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# This script performs a backup of all user data:
# 1) System services are stopped.
# 2) STORAGE_ROOT/backup/before-backup is executed if it exists.
# 3) An incremental encrypted backup is made using duplicity.
# 4) The stopped services are restarted.
# 5) STORAGE_ROOT/backup/after-backup is executed if it exists.
import os, os.path, shutil, glob, re, datetime, sys
import dateutil.parser, dateutil.relativedelta,
import rtyaml
from exclusiveprocess import Lock
from utils import load_environment, shell, wait_for_service, fix_boto
rsync_ssh_options = [
"--ssh-options='-i /root/.ssh/id_rsa_miab'",
"--rsync-options=-e \"/usr/bin/ssh -oStrictHostKeyChecking=no -oBatchMode=yes -p 22 -i /root/.ssh/id_rsa_miab\"",
def backup_status(env):
# If backups are dissbled, return no status.
config = get_backup_config(env)
if config["target"] == "off":
return { }
# Query duplicity to get a list of all full and incremental
# backups available.
backups = { }
now =
backup_root = os.path.join(env["STORAGE_ROOT"], 'backup')
backup_cache_dir = os.path.join(backup_root, 'cache')
def reldate(date, ref, clip):
if ref < date: return clip
rd = dateutil.relativedelta.relativedelta(ref, date)
if rd.years > 1: return "%d years, %d months" % (rd.years, rd.months)
if rd.years == 1: return "%d year, %d months" % (rd.years, rd.months)
if rd.months > 1: return "%d months, %d days" % (rd.months, rd.days)
if rd.months == 1: return "%d month, %d days" % (rd.months, rd.days)
if rd.days >= 7: return "%d days" % rd.days
if rd.days > 1: return "%d days, %d hours" % (rd.days, rd.hours)
if rd.days == 1: return "%d day, %d hours" % (rd.days, rd.hours)
return "%d hours, %d minutes" % (rd.hours, rd.minutes)
# Get duplicity collection status and parse for a list of backups.
def parse_line(line):
keys = line.strip().split()
date = dateutil.parser.parse(keys[1]).astimezone(
return {
"date": keys[1],
"date_str": date.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %X") + " " + now.tzname(),
"date_delta": reldate(date, now, "the future?"),
"full": keys[0] == "full",
"size": 0, # collection-status doesn't give us the size
"volumes": int(keys[2]), # number of archive volumes for this backup (not really helpful)
code, collection_status = shell('check_output', [
"--archive-dir", backup_cache_dir,
"--gpg-options", "--cipher-algo=AES256",
"--log-fd", "1",
] + rsync_ssh_options,
if code != 0:
# Command failed. This is likely due to an improperly configured remote
# destination for the backups or the last backup job terminated unexpectedly.
raise Exception("Something is wrong with the backup: " + collection_status)
for line in collection_status.split('\n'):
if line.startswith(" full") or line.startswith(" inc"):
backup = parse_line(line)
backups[backup["date"]] = backup
# Look at the target directly to get the sizes of each of the backups. There is more than one file per backup.
# Starting with duplicity in Ubuntu 18.04, "signatures" files have dates in their
# filenames that are a few seconds off the backup date and so don't line up
# with the list of backups we have. Track unmatched files so we know how much other
# space is used for those.
unmatched_file_size = 0
for fn, size in list_target_files(config):
m = re.match(r"duplicity-(full|full-signatures|(inc|new-signatures)\.(?P<incbase>\d+T\d+Z)\.to)\.(?P<date>\d+T\d+Z)\.", fn)
if not m: continue # not a part of a current backup chain
key ="date")
if key in backups:
backups[key]["size"] += size
unmatched_file_size += size
# Ensure the rows are sorted reverse chronologically.
# This is relied on by should_force_full() and the next step.
backups = sorted(backups.values(), key = lambda b : b["date"], reverse=True)
# Get the average size of incremental backups, the size of the
# most recent full backup, and the date of the most recent
# backup and the most recent full backup.
incremental_count = 0
incremental_size = 0
first_date = None
first_full_size = None
first_full_date = None
for bak in backups:
if first_date is None:
first_date = dateutil.parser.parse(bak["date"])
if bak["full"]:
first_full_size = bak["size"]
first_full_date = dateutil.parser.parse(bak["date"])
incremental_count += 1
incremental_size += bak["size"]
