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import datetime
from dateutil.parser import parse
from decimal import Decimal
import re
from django.core.exceptions import ObjectDoesNotExist, MultipleObjectsReturned
from django.utils import datetime_safe, importlib
from tastypie.bundle import Bundle
from tastypie.exceptions import ApiFieldError, NotFound
from tastypie.utils import dict_strip_unicode_keys
class NOT_PROVIDED:
def __str__(self):
return 'No default provided.'
DATE_REGEX = re.compile('^(?P<year>\d{4})-(?P<month>\d{2})-(?P<day>\d{2}).*?$')
DATETIME_REGEX = re.compile('^(?P<year>\d{4})-(?P<month>\d{2})-(?P<day>\d{2})(T|\s+)(?P<hour>\d{2}):(?P<minute>\d{2}):(?P<second>\d{2}).*?$')
# All the ApiField variants.
class ApiField(object):
"""The base implementation of a field used by the resources."""
dehydrated_type = 'string'
help_text = ''
def __init__(self, attribute=None, default=NOT_PROVIDED, null=False, blank=False, readonly=False, unique=False, help_text=None):
"""
Sets up the field. This is generally called when the containing
``Resource`` is initialized.
Optionally accepts an ``attribute``, which should be a string of
either an instance attribute or callable off the object during the
``dehydrate`` or push data onto an object during the ``hydrate``.
Defaults to ``None``, meaning data will be manually accessed.
Optionally accepts a ``default``, which provides default data when the
object being ``dehydrated``/``hydrated`` has no data on the field.
Defaults to ``NOT_PROVIDED``.
Optionally accepts a ``null``, which indicated whether or not a
``None`` is allowable data on the field. Defaults to ``False``.
Optionally accepts a ``blank``, which indicated whether or not
data may be omitted on the field. Defaults to ``False``.
Optionally accepts a ``readonly``, which indicates whether the field
is used during the ``hydrate`` or not. Defaults to ``False``.
Optionally accepts a ``unique``, which indicates if the field is a
unique identifier for the object.
Optionally accepts ``help_text``, which lets you provide a
human-readable description of the field exposed at the schema level.
Defaults to the per-Field definition.
"""
# Track what the index thinks this field is called.
self.instance_name = None
self._resource = None
self.attribute = attribute
self._default = default
self.null = null
self.blank = blank
self.readonly = readonly
self.value = None
self.unique = unique
if help_text:
self.help_text = help_text
def contribute_to_class(self, cls, name):
# Do the least we can here so that we don't hate ourselves in the
# morning.
self.instance_name = name
self._resource = cls
def has_default(self):
"""Returns a boolean of whether this field has a default value."""
return self._default is not NOT_PROVIDED
@property
def default(self):
"""Returns the default value for the field."""
if callable(self._default):
return self._default()
return self._default
def dehydrate(self, bundle):
"""
Takes data from the provided object and prepares it for the
resource.
"""
if self.attribute is not None:
# Check for `__` in the field for looking through the relation.
attrs = self.attribute.split('__')
current_object = bundle.obj
for attr in attrs:
previous_object = current_object
current_object = getattr(current_object, attr, None)
if current_object is None:
if self.has_default():
current_object = self._default
# Fall out of the loop, given any further attempts at
# accesses will fail miserably.
break
elif self.null:
current_object = None
# Fall out of the loop, given any further attempts at
# accesses will fail miserably.
break
else:
raise ApiFieldError("The object '%r' has an empty attribute '%s' and doesn't allow a default or null value." % (previous_object, attr))
if callable(current_object):
current_object = current_object()
return self.convert(current_object)
if self.has_default():
return self.convert(self.default)
else:
return None
def convert(self, value):
"""
Handles conversion between the data found and the type of the field.
Extending classes should override this method and provide correct
data coercion.
"""
return value
def hydrate(self, bundle):
"""
Takes data stored in the bundle for the field and returns it. Used for
taking simple data and building a instance object.
