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An uroboros program with 100 programming languages
Ruby Makefile
branch: master

README.md

Quine Relay

Build Status

What this is

This is a Ruby program that generates Scala program that generates Scheme program that generates ...(through 100 languages in total)... REXX program that generates the original Ruby code again.

Language Uroboros

(If you want to see the old 50-language version, see 50 branch.)

Usage

Ubuntu

1. Install all interpreters/compilers.

If you are using Ubuntu 15.04 "Vivid Vervet", you can perform the following steps:

First, you have to type the following apt-get command to install all of them.

$ sudo apt-get install afnix algol68g aplus-fsf asymptote \
  ats-lang-anairiats bash bc bf boo bsdgames cduce clisp clojure1.6 \
  cmake coffeescript dc ecere-sdk emacs24 erlang f2c falconpl \
  fp-compiler fsharp g++ gambas3-script gap gauche gawk gcc gdc genius \
  gforth gfortran ghc ghostscript gnat gnu-smalltalk gnuplot gobjc \
  golang gpt gri groff groovy haxe icont iconx intercal iverilog \
  jasmin-sable julia kaya libgd2-xpm-dev libpng12-dev lisaac llvm lua5.2 \
  make maxima mlton mono-devel mono-mcs mono-vbnc nasm neko nickle ocaml \
  octave open-cobol openjdk-6-jdk pari-gp parrot perl php5-cli pike7.8 \
  python r-base ratfor regina-rexx rhino ruby2.1 scala scilab slsh \
  spl-core swi-prolog tcl ucblogo valac xsltproc yorick zoem

Then, you have to build the bundled interpreters.

$ make -C vendor

To run it on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS, you might want to refer to .travis.yml.

