success': 27}
 - times                                 24          0.765          0.956        1.327      0.107  {'success': 24}
 - setitimer                             24          0.499          5.848       16.668      4.041  {'success': 24}
 - write                                 24          5.467          6.784       16.827      2.459  {'success': 24}
 - writev                                24         10.241         17.645       29.817      5.116  {'success': 24}
 - mmap                                  15          3.060          3.482        4.406      0.317  {'success': 15}
 - munmap                                15          2.944          3.502        4.154      0.427  {'success': 15}
 - brk                                   12          0.738          4.579       13.795      4.437  {'success': 12}
 - chdir                                 12          0.989          1.600        2.353      0.385  {'success': 12}
 - flock                                  6          0.906          1.282        2.043      0.423  {'success': 6}
 - rt_sigaction                           6          0.530          0.725        1.123      0.217  {'success': 6}
 - pwrite64                               6          1.262          1.430        1.692      0.143  {'success': 6}
 - rt_sigprocmask                         6          0.539          0.650        0.976      0.162  {'success': 6}
 - shutdown                               3          7.323          8.487       10.281      1.576  {'success': 3}
 - getsockname                            3          1.015          1.228        1.585      0.311  {'success': 3}
 - accept4                                3    5174453.611    3450157.282  5176018.235          ?  {'success': 2}
Total:                                 1131

Interrupts

Hardware and software interrupt statistics

lttng-irqstats /path/to/trace
Timerange: [2014-03-11 16:05:41.314824752, 2014-03-11 16:05:45.041994298]
Hard IRQ                                             Duration (us)
                       count          min          avg          max        stdev
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
1:  <i8042>               30       10.901       45.500       64.510       18.447  |
42: <ahci>               259        3.203        7.863       21.426        3.183  |
43: <eth0>                 2        3.859        3.976        4.093        0.165  |
44: <iwlwifi>             92        0.300        3.995        6.542        2.181  |

Soft IRQ                                             Duration (us)                                        Raise latency (us)
                       count          min          avg          max        stdev  |  count          min          avg          max        stdev
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------|------------------------------------------------------------
1:  <TIMER_SOFTIRQ>      495        0.202       21.058       51.060       11.047  |     53        2.141       11.217       20.005        7.233
3:  <NET_RX_SOFTIRQ>      14        0.133        9.177       32.774       10.483  |     14        0.763        3.703       10.902        3.448
4:  <BLOCK_SOFTIRQ>      257        5.981       29.064      125.862       15.891  |    257        0.891        3.104       15.054        2.046
6:  <TASKLET_SOFTIRQ>     26        0.309        1.198        1.748        0.329  |     26        9.636       39.222       51.430       11.246
7:  <SCHED_SOFTIRQ>      299        1.185       14.768       90.465       15.992  |    298        1.286       31.387       61.700       11.866
9:  <RCU_SOFTIRQ>        338        0.592        3.387       13.745        1.356  |    147        2.480       29.299       64.453       14.286

Interrupt handler duration frequency distribution

lttng-irqfreq --timerange=[16:05:42,16:05:45] --irq=44 --stats /path/to/trace
Timerange: [2014-03-11 16:05:42.042034570, 2014-03-11 16:05:44.998914297]
Hard IRQ                                             Duration (us)
                       count          min          avg          max        stdev
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
44: <iwlwifi>             72        0.300        4.018        6.542        2.164  |
Frequency distribution iwlwifi (44)
###############################################################################
0.300 █████                                                                 1.00
0.612 ██████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████        12.00
0.924 ████████████████████                                                  4.00
1.236 ██████████                                                            2.00
1.548                                                                       0.00
1.861 █████                                                                 1.00
2.173                                                                       0.00
2.485 █████                                                                 1.00
2.797 ██████████████████████████                                            5.00
3.109 █████                                                                 1.00
3.421 ███████████████                                                       3.00
3.733                                                                       0.00
4.045 █████                                                                 1.00
4.357 █████                                                                 1.00
4.669 ██████████                                                            2.00
4.981 ██████████                                                            2.00
5.294 █████████████████████████████████████████                             8.00
5.606 ████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████  13.00
5.918 ██████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████        12.00
6.230 ███████████████                                                       3.00

Community

LTTng analyses is part of the LTTng project and shares its community.

We hope you have fun trying this project and please remember it is a work in progress; feedback, bug reports and improvement ideas are always welcome!

LTTng analyses project's communication channels
Item Location Notes
Mailing list lttng-dev (lttng-dev@lists.lttng.org) Preferably, use the [lttng-analyses] subject prefix
IRC #lttng on the OFTC network  
Code contribution Create a new GitHub pull request  
Bug reporting Create a new GitHub issue  
Continuous integration lttng-analyses_master_build item on LTTng's CI and lttng/lttng-analyses project on Travis CI  
Blog The LTTng blog contains some posts about LTTng analyses