"""
if self.readonly:
return None
if not bundle.data.has_key(self.instance_name):
if getattr(self, 'is_related', False) and not getattr(self, 'is_m2m', False):
# We've got an FK (or alike field) & a possible parent object.
# Check for it.
if bundle.related_obj and bundle.related_name in (self.attribute, self.instance_name):
return bundle.related_obj
if self.blank:
return None
elif self.attribute and getattr(bundle.obj, self.attribute, None):
return getattr(bundle.obj, self.attribute)
elif self.instance_name and hasattr(bundle.obj, self.instance_name):
return getattr(bundle.obj, self.instance_name)
elif self.has_default():
if callable(self._default):
return self._default()
return self._default
elif self.null:
return None
else:
raise ApiFieldError("The '%s' field has no data and doesn't allow a default or null value." % self.instance_name)
return bundle.data[self.instance_name]
class CharField(ApiField):
"""
A text field of arbitrary length.
Covers both ``models.CharField`` and ``models.TextField``.
"""
dehydrated_type = 'string'
help_text = 'Unicode string data. Ex: "Hello World"'
def convert(self, value):
if value is None:
return None
return unicode(value)
class FileField(ApiField):
"""
A file-related field.
Covers both ``models.FileField`` and ``models.ImageField``.
"""
dehydrated_type = 'string'
help_text = 'A file URL as a string. Ex: "http://media.example.com/media/photos/my_photo.jpg"'
def convert(self, value):
if value is None:
return None
try:
# Try to return the URL if it's a ``File``, falling back to the string
# itself if it's been overridden or is a default.
return getattr(value, 'url', value)
except ValueError:
return None
class IntegerField(ApiField):
"""
An integer field.
Covers ``models.IntegerField``, ``models.PositiveIntegerField``,
``models.PositiveSmallIntegerField`` and ``models.SmallIntegerField``.
"""
dehydrated_type = 'integer'
help_text = 'Integer data. Ex: 2673'
def convert(self, value):
if value is None:
return None
return int(value)
class FloatField(ApiField):
"""
A floating point field.
"""
dehydrated_type = 'float'
help_text = 'Floating point numeric data. Ex: 26.73'
def convert(self, value):
if value is None:
return None
return float(value)
class DecimalField(ApiField):
"""
A decimal field.
"""
dehydrated_type = 'decimal'
help_text = 'Fixed precision numeric data. Ex: 26.73'
def convert(self, value):
if value is None:
return None
return Decimal(value)
class BooleanField(ApiField):
"""
A boolean field.
Covers both ``models.BooleanField`` and ``models.NullBooleanField``.
"""
dehydrated_type = 'boolean'
help_text = 'Boolean data. Ex: True'
def convert(self, value):
if value is None:
return None
return bool(value)
class ListField(ApiField):
"""
A list field.
"""
dehydrated_type = 'list'
help_text = "A list of data. Ex: ['abc', 26.73, 8]"
def convert(self, value):
if value is None:
return None
return list(value)
class DictField(ApiField):
"""
A dictionary field.
"""
dehydrated_type = 'dict'
help_text = "A dictionary of data. Ex: {'price': 26.73, 'name': 'Daniel'}"
def convert(self, value):
if value is None:
return None
return dict(value)
class DateField(ApiField):
"""
A date field.
"""
dehydrated_type = 'date'
help_text = 'A date as a string. Ex: "2010-11-10"'
def convert(self, value):
if value is None:
return None
if isinstance(value, basestring):
match = DATE_REGEX.search(value)
if match:
data = match.groupdict()
return datetime_safe.date(int(data['year']), int(data['month']), int(data['day']))
else:
raise ApiFieldError("Date provided to '%s' field doesn't appear to be a valid date string: '%s'" % (self.instance_name, value))
return value
def hydrate(self, bundle):
value = super(DateField, self).hydrate(bundle)
if value and not hasattr(value, 'year'):
try:
# Try to rip a date/datetime out of it.
value = parse(value)
if hasattr(value, 'hour'):
value = value.date()
except ValueError:
pass
return value
class DateTimeField(ApiField):
"""
A datetime field.
"""
dehydrated_type = 'datetime'
help_text = 'A date & time as a string. Ex: "2010-11-10T03:07:43"'
def convert(self, value):
if value is None:
return None
if isinstance(value, basestring):
match = DATETIME_REGEX.search(value)
if match:
data = match.groupdict()
return datetime_safe.datetime(int(data['year']), int(data['month']), int(data['day']), int(data['hour']), int(data['minute']), int(data['second']))
else:
raise ApiFieldError("Datetime provided to '%s' field doesn't appear to be a valid datetime string: '%s'" % (self.instance_name, value))
return value
def hydrate(self, bundle):
value = super(DateTimeField, self).hydrate(bundle)
if value and not hasattr(value, 'year'):
try:
# Try to rip a date/datetime out of it.
value = parse(value)
except ValueError:
pass
return value
class RelatedField(ApiField):
"""
Provides access to data that is related within the database.
