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Code used to produce the results of the paper "BiternionNets: Continuous Head Pose Regression from Discrete Training Labels"

Note that I am still in the process of cleaning up my code so that it can (hopefully) be used by anyone besides myself, thus not everything is in here yet. It's on its way.


For running the experiments, you'll need to install recent versions of at least the following:

  • Python3
  • NumPy
  • SciPy
  • Matplotlib
  • OpenCV with Python bindings
  • Theano
  • Jupyter notebook (aka IPython)

I've written a tutorial on installing all of them. You'll also need to clone and install my own toolbox(es):

  • DeepFried2: pip install git+
  • lbtoolbox: pip install git+

Since most of my experiments are written in Jupyter notebook, you can directly look at them on Github or start a local server:

jupyter notebook

What's what?

Simply running this file will download and extract all benchmark datasets necessary for the comparisons done in the paper. You need to run this file before most of the notebooks will work.

Inspection - Tosato Classification.ipynb

While browsing through Tosato's classification datasets, I noticed some curious filenames, and used this notebook to investigate dataset-weirdnesses. Note that I did not attempt to fix any of the weirdness, as it would render comparisons meaningless.


  • QMUL contains files suffixed with - Copy, such as 001633.jpg followed by 001633 - Copy.jpg. These are actual exact copies. Whether this is unintended, or a hacky way to give some data more weight, I don't know.
  • QMUL contains files suffixed with _f, but they are unique and not flips of other files, as one might guess.
  • HOCoffee has a lot of identical filenames but of different types, e.g. head (1).png vs. head (1).jpg.
  • HOC (aka ETHZ) contains files with matching names such as norm_0002002.jpg and norm_0002002 (3).jpg. These don't seem related, though.

Given the above, I exhaustively searched for mirroring in the dataset but found none, meaning that mirroring is a valid data augmentation step.

Besides the above, this notebook also plots the label distributions, which is mildly interesting.

Inspection - Regression.ipynb

This notebook takes a look at Tosato's orientation regression dasets (IDIAP, CAVIAR) and Benfold's dataset (TownCentre). Its purpose is to look at statistics of the dataset in order to determine whether they're well suited or not. Protip: they're not.

  • IDIAP: Appears to already have flip-augmentation, even though there's no mention of it in Tosato's paper.
  • CAVIAR: The data is so weird I don't really want to do much with it. So no augmentation.

Simply run this script without any arguments. It will load all the raw data, apply horizontal flip augmentation and then save the data into gzipped pickles for easier use from notebooks. This can take some time, even on fast machines. It's not optimized and took ~50min on my high-end desktop, but it's a one-off thing so just read some paper while it's working.

You can optionally specify the name of one or more datasets as arguments and only those will be processed, e.g. ./ QMUL HIIT.

Experiments - Tosato.ipynb

Reproduction of the experiments on Tosato's benchmark datasets. There's nothing really interesting here, just reproducibility.

Experiments - TownCentre.ipynb

Reproduction of the experiments on Benfold's TownCentre dataset.

This is much more interesting, as this analyses both the Biternion output as well as the von-Mises criterion.

One caveat is that because there's no official train/test split, the results will vary every run due to the random split. With only ~7k training data and less than 1k test data, the variance may be considerable. The relative improvement remains unchanged, though.

The final experiment

Unfortunately, I can't include the final experiment (training on labmates and testing on me) due to privacy reasons. I may upload a pre-trained model in the future though.


Code used to produce the results of the paper "BiternionNets: Continuous Head Pose Regression from Discrete Training Labels"







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