Skip to content


Switch branches/tags

Name already in use

A tag already exists with the provided branch name. Many Git commands accept both tag and branch names, so creating this branch may cause unexpected behavior. Are you sure you want to create this branch?

Latest commit


Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time


GoDoc Go Report Card

go get

This repo contains an implementation of Adiantum, a tweakable and length-preserving encryption cipher.

Adiantum is an instance of HBSH, an encryption mode designed for disk encryption. In addition to being tweakable and length-preserving, HBSH is a "super-pseudorandom permutation", meaning that changing a single bit of the plaintext scrambles the entire ciphertext; this is in contrast to the most common disk encryption mode, XTS, where one bitflip scrambles only 16 bytes of the ciphertext.

HBSH is a construction, not a primitive. Specifically, it is built from a stream cipher, a block cipher, and a hash function. The original paper provides a proof that this construction is secure if the underlying primitives are secure.

Adiantum uses XChaCha12 for its stream cipher, AES for its block cipher, and NH and Poly1305 for hashing. The paper also describes a closely-related instance of HBSH called HPolyC, which is slower on large messages, but more key-agile and simpler to implement.

This repo currently contains implementations of Adiantum and HPolyC, with 8, 12, and 20-round variants. (12 rounds is the standard variant.) You can also implement your own HBSH variants using the hbsh package.


import ""

func main() {
    key := make([]byte, 32) // in practice, read this from crypto/rand
    cipher := adiantum.New(key)
    tweak := make([]byte, 12) // can be any length
    plaintext := []byte("Hello, world!")
    ciphertext := cipher.Encrypt(plaintext, tweak)
    recovered := cipher.Decrypt(ciphertext, tweak)
    println(string(recovered)) // Hello, world!

To use Adiantum for disk encryption, simply set the tweak equal to the disk sector index. For example, to encrypt n consecutive 4096-byte sectors, increment the tweak by 1 after encrypting each sector.

It is important to understand the threat model for disk encryption. Specifically, disk encryption is most effective when the attacker only sees one version of the disk contents. It is less effective when the attacker can sample the contents at will. This is because writing the same sector to the same location will result in the same ciphertext. As such, an attacker with multiple samples can detect if you "undo" a disk write by overwriting a sector with a previous version of that sector. Worse, an attacker can replace a sector with a previously-written sector, and it will decrypt just fine. See here for a more detailed critique of disk encryption and some recommended alternatives.


Tested on an i5-7600K @ 3.80GHz. Results will likely be slower on non-amd64 architectures.

BenchmarkAdiantum/XChaCha8_Encrypt-4      1479 ns/op     2768.92 MB/s      0 allocs/op
BenchmarkAdiantum/XChaCha8_Decrypt-4      1477 ns/op     2772.76 MB/s      0 allocs/op
BenchmarkAdiantum/XChaCha12_Encrypt-4     1748 ns/op     2341.98 MB/s      0 allocs/op
BenchmarkAdiantum/XChaCha12_Decrypt-4     1748 ns/op     2342.57 MB/s      0 allocs/op
BenchmarkAdiantum/XChaCha20_Encrypt-4     2288 ns/op     1789.87 MB/s      0 allocs/op
BenchmarkAdiantum/XChaCha20_Decrypt-4     2283 ns/op     1793.88 MB/s      0 allocs/op

BenchmarkHPolyC/XChaCha8_Encrypt-4        3448 ns/op     1285.53 MB/s      0 allocs/op
BenchmarkHPolyC/XChaCha8_Decrypt-4        3437 ns/op     1289.96 MB/s      0 allocs/op
BenchmarkHPolyC/XChaCha12_Encrypt-4       3719 ns/op     1186.35 MB/s      0 allocs/op
BenchmarkHPolyC/XChaCha12_Decrypt-4       3709 ns/op     1184.61 MB/s      0 allocs/op
BenchmarkHPolyC/XChaCha20_Encrypt-4       4258 ns/op     1026.22 MB/s      0 allocs/op
BenchmarkHPolyC/XChaCha20_Decrypt-4       4245 ns/op     1028.97 MB/s      0 allocs/op