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// Copyright © 2011-2015, Esko Luontola <>
// This software is released under the Apache License 2.0.
// The license text is at
package fi.jumi.actors;
import fi.jumi.actors.eventizers.EventizerProvider;
import fi.jumi.actors.listeners.*;
import javax.annotation.concurrent.*;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.concurrent.*;
* Single-threaded actors container for testing. The {@link ActorThread}s are <em>not</em> backed by real threads -
* instead they will process messages when the {@link #processEventsUntilIdle()} method is called.
public class SingleThreadedActors extends Actors {
private final List<MessageProcessor> actorThreads = new CopyOnWriteArrayList<>();
private final MessageListener messageListener;
public SingleThreadedActors(EventizerProvider eventizerProvider, FailureHandler failureHandler, MessageListener messageListener) {
super(eventizerProvider, failureHandler, messageListener);
this.messageListener = messageListener;
void startActorThread(MessageProcessor actorThread) {
* Processes in the current thread all messages which were sent to actors. The order of processing messages is
* deterministic. Will block until all messages have been processed and nobody is sending more messages.
* <p>
* When using {@link CrashEarlyFailureHandler}, will rethrow uncaught exceptions from actors to the caller of this
* method.
public void processEventsUntilIdle() {
boolean idle;
do {
idle = true;
for (MessageProcessor actorThread : actorThreads) {
if (actorThread.processNextMessageIfAny()) {
idle = false;
if (Thread.interrupted()) {
} while (!idle);
* Returns an asynchronous {@link Executor} which works the same way as all the actors in this container. Useful in
* tests to have asynchrony without the non-determinism of real threads.
* @see #processEventsUntilIdle()
public Executor getExecutor() {
return messageListener.getListenedExecutor(new AsynchronousExecutor());
private class AsynchronousExecutor implements Executor {
public void execute(final Runnable command) {
// To unify the concepts of an executor and actors,
// we implement the executor as one-time actor threads.
ActorThread actorThread = startActorThread();
ActorRef<Runnable> actor = actorThread.bindActor(Runnable.class, command);