An uroboros program with 100 programming languages
Ruby Makefile
Latest commit 96207d2 Mar 24, 2017 @mame Update SHA1SUMS

README.md

Quine Relay

Build Status

What this is

This is a Ruby program that generates Scala program that generates Scheme program that generates ...(through 100 languages in total)... REXX program that generates the original Ruby code again.

Language Uroboros

(If you want to see the old 50-language version, see 50 branch.)

Usage

Ubuntu

If you are using Ubuntu 16.04 "Xenial Xerus", you can perform the following steps.

1. Install all interpreters/compilers.

First, you have to type the following apt-get command to install all of them.

$ sudo apt-get install afnix algol68g aplus-fsf asymptote ats2-lang bash \
  bc bf bsdgames cduce clisp clojure1.6 cmake coffeescript dafny dc \
  ecere-dev elixir emacs24 erlang f2c fp-compiler fsharp g++ \
  gambas3-script gap gauche gawk gcc gdc genius gforth gfortran ghc \
  ghostscript gnat gnu-smalltalk gnuplot gobjc golang gpt groff groovy \
  haxe icont iconx intercal iverilog jasmin-sable jq julia libgd-dev \
  libpng-dev lisaac llvm lua5.3 make maxima minizinc mlton mono-devel \
  mono-mcs mono-vbnc nasm neko nickle nim ocaml octave open-cobol \
  openjdk-8-jdk pari-gp perl php-cli pike8.0 python r-base ratfor \
  regina-rexx rhino ruby scala scilab slsh squirrel3 swi-prolog tcl \
  valac xsltproc yorick zoem

Then, build the bundled interpreters.

$ make -C vendor

2. Run each program on each interpreter/compiler.

$ ruby QR.rb > QR.scala
$ scalac QR.scala && scala QR > QR.scm
$ gosh QR.scm > QR.sci
$ scilab -nw -nb -f QR.sci > QR.bash
$ bash QR.bash > QR.sl
$ slsh QR.sl > QR.st
$ gst QR.st > QR.nut
$ squirrel3 QR.nut > QR.sml
$ mlton @MLton fixed-heap 200M -- QR.sml && ./QR > QR.sq
$ ruby vendor/subleq.rb QR.sq > QR.tcl
$ tclsh QR.tcl > QR.t
$ ruby vendor/thue.rb QR.t > QR.unl
$ ruby vendor/unlambda.rb QR.unl > QR.vala
$ valac QR.vala && ./QR > QR.v
$ iverilog -o QR QR.v && ./QR -vcd-none > QR.vb
$ vbnc QR.vb && mono ./QR.exe > QR.ws
$ ruby vendor/whitespace.rb QR.ws > QR.xslt
$ xsltproc QR.xslt > QR.yorick
$ yorick -batch QR.yorick > QR.azm
$ zoem -i QR.azm > QR.+
$ a+ QR.+ > qr.adb
$ gnatmake qr.adb && ./qr > QR.als
$ axi QR.als > QR.a68
$ a68g QR.a68 > QR.ante
$ ruby vendor/ante.rb QR.ante > QR.asy
$ asy QR.asy > QR.dats
$ patscc -o QR QR.dats && ./QR > QR.awk
$ awk -f QR.awk > QR.bc
$ BC_LINE_LENGTH=4000000 bc -q QR.bc > QR.bef
$ cfunge QR.bef > QR.Blc
$ ruby vendor/blc.rb < QR.Blc > QR.bf
$ bf QR.bf > QR.c