# When will the most recent backup be deleted? It won't be deleted if the next
# backup is incremental, because the increments rely on all past increments.
# So first guess how many more incremental backups will occur until the next
# full backup. That full backup frees up this one to be deleted. But, the backup
# must also be at least min_age_in_days old too.
deleted_in = None
if incremental_count > 0 and incremental_size > 0 and first_full_size is not None:
# How many days until the next incremental backup? First, the part of
# the algorithm based on increment sizes:
est_days_to_next_full = (.5 * first_full_size - incremental_size) / (incremental_size/incremental_count)
est_time_of_next_full = first_date + datetime.timedelta(days=est_days_to_next_full)
# ...And then the part of the algorithm based on full backup age:
est_time_of_next_full = min(est_time_of_next_full, first_full_date + datetime.timedelta(days=config["min_age_in_days"]*10+1))
# It still can't be deleted until it's old enough.
est_deleted_on = max(est_time_of_next_full, first_date + datetime.timedelta(days=config["min_age_in_days"]))
deleted_in = "approx. %d days" % round((est_deleted_on-now).total_seconds()/60/60/24 + .5)
# When will a backup be deleted? Set the deleted_in field of each backup.
saw_full = False
for bak in backups:
if deleted_in:
# The most recent increment in a chain and all of the previous backups
# it relies on are deleted at the same time.
bak["deleted_in"] = deleted_in
if bak["full"]:
# Reset when we get to a full backup. A new chain start *next*.
saw_full = True
deleted_in = None
elif saw_full and not deleted_in:
# We're now on backups prior to the most recent full backup. These are
# free to be deleted as soon as they are min_age_in_days old.
deleted_in = reldate(now, dateutil.parser.parse(bak["date"]) + datetime.timedelta(days=config["min_age_in_days"]), "on next daily backup")
bak["deleted_in"] = deleted_in
return {
"backups": backups,
"unmatched_file_size": unmatched_file_size,
def should_force_full(config, env):
# Force a full backup when the total size of the increments
# since the last full backup is greater than half the size
# of that full backup.
inc_size = 0
for bak in backup_status(env)["backups"]:
if not bak["full"]:
# Scan through the incremental backups cumulating
# size...
inc_size += bak["size"]
# ...until we reach the most recent full backup.
# Return if we should to a full backup, which is based
# on the size of the increments relative to the full
# backup, as well as the age of the full backup.
if inc_size > .5*bak["size"]:
return True
if dateutil.parser.parse(bak["date"]) + datetime.timedelta(days=config["min_age_in_days"]*10+1) <
return True
return False
# If we got here there are no (full) backups, so make one.
# (I love for/else blocks. Here it's just to show off.)
return True
def get_passphrase(env):
# Get the encryption passphrase. secret_key.txt is 2048 random
# bits base64-encoded and with line breaks every 65 characters.
# gpg will only take the first line of text, so sanity check that
# that line is long enough to be a reasonable passphrase. It
# only needs to be 43 base64-characters to match AES256's key
# length of 32 bytes.
backup_root = os.path.join(env["STORAGE_ROOT"], 'backup')
with open(os.path.join(backup_root, 'secret_key.txt')) as f:
passphrase = f.readline().strip()
if len(passphrase) < 43: raise Exception("secret_key.txt's first line is too short!")
return passphrase
def get_env(env):
config = get_backup_config(env)
env = { "PASSPHRASE" : get_passphrase(env) }
if get_target_type(config) == 's3':
env["AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID"] = config["target_user"]
env["AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY"] = config["target_pass"]
return env
def get_target_type(config):
protocol = config["target"].split(":")[0]
return protocol
def perform_backup(full_backup):
env = load_environment()
# Create an global exclusive lock so that the backup script
# cannot be run more than one.
config = get_backup_config(env)
backup_root = os.path.join(env["STORAGE_ROOT"], 'backup')
backup_cache_dir = os.path.join(backup_root, 'cache')
backup_dir = os.path.join(backup_root, 'encrypted')
# Are backups disabled?
if config["target"] == "off":
# On the first run, always do a full backup. Incremental
# will fail. Otherwise do a full backup when the size of
# the increments since the most recent full backup are
# large.
full_backup = full_backup or should_force_full(config, env)
except Exception as e:
# This was the first call to duplicity, and there might
# be an error already.
# Stop services.
def service_command(service, command, quit=None):
# Execute silently, but if there is an error then display the output & exit.
code, ret = shell('check_output', ["/usr/sbin/service", service, command], capture_stderr=True, trap=True)
if code != 0:
if quit:
service_command("php7.2-fpm", "stop", quit=True)
service_command("postfix", "stop", quit=True)
service_command("dovecot", "stop", quit=True)