2. Run each program on each interpreter/compiler.

$ ruby QR.rb > QR.scala
$ scalac QR.scala && scala QR > QR.scm
$ gosh QR.scm > QR.sci
$ scilab -nw -nb -f QR.sci > QR.bash
$ bash QR.bash > QR.sl
$ slsh QR.sl > QR.st
$ gst QR.st > QR.spl
$ splrun QR.spl > QR.sml
$ mlton @MLton fixed-heap 200M -- QR.sml && ./QR > QR.sq
$ ruby vendor/subleq.rb QR.sq > QR.tcl
$ tclsh QR.tcl > QR.t
$ ruby vendor/thue.rb QR.t > QR.unl
$ ruby vendor/unlambda.rb QR.unl > QR.vala
$ valac QR.vala && ./QR > QR.v
$ iverilog -o QR QR.v && ./QR -vcd-none > QR.vb
$ vbnc QR.vb && mono ./QR.exe > QR.ws
$ ruby vendor/whitespace.rb QR.ws > QR.xslt
$ xsltproc QR.xslt > QR.yorick
$ yorick -batch QR.yorick > QR.azm
$ zoem -i QR.azm > QR.+
$ a+ QR.+ > qr.adb
$ gnatmake qr.adb && ./qr > QR.als
$ axi QR.als > QR.a68
$ a68g QR.a68 > QR.ante
$ ruby vendor/ante.rb QR.ante > QR.asy
$ asy QR.asy > QR.dats
$ atscc -o QR QR.dats && ./QR > QR.awk
$ awk -f QR.awk > QR.bc
$ BC_LINE_LENGTH=4000000 bc -q QR.bc > QR.bef
$ cfunge QR.bef > QR.Blc
$ ruby vendor/blc.rb < QR.Blc > QR.boo
$ booi QR.boo > QR.bf
$ bf QR.bf > QR.c
$ gcc -o QR QR.c && ./QR > QR.cpp
$ g++ -o QR QR.cpp && ./QR > QR.cs
$ mcs QR.cs && mono QR.exe > QR.cd
$ cduce QR.cd > QR.chef
$ PERL5LIB=vendor/local/lib/perl5 compilechef QR.chef QR.chef.pl &&
  perl QR.chef.pl > QR.clj
$ clojure QR.clj > QR.cob
$ cobc -O2 -x QR.cob && ./QR > QR.coffee
$ coffee QR.coffee > QR.lisp
$ clisp QR.lisp > QR.d
$ gdc -o QR QR.d && ./QR > QR.dc
$ dc QR.dc > QR.ec
$ ecp -c QR.ec -o QR.sym && ecc -c QR.ec -o QR.c && ecs -console QR.sym QR.imp -o QR.main.ec &&
  ecp -c QR.main.ec -o QR.main.sym && ecc -c QR.main.ec -o QR.main.c &&
  gcc -o QR QR.c QR.main.c -lecereCOM && ./QR > QR.el
$ emacs -Q --script QR.el > QR.erl
$ escript QR.erl > QR.fsx
$ fsharpc QR.fsx -o QR.exe && mono QR.exe > QR.fal
$ falcon QR.fal > QR.false
$ ruby vendor/false.rb QR.false > QR.fs
$ gforth QR.fs > QR.f
$ f2c QR.f && gcc -o QR QR.c -L/usr/lib -lf2c -lm && ./QR > QR.f90
$ gfortran -o QR QR.f90 && ./QR > QR.gbs
$ gbs3 QR.gbs > QR.g
$ gap -q QR.g > QR.gel
$ genius QR.gel > QR.plt
$ gnuplot QR.plt > QR.go
$ go run QR.go > QR.gpt
$ gpt -o QR QR.gpt && ./QR > QR.gri
$ gri QR.gri > QR.groovy
$ groovy QR.groovy > QR.hs
$ ghc QR.hs && ./QR > QR.hx
$ haxe -main QR -neko QR.n && neko QR.n > QR.icn
$ icont -s QR.icn && ./QR > QR.i
$ ick -bfO QR.i && ./QR > QR.j
$ jasmin QR.j && java QR > QR.java
$ javac QR.java && java QR > QR.js
$ rhino QR.js > QR.jl
$ julia QR.jl > QR.k
$ kayac QR.k && ./QR > QR.lazy
$ lazyk QR.lazy > qr.li
$ lisaac qr.li && ./qr > QR.ll
$ llvm-as QR.ll && lli QR.bc > QR.logo
$ logo QR.logo > QR.lol
$ lci QR.lol > QR.lua
$ lua QR.lua > QR.mk
$ make -f QR.mk > QR.mac
$ maxima -q --init-mac=QR.mac > QR.il
$ ilasm QR.il && mono QR.exe > QR.asm
$ nasm -felf QR.asm && ld -m elf_i386 -o QR QR.o && ./QR > QR.neko
$ nekoc QR.neko && neko QR.n > QR.5c
$ nickle QR.5c > QR.m
$ gcc -o QR QR.m && ./QR > QR.ml
$ ocaml QR.ml > QR.octave
$ octave -qf QR.octave > QR.ook
$ ruby vendor/ook-to-bf.rb QR.ook QR.ook.bf && bf QR.ook.bf > QR.gp
$ gp -f -q QR.gp > QR.pasm
$ parrot QR.pasm > QR.pas
$ fpc QR.pas && ./QR > QR.pl
$ perl QR.pl > QR.php
$ php QR.php > QR.png
$ npiet QR.png > QR.pike
$ pike QR.pike > QR.ps
$ gs -dNODISPLAY -q QR.ps > QR.ppt
$ ppt -d < QR.ppt > QR.prolog
$ swipl -q -t qr -f QR.prolog > QR.py
$ python QR.py > QR.R
$ R --slave -f QR.R > QR.ratfor
$ ratfor -o QR.ratfor.f QR.ratfor && gfortran -o QR QR.ratfor.f &&
  ./QR > QR.rexx
$ rexx ./QR.rexx > QR2.rb

You will see that QR.rb is the same as QR2.rb.

$ diff QR.rb QR2.rb

Alternatively, just type make.

$ make

Note: It may require huge memory to compile some files.

Arch Linux

Just install quine-relay-git from AUR and run quine-relay. Report any problems as comments to the AUR package or to the respective packages, if one of the many compilers should have issues.

Other platforms

You may find instructions for other platforms in the wiki.

If you are not using these Linux distributions, please find your way yourself. If you could do it, please let me know. Good luck.

Tested interpreter/compiler versions

I used the following Ubuntu deb packages to test this program.