$ gcc -o QR QR.c && ./QR > QR.cpp
$ g++ -o QR QR.cpp && ./QR > QR.cs
$ mcs QR.cs && mono QR.exe > QR.cd
$ cduce QR.cd > QR.chef
$ PERL5LIB=vendor/local/lib/perl5 compilechef QR.chef QR.chef.pl &&
  perl QR.chef.pl > QR.clj
$ clojure QR.clj > QR.cob
$ cobc -O2 -x QR.cob && ./QR > QR.coffee
$ coffee QR.coffee > QR.lisp
$ clisp QR.lisp > QR.d
$ gdc -o QR QR.d && ./QR > QR.dfy
$ dafny QR.dfy && mono QR.exe > QR.dc
$ dc QR.dc > QR.ec
$ ecp -c QR.ec -o QR.sym && ecc -c QR.ec -o QR.c && ecs -console QR.sym QR.imp -o QR.main.ec &&
  ecp -c QR.main.ec -o QR.main.sym && ecc -c QR.main.ec -o QR.main.c &&
  gcc -o QR QR.c QR.main.c -lecereCOM && ./QR > QR.exs
$ elixir QR.exs > QR.el
$ emacs -Q --script QR.el > QR.erl
$ escript QR.erl > QR.fsx
$ fsharpc QR.fsx -o QR.exe && mono QR.exe > QR.false
$ ruby vendor/false.rb QR.false > QR.fs
$ gforth QR.fs > QR.f
$ gfortran -o QR QR.f && ./QR > QR.f90
$ gfortran -o QR QR.f90 && ./QR > QR.gbs
$ gbs3 QR.gbs > QR.g
$ gap -q QR.g > QR.gel
$ genius QR.gel > QR.plt
$ gnuplot QR.plt > QR.go
$ go run QR.go > QR.gpt
$ gpt -o QR QR.gpt && ./QR > QR.grass
$ ruby vendor/grass.rb QR.grass > QR.groovy
$ groovy QR.groovy > QR.hs
$ ghc QR.hs && ./QR > QR.hx
$ haxe -main QR -neko QR.n && neko QR.n > QR.icn
$ icont -s QR.icn && ./QR > QR.i
$ ick -bfOc QR.i && gcc -static QR.c -I /usr/include/ick-* -o QR -lick &&
  ./QR > QR.j
$ jasmin QR.j && java QR > QR.java
$ javac QR.java && java QR > QR.js
$ rhino QR.js > QR.jq
$ jq -r -n -f QR.jq > QR.jl
$ julia QR.jl > QR.lazy
$ lazyk QR.lazy > qr.li
$ lisaac qr.li && ./qr > QR.ll
$ llvm-as QR.ll && lli QR.bc > QR.lol
$ lci QR.lol > QR.lua
$ lua5.3 QR.lua > QR.mk
$ make -f QR.mk > QR.mac
$ maxima -q --init-mac=QR.mac > QR.mzn
$ mzn2fzn QR.mzn && fzn-gecode QR.fzn | solns2out --soln-sep '' QR.ozn > QR.il
$ ilasm QR.il && mono QR.exe > QR.asm
$ nasm -felf QR.asm && ld -m elf_i386 -o QR QR.o && ./QR > QR.neko
$ nekoc QR.neko && neko QR.n > QR.5c
$ nickle QR.5c > QR.nim
$ nim c QR.nim && ./QR > QR.m
$ gcc -o QR QR.m && ./QR > QR.ml
$ ocaml QR.ml > QR.octave
$ octave -qf QR.octave > QR.ook
$ ruby vendor/ook-to-bf.rb QR.ook QR.ook.bf && bf QR.ook.bf > QR.gp
$ gp -f -q QR.gp > QR.pas
$ fpc QR.pas && ./QR > QR.pl
$ perl QR.pl > QR.php
$ php QR.php > QR.png
$ npiet QR.png > QR.pike
$ pike QR.pike > QR.ps
$ gs -dNODISPLAY -q QR.ps > QR.ppt
$ ppt -d < QR.ppt > QR.prolog
$ swipl -q -t qr -f QR.prolog > QR.py
$ python QR.py > QR.R
$ R --slave -f QR.R > QR.ratfor
$ ratfor -o QR.ratfor.f QR.ratfor && gfortran -o QR QR.ratfor.f &&
  ./QR > QR.rexx
$ rexx ./QR.rexx > QR2.rb

