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Authorization Library focused on CodeIgniter 2.0+
Latest commit 5689718 @machuga Merge pull request #4 from edmundask/master
Authority::cannot does not work properly


Authority Authorization for Codeigniter

Authority is an authorization library inspired by, and largely based off, Ryan Bates' CanCan gem for Ruby on Rails. It is not a 1:1 port, but the essentials are available. Please check out his work at


Authority uses the can() function to check if the current user has permission to access a certain portion of the site or application. This function is an alias to the Authority::can() method, for convenience. The cannot() function is simply a negation of can().


can() is a function that accepts two parameters. The first parameter should be the action the current user is trying to perform, such as read, create, delete. The second parameter may be either an object or a class name for the resource the current user wants to access, such as Post, or Comment. Authority knows who the current user is internally upon instantiation of the library via default or custom configuration.

In CodeIgniter, can() is available in both Views and Controllers. This means you may restrict accessibility to entire controller actions or certain functionality on a page (generally in conjunction with each other).

An example of this use in a PHP view:

<p>Here is my awesome text blah blah blah</p>
<!-- $secret is of type Secret -->

<?php if (can('read', $secret)): ?>
    <p><?php echo $secret->message ?></p>
<?php endif ?>

<?php if (can('update', $secret)): ?>
    <p><?php echo anchor("secrets/edit/{$secret->id}", 'Click to edit an awesome secret') ?></p>
<?php endif ?>


Authority::allow() is a method that accepts up to three arguments. It is used to grant access to various elements of an application. It's counterpart, Authority::deny() accepts the same number of arguments, but will deny access to various elements of the application. The method signature is:

allow($action, $resource, \Closure $callback = null)

Like the can() helper, $action is the action the current user is trying to perform, and $resource is the object or class name for the resource the current user is trying to access. An anonymous function may be passed in as the third argument if finer grained control is desired (restrict editability to a resource to only the owner). Authority::deny() shares the same signature. Examples are below within the Configuration section.


Inside ./application/sparks/authority/0.0.1/libraries/Authority.php

If using Authentic authentication lib, Authority::current_user() method may be left alone; otherwise, change it to fit your needs.

Authority is fairly configuration agnostic (and at it's core it is framework agnostic), so your setup may very. All configuration should take place inside of the the `Authority::initialize() method. An example configuration:

public static function initialize($user)
    // Set any aliased actions you may want to simplify your use
    // Here, 'manage' will cover basic crud
    Authority::action_alias('manage', array('create', 'read', 'update', 'delete'));

    // Next, we check if there is a user or not.  You may setup rules for a
    // guest user, or simply ignore them. Here, no permissions are given.
    if ( ! $user || ! $user->role) return false;

    // If the current user is an admin, setup permissions
    // Note: You may check on any attribute, class type, etc 
    if ($user->role == 'admin')
        // Authority::allow() will grant permission for the current user to
        // perform that particular action.  The first parameter is the
        // action, the second parameter is the resource the user is trying
        // to access.  'all' is a default wildcard.
        Authority::allow('manage', 'all');

        // The last rule will always take precedence, so if we want our
        // admin to be able to manage users, but not delete them (unless
        // that user is him/herself, we will deny this ability.) As seen
        // below, a third closure parameter may be passed in to define
        // finer-grain permissions.
        Authority::deny('delete', 'User', function ($a_user) use ($user) {
            return $a_user->id !== $user->id;

    // We will give a typical member read-access to everything.
    if ($user->role == 'member')
        Authority::allow('read', 'all');



Currently, a resource must be a string or an object. If a callback is to be used on a resource, it must be an object. The class type will be determined when rule matching takes place. Additionally, while not necessary, this plugin works well with PHPActiveRecord and likely most other ORMs.


This library was created and is maintained by Matthew Machuga, is hosted on GitHub, and is made possible by the GetSparks team. Please support their efforts!

If you have any questions, feel free to send me a message!

Twitter: @machuga

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