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section x-masysma-name title date lang author keywords x-masysma-version x-masysma-website x-masysma-repository x-masysma-copyright
BLAKE3 Hash Function for Ada
2022/09/13 21:12:43
Linux-Fan, (
2022 <>


This repository provides an Ada implementation of the BLAKE3 Hash Function reference implementation (cf.

This implementation supports hashes and keyed hashes. It does not currently implement key derivation.


Like the reference implementation, this library is available under CC0 and can hence be freely integrated. See LICENSE.txt for details.


The following dependencies are required for building:

  • Ada compiler (gcc, gnatmake)
  • And build tool (ant)



Run Tests

cd test_suite
ant run


install -DsT lib/ /usr/local/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu
install -m 644 -DT lib/blake3.ali /usr/local/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ada/adalib/blake3
install -m 644 -DT lib/ /usr/local/share/ada/adainclude/blake3

Repository Structure

This repository contains multiple subdirectories for the various components of the library.

   +-- lib/
   |    |
   |    +-- blake3.adb                *** This is the implementation. ***
   |    |
   |    +--                *** Implementation header file. ***
   |    |
   |    +-- build.xml                 Build instructions
   +-- sample/
   |    |
   |    +-- blake3hello.adb           Minimal example program.
   +-- test_suite/                    Test program to process test vectors.
   +-- test_vectors/                  Test vector data and scripts.
   +-- util/
   |    |
   |    +-- blake3ada.adb             Commandline sample application.
   |    |
   |    +-- build.xml                 Build instructions for Linux.
   +--                      This file.
   +-- LICENSE.txt                    CC0 license.
   +-- build.xml                      Recursive antfile build instructions.

The important subdirectory regarding the library is lib. If you do not need tests or example programs, it is sufficient to compile and use only the files from that directory.

Sample Program

This sample program computes the hash over Hello world. (hex 48656c6c6f20776f726c642e0a). You can find it in directory sample under blake3hello.adb.

with Blake3;
with Ada.Text_IO;

procedure Blake3Hello is
	package Output_Formatter is new Ada.Text_IO.Integer_IO(Integer);
 	Ctx: Blake3.Hasher := Blake3.Init;
 	Ctx.Update("Hello world.");
		Result: constant String := Ctx.Final;
		Hex:    String          := "16#00#";
		for I in Result'Range loop
			Output_Formatter.Put(Hex, Character'Pos(Result(I)), 16);
			Ada.Text_IO.Put(if Hex(1) = ' ' then ("0" & Hex(5 .. 5))
							else Hex(4 .. 5));
		end loop;
end Blake3Hello;

The main complexity of this program arises from the necessity to write the output. Neither a direct binary output to stdout, nor an easy means to convert to hexadecimal are available in Ada. As a comparatively short alternative to using a lookup table, this sample program uses the formatting provided by Ada.Text_IO.Integer_IO and then postprocesses the output to cut-off any 16# leading markers and account for the output right-alignment.

Using the installed Library

Assuming the library is already installed on your system, you can compile and run the sample program as follows:

gnatmake -o blake3hello blake3hello.adb \
	-aO/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ada/adalib/blake3 \
	-aI/usr/share/ada/adainclude/blake3 \
	-largs -lblake3

Output: C7A4B65F79934D742EA07A9E85B3BBB1AB9AD9F42033D8A0698495D0F564C804

Using the Library without Installation

If the library is not installed on your system, it can be integrated using multiple different approaches.

Easy Vendoring

The quickest way to get started is to just include the and blake3.adb files into the source tree. Here is what the directory structure may look like then:

   +-- sample/
   |    +-- blake3.adb
   |    +--
   |    +-- blake3hello.adb
   |    +-- build.xml

Compilation and invocation then become trivial:

cp ../lib/ .
gnatmake -o blake3hello blake3.adb

Output: C7A4B65F79934D742EA07A9E85B3BBB1AB9AD9F42033D8A0698495D0F564C804

Inclusion from different directory

It may not be suitable to just copy-over the files. In this case, it is also possible to import the compiled library from a different directory. Assume that the library is compiled but not installed, then the file structure may look as follows:

   +-- lib/
   |    +-- blake3.adb
   |    +--
   |    +-- blake3.ali
   |    +-- build.xml
   |    +--
   +-- sample/
   |    +-- blake3hello.adb
   |    +-- build.xml

Compilation and invocation then have to account for the library not being installed as follows:

gnatmake -o blake3hello blake3hello.adb -aO../lib -aI../lib -largs -lblake3
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$PWD/../lib ./blake3hello

Output: C7A4B65F79934D742EA07A9E85B3BBB1AB9AD9F42033D8A0698495D0F564C804

API Description


type    U8     is mod 2**8;
type    U32    is new Interfaces.Unsigned_32;
type    Octets is array (U32 range <>) of U8;
subtype U8x32  is Octets(0..31);
type    Hasher is tagged limited private;
  • U8: This type is used to represent a single byte.
  • U32: This type is used to represent a 32 bit word.
  • Octets: This type is used to represent a byte string.
  • U8x32: This type is used to represent a 32 bytes byte string.
  • Hasher: This type is used to represent an opaque context of operation.
  • String: Strings are used as an alternative representation of byte strings. This allows interfacing with other code without forcing it to use the types supplied by this library. Conversion between Octets and Strings can be performed by using the for Octet_Var'Address use String_Var'Address; syntax if necessary.

Context Re-Use

The Hasher contexts provided by this API represent the state of hashing. Since Final does not update the state in any way, it is possible to call Final multiple times without expecting a change in output.

Additionally, it is possible to call Final, then perform multiple Update invocations and then call Final again. The output of the last Final corresponds to the concatenation of all data supplied through preceding uses of Update on the same context.

It is currently not possible to reset the context to discard the old computation state. If entirely new data is to be processed, it is suggested to create an entirely new context for this purpose.

Functions and Procedures

A detailed description of the API functions follows after the overview excerpt from

-- Initialize as hash function
function  Init return Hasher;

-- Initialize as keyed hash function
function  Init(Key: in U8x32) return Hasher;
function  Init(Key: in String) return Hasher
				with Pre => Key'Length = Key_Len;

-- Add data to process. Do not call with "empty" Strings
procedure Update(Self: in out Hasher; Input: in String)
				with Pre => Input'Length > 0;
procedure Update(Self: in out Hasher; Input: in Octets);

-- Compute hash, Octets-based API allows variable-length output
function  Final(Self: in Hasher) return String;
procedure Final(Self: in Hasher; Out_Slice: out Octets);

function Init return Hasher

This function creates a BLAKE3 context to be used as a hash function. It has to be called before using any of the other API functions.

function Init(Key: in) return Hasher

This variant of Init creates a BLAKE3 context to be used as a keyed hash function. The user is free to either supply an U32x8 input or a 32-byte String which the library then interprets as U32x8 internally without incurring a notable performance overhead.

procedure Update(Self: in out Hasher; Input: in)

Use this function to supply the data that is considered input into the (optionally keyed) BLAKE3 hashing function. The user is free to supply the internal type Octets or a regular String which the library then interprets as Octets internally.

This API expects the minimum number of bytes supplied to Update to be 1. Do not call it with empty arrays or strings.

procedure Final(Self: in Hasher) return String

This function outputs the 32-byte hash corresponding to the concatenation of all data supplied with Update to the provided Hasher context and returns it as a string with binary data. If this String is to be written to a text format, a conversion to hexadecimal representation is recommended. See util/blake3ada.adb for an easy means to achieve such a conversion.

procedure Final(Self: in Hasher; Out_Slice: out Octets)

This alternative Final implementation uses the internal Octets datatype for output. Additionally, by providing an Out_Slice of different length, different lengths of hashes can be output. Note that BLAKE3 supports arbitrarily long outputs as needed.

Rationale and Usage Recommendation

This library was created out of the need to process data from a Rust program that relies on BLAKE3 for all of its hashing operations. This should not deter you from using it for creating new hashes in new programs with this library, too. However, you are advised to also consider chosing a more widely supported hash function in order to avoid being dependent on a single implementation.


Feel free to send patches with bugfixes or missing functionality directly to Include a note to confirm that you are OK with these patches being included under CC0. Please note that API breaks are only accepted if very strong reasons exist to motivate them.


BLAKE3 Implementation in Ada







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