# Execute a pre-backup script that copies files outside the homedir.
# Run as the STORAGE_USER user, not as root. Pass our settings in
# environment variables so the script has access to STORAGE_ROOT.
pre_script = os.path.join(backup_root, 'before-backup')
if os.path.exists(pre_script):
['su', env['STORAGE_USER'], '-c', pre_script, config["target"]],
# Run a backup of STORAGE_ROOT (but excluding the backups themselves!).
# --allow-source-mismatch is needed in case the box's hostname is changed
# after the first backup. See #396.
shell('check_call', [
"full" if full_backup else "incr",
"--verbosity", "warning", "--no-print-statistics",
"--archive-dir", backup_cache_dir,
"--exclude", backup_root,
"--volsize", "250",
"--gpg-options", "--cipher-algo=AES256",
] + rsync_ssh_options,
# Start services again.
service_command("dovecot", "start", quit=False)
service_command("postfix", "start", quit=False)
service_command("php7.2-fpm", "start", quit=False)
# Remove old backups. This deletes all backup data no longer needed
# from more than 3 days ago.
shell('check_call', [
"%dD" % config["min_age_in_days"],
"--verbosity", "error",
"--archive-dir", backup_cache_dir,
] + rsync_ssh_options,
# From duplicity's manual:
# "This should only be necessary after a duplicity session fails or is
# aborted prematurely."
# That may be unlikely here but we may as well ensure we tidy up if
# that does happen - it might just have been a poorly timed reboot.
shell('check_call', [
"--verbosity", "error",
"--archive-dir", backup_cache_dir,
] + rsync_ssh_options,
# Change ownership of backups to the user-data user, so that the after-bcakup
# script can access them.
if get_target_type(config) == 'file':
shell('check_call', ["/bin/chown", "-R", env["STORAGE_USER"], backup_dir])
# Execute a post-backup script that does the copying to a remote server.
# Run as the STORAGE_USER user, not as root. Pass our settings in
# environment variables so the script has access to STORAGE_ROOT.
post_script = os.path.join(backup_root, 'after-backup')
if os.path.exists(post_script):
['su', env['STORAGE_USER'], '-c', post_script, config["target"]],
# Our nightly cron job executes system status checks immediately after this
# backup. Since it checks that dovecot and postfix are running, block for a
# bit (maximum of 10 seconds each) to give each a chance to finish restarting
# before the status checks might catch them down. See #381.
wait_for_service(25, True, env, 10)
wait_for_service(993, True, env, 10)
def run_duplicity_verification():
env = load_environment()
backup_root = os.path.join(env["STORAGE_ROOT"], 'backup')
config = get_backup_config(env)
backup_cache_dir = os.path.join(backup_root, 'cache')
shell('check_call', [
"--verbosity", "info",
"--archive-dir", backup_cache_dir,
"--exclude", backup_root,
] + rsync_ssh_options, get_env(env))
def run_duplicity_restore(args):
env = load_environment()
config = get_backup_config(env)
backup_cache_dir = os.path.join(env["STORAGE_ROOT"], 'backup', 'cache')
shell('check_call', [
"--archive-dir", backup_cache_dir,
] + rsync_ssh_options + args,
def list_target_files(config):
import urllib.parse
target = urllib.parse.urlparse(config["target"])
except ValueError:
return "invalid target"
if target.scheme == "file":
return [(fn, os.path.getsize(os.path.join(target.path, fn))) for fn in os.listdir(target.path)]
elif target.scheme == "rsync":
rsync_fn_size_re = re.compile(r'.* ([^ ]*) [^ ]* [^ ]* (.*)')
rsync_target = '{host}:{path}'
target_path = target.path
if not target_path.endswith('/'):
target_path = target_path + '/'
if target_path.startswith('/'):
target_path = target_path[1:]
rsync_command = [ 'rsync',
'/usr/bin/ssh -i /root/.ssh/id_rsa_miab -oStrictHostKeyChecking=no -oBatchMode=yes',
code, listing = shell('check_output', rsync_command, trap=True, capture_stderr=True)
if code == 0:
ret = []
for l in listing.split('\n'):
match = rsync_fn_size_re.match(l)
if match:
ret.append( (match.groups()[1], int(match.groups()[0].replace(',',''))) )
return ret
if 'Permission denied (publickey).' in listing:
reason = "Invalid user or check you correctly copied the SSH key."
