Rosa, the real compiler
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The Real compiler

** Check the 'opt' branch with improved running times. **

Rosa let's you write your code in Reals like this (note the specification!):

def rigidBodyControl1(x1: Real, x2: Real, x3: Real): Real = {
  require (-15 <= x1 && x1 <= 15 && -15 <= x2 && x2 <= 15 && -15 <= x3 && x3 <= 15)
  -x1*x2 - 2*x2*x3 - x1 - x3
} ensuring (res => res <= 705.0 && res +/- 6e-13)

and compiles this into:

def rigidBodyControl1(x1: Double, x2: Double, x3: Double): Double = {
  -x1*x2 - 2*x2*x3 - x1 - x3


def rigidBodyControl1FixedPoint(x1: Int, x2: Int, x3: Int): Int = {
  val tmp0 = -(x1)
  val tmp1 = ((tmp0 * x2) >> 15)
  val tmp2 = ((16384l * x2) >> 14)
  val tmp3 = ((tmp2 * x3) >> 15)
  val tmp4 = ((tmp1 - (tmp3 << 1)) >> 2)
  val tmp5 = (((tmp4 << 6) - x1) >> 6)
  (((tmp5 << 6) - x3) >> 6)

depending on which precision on the result you need (6e-13 vs 0.163).

Rosa is written as a fork of the Leon verification framework; this is why this repository contains more than just Rosa code.

Instructions for Linux and Mac OSX

How to build

Rosa is set up to work with sbt (simple-build-tool). It needs a pretty old version, but it works with version sbt-0.13.7, which is included in this repository. Once you have sbt installed on your machine, type the following in your favourite terminal in Rosa's home directory: $ sbt


How to run

You can run Rosa directly from within sbt like this (after starting sbt):

run [input files]

For command-line options:

run --help

You can also run Rosa as a standalone script by first creating the script: $ sbt script

Then you can run: $ ./rosa [input files]

Existing examples

To run the most recent benchmarks (for example):

run testcases/real/techreport/Straightline.scala run testcases/real/techreport/Discontinuity.scala run testcases/real/techreport/Pendulum.scala

Troubleshooting: libz3 or libscalaz3 not found

Depending on your system, the commands above may fail with a message that says that some libz3 or libscalaz3 is missing (or a variation thereof). Rosa uses ScalaZ3 for interfacing with the Z3 SMT solver, and this binding may need to be recompiled for different platforms. Or the platform you are on searches a different path than expected.

Rosa comes with precompiled libraries of ScalaZ3 and Z3 that have been tested on my Linux and Mac OSX installations.

  • Libraries for Linux are included in the unmanaged/64/scalaz3_2.10-2.1.jar. If you get an error saying that libscalaz3 or libz3 are not found, first try to extract these libraries from the .jar file and move them for instance to Rosa's home directory or whenever you think the JVM searches.

  • Libraries for OSX are included lib/. If you get an error saying that libscalaz3 or libz3 are not found, try to move them to whatever folder you think the JVM searches.

  • If Rosa should crash on one of the existing examples in testcases/reals, then check if you have installed Z3 on machine. If so, try to uninstall it, as Rosa may not play well with recent versions of Z3. If not, let me know about this issue.

  • If the above does not work, you can try to recompile ScalaZ3 on your machine. You will find the instructions on ScalaZ3's github page ( Do not get the most recent Z3 version, instead use the one provided in resources/.

Installation instructions for Windows

  1. install gcc
  2. install java development kit (JDK)
  3. add javac to the system path: C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0\bin
  4. install sbt
  5. fork+clone rosa from github
  6. fork+clone ScalaZ3 from github (only the lib-bin folder is needed)
  7. start the Git Shell
  8. go to the rosa folder
  9. type "cmd" to start a windows shell with the correct paths.
    • type "build" to build the libs for windows (using build.bat)
    • type "exit" to leave the windows shell
  10. type "sbt". this will start the sbt console.
  11. type "run"

Directed Rounding and QuadDouble

Rosa uses two native libraries, directed rounding internally and quad doubles if you want to run the generated code with the QuadDouble data type. The DirectedRounding library comes precompiled for Linux and Max OSX in lib/. If you need to recompile it, or you want to compile quad doubles, here is how.

Directed rounding

The source code is located in resources/ (ceres_common_DirectedRounding.c, ceres_common_DirectedRounding.h). Whatever command you use, the new library MUST be named "libDirectedRounding".

Something like this works on Ubuntu:

gcc -shared -I/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun- -I/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun-
  -o ceres_common_DirectedRounding.c

And this worked on a Mac:

gcc -m64 -I/System/Library/Frameworks/JavaVM.framework/Headers -c ceres_common_DirectedRounding.c
gcc -m64 -dynamiclib -o libDirectedRounding.jnilib ceres_common_DirectedRounding.o

Quad double

The QuadDouble quadruple double precision type is based on a C++ library from

In order to use the type QuadDouble from Scala, you need to download and build this library. Then, you compile the provided JNI interface (also in resources/) for your architecture.

To compile on Linux:

g++ -fPIC -I/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun-
  -I/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun- -I/home/edarulov/share/qd/include
  -c ceres_common_QuadDoubleInterface.cpp

g++ -shared -o ceres_common_QuadDoubleInterface.o ~/share/qd/src/*.o