The ``RelatedField`` base class is not intended for direct use but provides
functionality that ``ToOneField`` and ``ToManyField`` build upon.
The contents of this field actually point to another ``Resource``,
rather than the related object. This allows the field to represent its data
in different ways.
The abstractions based around this are "leaky" in that, unlike the other
fields provided by ``tastypie``, these fields don't handle arbitrary objects
very well. The subclasses use Django's ORM layer to make things go, though
there is no ORM-specific code at this level.
"""
dehydrated_type = 'related'
is_related = True
self_referential = False
help_text = 'A related resource. Can be either a URI or set of nested resource data.'
def __init__(self, to, attribute, related_name=None, default=NOT_PROVIDED, null=False, blank=False, readonly=False, full=False, unique=False, help_text=None):
"""
Builds the field and prepares it to access to related data.
The ``to`` argument should point to a ``Resource`` class, NOT
to a ``Model``. Required.
The ``attribute`` argument should specify what field/callable points to
the related data on the instance object. Required.
Optionally accepts a ``related_name`` argument. Currently unused, as
unlike Django's ORM layer, reverse relations between ``Resource``
classes are not automatically created. Defaults to ``None``.
Optionally accepts a ``null``, which indicated whether or not a
``None`` is allowable data on the field. Defaults to ``False``.
Optionally accepts a ``blank``, which indicated whether or not
data may be omitted on the field. Defaults to ``False``.
Optionally accepts a ``readonly``, which indicates whether the field
is used during the ``hydrate`` or not. Defaults to ``False``.
Optionally accepts a ``full``, which indicates how the related
``Resource`` will appear post-``dehydrate``. If ``False``, the
related ``Resource`` will appear as a URL to the endpoint of that
resource. If ``True``, the result of the sub-resource's
``dehydrate`` will be included in full.
Optionally accepts a ``unique``, which indicates if the field is a
unique identifier for the object.
Optionally accepts ``help_text``, which lets you provide a
human-readable description of the field exposed at the schema level.
Defaults to the per-Field definition.
"""
self.instance_name = None
self._resource = None
self.to = to
self.attribute = attribute
self.related_name = related_name
self._default = default
self.null = null
self.blank = blank
self.readonly = readonly
self.full = full
self.api_name = None
self.resource_name = None
self.unique = unique
self._to_class = None
if self.to == 'self':
self.self_referential = True
self._to_class = self.__class__
if help_text:
self.help_text = help_text
def contribute_to_class(self, cls, name):
super(RelatedField, self).contribute_to_class(cls, name)
# Check if we're self-referential and hook it up.
# We can't do this quite like Django because there's no ``AppCache``
# here (which I think we should avoid as long as possible).
if self.self_referential or self.to == 'self':
self._to_class = cls
def get_related_resource(self, related_instance):
"""
Instaniates the related resource.
"""
related_resource = self.to_class()
# Fix the ``api_name`` if it's not present.
if related_resource._meta.api_name is None:
if self._resource and not self._resource._meta.api_name is None:
related_resource._meta.api_name = self._resource._meta.api_name
# Try to be efficient about DB queries.
related_resource.instance = related_instance
return related_resource
@property
def to_class(self):
# We need to be lazy here, because when the metaclass constructs the
# Resources, other classes may not exist yet.
# That said, memoize this so we never have to relookup/reimport.
if self._to_class:
return self._to_class
if not isinstance(self.to, basestring):
self._to_class = self.to
return self._to_class
# It's a string. Let's figure it out.
if '.' in self.to:
# Try to import.
module_bits = self.to.split('.')
module_path, class_name = '.'.join(module_bits[:-1]), module_bits[-1]
module = importlib.import_module(module_path)
else:
# We've got a bare class name here, which won't work (No AppCache
# to rely on). Try to throw a useful error.
raise ImportError("Tastypie requires a Python-style path (<module.module.Class>) to lazy load related resources. Only given '%s'." % self.to)
self._to_class = getattr(module, class_name, None)
if self._to_class is None:
raise ImportError("Module '%s' does not appear to have a class called '%s'." % (module_path, class_name))
return self._to_class
def dehydrate_related(self, bundle, related_resource):
"""
Based on the ``full_resource``, returns either the endpoint or the data
from ``full_dehydrate`` for the related resource.