elif 'No such file or directory' in listing:
reason = "Provided path {} is invalid.".format(target_path)
elif 'Network is unreachable' in listing:
reason = "The IP address {} is unreachable.".format(target.hostname)
elif 'Could not resolve hostname':
reason = "The hostname {} cannot be resolved.".format(target.hostname)
reason = "Unknown error." \
"Please check running 'python management/ --verify'" \
"from mailinabox sources to debug the issue."
raise ValueError("Connection to rsync host failed: {}".format(reason))
elif target.scheme == "s3":
# match to a Region
fix_boto() # must call prior to importing boto
import boto.s3
from boto.exception import BotoServerError
for region in boto.s3.regions():
if region.endpoint == target.hostname:
raise ValueError("Invalid S3 region/host.")
bucket = target.path[1:].split('/')[0]
path = '/'.join(target.path[1:].split('/')[1:]) + '/'
# If no prefix is specified, set the path to '', otherwise boto won't list the files
if path == '/':
path = ''
if bucket == "":
raise ValueError("Enter an S3 bucket name.")
# connect to the region & bucket
conn = region.connect(aws_access_key_id=config["target_user"], aws_secret_access_key=config["target_pass"])
bucket = conn.get_bucket(bucket)
except BotoServerError as e:
if e.status == 403:
raise ValueError("Invalid S3 access key or secret access key.")
elif e.status == 404:
raise ValueError("Invalid S3 bucket name.")
elif e.status == 301:
raise ValueError("Incorrect region for this bucket.")
raise ValueError(e.reason)
return [([len(path):], key.size) for key in bucket.list(prefix=path)]
raise ValueError(config["target"])
def backup_set_custom(env, target, target_user, target_pass, min_age):
config = get_backup_config(env, for_save=True)
# min_age must be an int
if isinstance(min_age, str):
min_age = int(min_age)
config["target"] = target
config["target_user"] = target_user
config["target_pass"] = target_pass
config["min_age_in_days"] = min_age
# Validate.
if config["target"] not in ("off", "local"):
# these aren't supported by the following function, which expects a full url in the target key,
# which is what is there except when loading the config prior to saving
except ValueError as e:
return str(e)
write_backup_config(env, config)
return "OK"
def get_backup_config(env, for_save=False, for_ui=False):
backup_root = os.path.join(env["STORAGE_ROOT"], 'backup')
# Defaults.
config = {
"min_age_in_days": 3,
"target": "local",
# Merge in anything written to custom.yaml.
custom_config = rtyaml.load(open(os.path.join(backup_root, 'custom.yaml')))
if not isinstance(custom_config, dict): raise ValueError() # caught below
# When updating config.yaml, don't do any further processing on what we find.
if for_save:
return config
# When passing this back to the admin to show the current settings, do not include
# authentication details. The user will have to re-enter it.
if for_ui:
for field in ("target_user", "target_pass"):
if field in config:
del config[field]
# helper fields for the admin
config["file_target_directory"] = os.path.join(backup_root, 'encrypted')
config["enc_pw_file"] = os.path.join(backup_root, 'secret_key.txt')
if config["target"] == "local":
# Expand to the full URL.
config["target"] = "file://" + config["file_target_directory"]
ssh_pub_key = os.path.join('/root', '.ssh', '')
if os.path.exists(ssh_pub_key):
config["ssh_pub_key"] = open(ssh_pub_key, 'r').read()
return config
def write_backup_config(env, newconfig):
backup_root = os.path.join(env["STORAGE_ROOT"], 'backup')
with open(os.path.join(backup_root, 'custom.yaml'), "w") as f:
if __name__ == "__main__":
import sys
if sys.argv[-1] == "--verify":
# Run duplicity's verification command to check a) the backup files
# are readable, and b) report if they are up to date.
elif sys.argv[-1] == "--list":
# List the saved backup files.
for fn, size in list_target_files(get_backup_config(load_environment())):
print("{}\t{}".format(fn, size))
elif sys.argv[-1] == "--status":
# Show backup status.
ret = backup_status(load_environment())
print("Storage for unmatched files:", ret["unmatched_file_size"])
elif len(sys.argv) >= 2 and sys.argv[1] == "--restore":
# Run duplicity restore. Rest of command line passed as arguments
# to duplicity. The restore path should be specified.
# Perform a backup. Add --full to force a full backup rather than
# possibly performing an incremental backup.
full_backup = "--full" in sys.argv