You will see that QR.rb is the same as QR2.rb.

$ diff QR.rb QR2.rb

Alternatively, just type make.

$ make

Note: It may require huge memory to compile some files.

Arch Linux

Just install quine-relay-git from AUR and run quine-relay. Report any problems as comments to the AUR package or to the respective packages, if one of the many compilers should have issues.

Other platforms

You may find instructions for other platforms in the wiki.

If you are not using these Linux distributions, please find your way yourself. If you could do it, please let me know. Good luck.

Tested interpreter/compiler versions

I used the following Ubuntu deb packages to test this program.

# language ubuntu package version
1 Ruby ruby 1:2.3.0+4
2 Scala scala 2.11.8-1
3 Scheme gauche 0.9.4-6
4 Scilab scilab 5.5.2-2ubuntu5
5 Shell (bash) bash 4.3-15ubuntu1
6 S-Lang slsh 2.3.0-2.3ubuntu1
7 Smalltalk gnu-smalltalk 3.2.5-1build3
8 Squirrel3 squirrel3 3.1-4
9 Standard ML mlton 20100608-5.1ubuntu1
10 Subleq N/A -
11 Tcl tcl 8.6.0+9
12 Thue N/A -
13 Unlambda N/A -
14 Vala valac 0.32.1-1
15 Verilog iverilog 10.1-0.1build1
16 Visual Basic mono-vbnc 4.0.1-1
17 Whitespace N/A -
18 XSLT xsltproc 1.1.29-1
19 Yorick yorick 2.2.04+dfsg1-6
20 Zoem zoem 11-166-1.2
21 A+ aplus-fsf 4.22.1-9
22 Ada gnat 6.1ubuntu2
23 AFNIX afnix 2.6.3-1
24 ALGOL68 algol68g 2.8-2
25 Ante N/A -
26 Asymptote asymptote 2.38-2build1
27 ATS ats2-lang 0.2.9-1
28 Awk gawk 1:4.1.3+dfsg-0.1build1
29 bc bc 1.06.95-9build2
30 Befunge N/A -
31 BLC8 N/A -
32 Brainfuck bf 20041219ubuntu5
33 C gcc 4:6.1.1-1ubuntu2
34 C++ g++ 4:6.1.1-1ubuntu2
35 C# mono-mcs 4.2.1.102+dfsg2-7ubuntu4
36 CDuce cduce 0.6.0-5build2
37 Chef N/A -
38 Clojure clojure1.6 1.6.0+dfsg-2
39 Cobol open-cobol 1.1-2
40 CoffeeScript coffeescript 1.10.0~dfsg-1
41 Common Lisp clisp 1:2.49-9ubuntu1
42 D gdc 4:6.1.1-1ubuntu2
43 Dafny dafny 1.9.7-1
44 dc dc 1.06.95-9build2
45 eC ecere-dev 0.44.15-1
46 Elixir elixir 1.2.6-1
47 Emacs Lisp emacs24 24.5+1-6ubuntu3
48 Erlang erlang 1:18.3.4.4+dfsg-1ubuntu2
49 F# fsharp 4.0.0.4+dfsg2-2
50 FALSE N/A -
51 Forth gforth 0.7.3+dfsg-3
52 FORTRAN77 f2c 20100827-3
53 Fortran90 gfortran 4:6.1.1-1ubuntu2
54 Gambas script gambas3-script 3.8.4-6ubuntu1
55 GAP gap 4r8p4-1build1
56 GEL (Genius) genius 1.0.21-1build1
57 Gnuplot gnuplot 5.0.4+dfsg1-3
58 Go golang 2:1.6.1+1ubuntu2
59 G-Portugol gpt 1.1-2ubuntu2
60 Grass N/A -
61 Groovy groovy 2.4.7-2
62 Haskell ghc 7.10.3-9ubuntu1
63 Haxe haxe 1:3.2.1+dfsg-1build3
64 Icon icont, iconx 9.4.3-4.2ubuntu1
65 INTERCAL intercal 30:0.30-1
66 Jasmin jasmin-sable 2.5.0-1
67 Java openjdk-8-jdk 8u121-b13-0ubuntu1.16.10.2
68 JavaScript rhino 1.7R4-3
69 Jq jq 1.5+dfsg-1
70 Julia julia 0.4.7-1
71 Lazy K N/A -
72 Lisaac lisaac 1:0.39~rc1-3
73 LLVM asm llvm 1:3.8-34
74 LOLCODE N/A -
75 Lua lua5.3 5.3.1-1.1build1
76 Makefile make 4.1-9
77 Maxima maxima 5.37.2-8
78 MiniZinc minizinc 2.0.14+dfsg1-1
79 MSIL mono-devel 4.2.1.102+dfsg2-7ubuntu4
80 NASM nasm 2.12.01-1
81 Neko neko 2.1.0-3
82 Nickle nickle 2.77-1build1
83 Nim nim 0.13.0-1
84 Objective-C gobjc 4:6.1.1-1ubuntu2
85 OCaml ocaml 4.02.3-6ubuntu2
86 Octave octave 4.0.3-2ubuntu3
87 Ook! N/A -
88 PARI/GP pari-gp 2.7.6-1build2
89 Pascal fp-compiler 3.0.0+dfsg-8
90 Perl perl 5.22.2-3
91 PHP php-cli 1:7.0+44
92 Piet N/A -
93 Pike pike8.0 8.0.276-1
94 PostScript ghostscript 9.19~dfsg+1-0ubuntu6.3
95 PPT (Punched tape) bsdgames 2.17-24
96 Prolog swi-prolog 7.2.3+dfsg-1build2
97 Python python 2.7.11-2
98 R r-base 3.3.1-1build1
99 Ratfor ratfor 1.0-15
100 REXX regina-rexx 3.6-2

Note that some languages are not available in Ubuntu (marked as N/A). This repository includes their implementations in vendor/. See also vendor/README in detail.

Frequently asked questions

Q. Why?

A. Take your pick.

Q. How?

A. Good news: I published a book, "The world of obfuscated, esoteric, artistic programming". It explains how to write a quine, an ascii-art quine, and a uroboros quine like this quine-relay. You can buy my book on amazon.co.jp.

(It also contains my almost all (about forty) works, including alphabet-only Ruby program, radiation-hardened quine, etc., and explains many techniques to write such programs.)

Bad news: It is written in Japanese. I hope you could translate it to English and help me earn royalties.

Q. Language XXX is missing!

A. See the criteria for language inclusion in detail. (In short: please create a deb package and contribute it to Ubuntu.)

Q. Does it really work?

A. Build Status

Q. How long did it take you?

A. Do you try to cross the world line?

Q. The code does not fit into my display!

A. Here you go.

Q. How was the code generated?

A.

$ sudo apt-get install rake ruby-cairo ruby-rsvg2 ruby-gdk-pixbuf2 \
  optipng advancecomp ruby-chunky-png
$ cd src
$ rake2.0 clobber
$ rake2.0

License

The MIT License applies to all resources except the files in the vendor/ directory.

The files in the vendor/ directory are from third-parties and are distributed under different licenses. See vendor/README in detail.


The MIT License (MIT)

Copyright (c) 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 Yusuke Endoh (@mametter), @hirekoke

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.