"""
if not self.full:
# Be a good netizen.
return related_resource.get_resource_uri(bundle)
else:
# ZOMG extra data and big payloads.
bundle = related_resource.build_bundle(obj=related_resource.instance, request=bundle.request)
return related_resource.full_dehydrate(bundle)
def resource_from_uri(self, fk_resource, uri, request=None, related_obj=None, related_name=None):
"""
Given a URI is provided, the related resource is attempted to be
loaded based on the identifiers in the URI.
"""
try:
obj = fk_resource.get_via_uri(uri, request=request)
bundle = fk_resource.build_bundle(obj=obj, request=request)
return fk_resource.full_dehydrate(bundle)
except ObjectDoesNotExist:
raise ApiFieldError("Could not find the provided object via resource URI '%s'." % uri)
def resource_from_data(self, fk_resource, data, request=None, related_obj=None, related_name=None):
"""
Given a dictionary-like structure is provided, a fresh related
resource is created using that data.
"""
# Try to hydrate the data provided.
data = dict_strip_unicode_keys(data)
fk_bundle = fk_resource.build_bundle(data=data, request=request)
if related_obj:
fk_bundle.related_obj = related_obj
fk_bundle.related_name = related_name
# We need to check to see if updates are allowed on the FK
# resource. If not, we'll just return a populated bundle instead
# of mistakenly updating something that should be read-only.
if not fk_resource.can_update():
return fk_resource.full_hydrate(fk_bundle)
try:
return fk_resource.obj_update(fk_bundle, **data)
except NotFound:
try:
# Attempt lookup by primary key
lookup_kwargs = dict((k, v) for k, v in data.iteritems() if getattr(fk_resource, k).unique)
if not lookup_kwargs:
raise NotFound()
return fk_resource.obj_update(fk_bundle, **lookup_kwargs)
except NotFound:
return fk_resource.full_hydrate(fk_bundle)
except MultipleObjectsReturned:
return fk_resource.full_hydrate(fk_bundle)
def resource_from_pk(self, fk_resource, obj, request=None, related_obj=None, related_name=None):
"""
Given an object with a ``pk`` attribute, the related resource
is attempted to be loaded via that PK.
"""
bundle = fk_resource.build_bundle(obj=obj, request=request)
return fk_resource.full_dehydrate(bundle)
def build_related_resource(self, value, request=None, related_obj=None, related_name=None):
"""
Returns a bundle of data built by the related resource, usually via
``hydrate`` with the data provided.
Accepts either a URI, a data dictionary (or dictionary-like structure)
or an object with a ``pk``.
"""
self.fk_resource = self.to_class()
kwargs = {
'request': request,
'related_obj': related_obj,
'related_name': related_name,
}
if isinstance(value, basestring):
# We got a URI. Load the object and assign it.
return self.resource_from_uri(self.fk_resource, value, **kwargs)
elif hasattr(value, 'items'):
# We've got a data dictionary.
# Since this leads to creation, this is the only one of these
# methods that might care about "parent" data.
return self.resource_from_data(self.fk_resource, value, **kwargs)
elif hasattr(value, 'pk'):
# We've got an object with a primary key.
return self.resource_from_pk(self.fk_resource, value, **kwargs)
else:
raise ApiFieldError("The '%s' field has was given data that was not a URI, not a dictionary-alike and does not have a 'pk' attribute: %s." % (self.instance_name, value))
class ToOneField(RelatedField):
"""
Provides access to related data via foreign key.
This subclass requires Django's ORM layer to work properly.
"""
help_text = 'A single related resource. Can be either a URI or set of nested resource data.'
def __init__(self, to, attribute, related_name=None, default=NOT_PROVIDED,
null=False, blank=False, readonly=False, full=False,
unique=False, help_text=None):
super(ToOneField, self).__init__(
to, attribute, related_name=related_name, default=default,
null=null, blank=blank, readonly=readonly, full=full,
unique=unique, help_text=help_text
)
self.fk_resource = None
def dehydrate(self, bundle):
try:
foreign_obj = getattr(bundle.obj, self.attribute)
except ObjectDoesNotExist:
foreign_obj = None
if not foreign_obj:
if not self.null:
raise ApiFieldError("The model '%r' has an empty attribute '%s' and doesn't allow a null value." % (bundle.obj, self.attribute))
return None
self.fk_resource = self.get_related_resource(foreign_obj)
fk_bundle = Bundle(obj=foreign_obj, request=bundle.request)
return self.dehydrate_related(fk_bundle, self.fk_resource)
def hydrate(self, bundle):
value = super(ToOneField, self).hydrate(bundle)
if value is None:
return value
return self.build_related_resource(value, request=bundle.request)
class ForeignKey(ToOneField):
"""
A convenience subclass for those who prefer to mirror ``django.db.models``.
"""
pass
class OneToOneField(ToOneField):
"""
A convenience subclass for those who prefer to mirror ``django.db.models``.
"""
pass
class ToManyField(RelatedField):
"""
Provides access to related data via a join table.
This subclass requires Django's ORM layer to work properly.
Note that the ``hydrate`` portions of this field are quite different than
any other field. ``hydrate_m2m`` actually handles the data and relations.
This is due to the way Django implements M2M relationships.
"""
is_m2m = True
help_text = 'Many related resources. Can be either a list of URIs or list of individually nested resource data.'
def __init__(self, to, attribute, related_name=None, default=NOT_PROVIDED,
null=False, blank=False, readonly=False, full=False,
unique=False, help_text=None):
super(ToManyField, self).__init__(
to, attribute, related_name=related_name, default=default,
null=null, blank=blank, readonly=readonly, full=full,
unique=unique, help_text=help_text
)
self.m2m_bundles = []
def dehydrate(self, bundle):
if not bundle.obj or not bundle.obj.pk:
if not self.null:
raise ApiFieldError("The model '%r' does not have a primary key and can not be used in a ToMany context." % bundle.obj)
return []
the_m2ms = None
if isinstance(self.attribute, basestring):
the_m2ms = getattr(bundle.obj, self.attribute)
elif callable(self.attribute):
the_m2ms = self.attribute(bundle)
if not the_m2ms:
if not self.null:
raise ApiFieldError("The model '%r' has an empty attribute '%s' and doesn't allow a null value." % (bundle.obj, self.attribute))
return []
self.m2m_resources = []
m2m_dehydrated = []
# TODO: Also model-specific and leaky. Relies on there being a
# ``Manager`` there.
for m2m in the_m2ms.all():
m2m_resource = self.get_related_resource(m2m)
m2m_bundle = Bundle(obj=m2m, request=bundle.request)
self.m2m_resources.append(m2m_resource)
m2m_dehydrated.append(self.dehydrate_related(m2m_bundle, m2m_resource))
return m2m_dehydrated
def hydrate(self, bundle):
pass
def hydrate_m2m(self, bundle):
if self.readonly:
return None
if bundle.data.get(self.instance_name) is None:
if self.blank:
return []
elif self.null:
return []
else:
raise ApiFieldError("The '%s' field has no data and doesn't allow a null value." % self.instance_name)
m2m_hydrated = []
for value in bundle.data.get(self.instance_name):
if value is None:
continue
kwargs = {
'request': bundle.request,
}
if self.related_name:
kwargs['related_obj'] = bundle.obj
kwargs['related_name'] = self.related_name
m2m_hydrated.append(self.build_related_resource(value, **kwargs))
return m2m_hydrated
class ManyToManyField(ToManyField):
"""
A convenience subclass for those who prefer to mirror ``django.db.models``.
"""
pass
class OneToManyField(ToManyField):
"""
A convenience subclass for those who prefer to mirror ``django.db.models``.
"""
pass
class TimeField(ApiField):
dehydrated_type = 'time'
help_text = 'A time as string. Ex: "20:05:23"'
def dehydrate(self, obj):
return self.convert(super(TimeField, self).dehydrate(obj))
def convert(self, value):
if isinstance(value, basestring):
return self.to_time(value)
return value
def to_time(self, s):
try:
dt = parse(s)
except ValueError, e:
raise ApiFieldError(str(e))
else:
return datetime.time(dt.hour, dt.minute, dt.second)
def hydrate(self, bundle):
value = super(TimeField, self).hydrate(bundle)
if value and not isinstance(value, datetime.time):
value = self.to_time(value)
return value