# language ubuntu package version
1 Ruby ruby2.1 2.1.2-2ubuntu3
2 Scala scala 2.9.2+dfsg-2
3 Scheme gauche 0.9.4-5
4 Scilab scilab 5.5.1-7
5 Shell (bash) bash 4.3-11ubuntu2
6 S-Lang slsh 2.3.0-2ubuntu1
7 Smalltalk gnu-smalltalk 3.2.4-2.1
8 SPL spl-core 1.0~pre6-4ubuntu1
9 Standard ML mlton 20100608-5.1
10 Subleq N/A -
11 Tcl tcl 8.6.0+6ubuntu3
12 Thue N/A -
13 Unlambda N/A -
14 Vala valac 0.26.2-1
15 Verilog iverilog 0.9.7-1
16 Visual Basic mono-vbnc 3.8-1
17 Whitespace N/A -
18 XSLT xsltproc 1.1.28-2build2
19 Yorick yorick 2.2.03+dfsg-3ubuntu1
20 Zoem zoem 11-166-1ubuntu1
21 A+ aplus-fsf 4.22.1-6
22 Ada gnat 4.9ubuntu1
23 AFNIX afnix 2.2.0-2ubuntu1
24 ALGOL68 algol68g 2.8-2
25 Ante N/A -
26 Asymptote asymptote 2.31-2
27 ATS ats-lang-anairiats 0.2.11-1
28 Awk gawk 1:4.1.1+dfsg-1
29 bc bc 1.06.95-9build1
30 Befunge N/A -
31 BLC8 N/A -
32 Boo boo 0.9.5~git20110729.r1.202a430-2
33 Brainfuck bf 20041219ubuntu5
34 C gcc 4:4.9.2-2ubuntu2
35 C++ g++ 4:4.9.2-2ubuntu2
36 C# mono-mcs 3.2.8+dfsg-4ubuntu4
37 CDuce cduce 0.6.0-1
38 Chef N/A -
39 Clojure clojure1.6 1.6.0+dfsg-1
40 Cobol open-cobol 1.1-1build1
41 CoffeeScript coffeescript 1.4.0-1.1
42 Common Lisp clisp 1:2.49-9ubuntu1
43 D gdc 4.9.2-2ubuntu2
44 dc dc 1.06.95-9build1
45 eC ecere-sdk 0.44.11-0ubuntu1
46 Emacs Lisp emacs24 24.4+1-4ubuntu5
47 Erlang erlang 1:17.3-dfsg-3ubuntu1
48 F# fsharp 3.1.1.26+dfsg2-2
49 Falcon falconpl 0.9.6.9-git20120606-2.1
50 FALSE N/A -
51 Forth gforth 0.7.2+dfsg1-1.1
52 FORTRAN77 f2c 20100827-1
53 Fortran90 gfortran 4:4.9.2-2ubuntu2
54 Gambas script gambas3-script 3.5.4-2ubuntu3
55 GAP gap 4r7p5-2
56 GEL (Genius) genius 1.0.19-1
57 Gnuplot gnuplot 4.6.6-2
58 Go golang 2:1.3.3-1ubuntu4
59 G-Portugol gpt 1.1-2ubuntu1
60 Gri gri 2.12.23-8
61 Groovy groovy 2.0.0~beta2+isreally1.8.6-4ubuntu1
62 Haskell ghc 7.6.3-20
63 Haxe haxe 1:3.0.0~svn6707-4
64 Icon icont 9.4.3-4.2ubuntu1
iconx 9.4.3-4.2ubuntu1
65 INTERCAL intercal 29:0.29-3
66 Jasmin jasmin-sable 2.4.0-5
67 Java openjdk-6-jdk 6b35-1.13.7-1ubuntu1
68 JavaScript rhino 1.7R4-3
69 Julia julia 0.3.2-1ubuntu1
70 Kaya kaya 0.4.4-6.2
71 Lazy K N/A -
72 Lisaac lisaac 1:0.39~rc1-3
73 LLVM asm llvm 1:3.6-26ubuntu1
74 Logo ucblogo 5.5-2.1
75 LOLCODE N/A -
76 Lua lua5.2 5.2.3-1.1
77 Makefile make 4.0-8.1
78 Maxima maxima 5.35.1-1
79 MSIL mono-devel 3.2.8+dfsg-4ubuntu4
80 NASM nasm 2.11.06-1really2.11.05-1
81 Neko neko 2.0.0-3
82 Nickle nickle 2.77-1
83 Objective-C gobjc 4:4.9.2-2ubuntu2
84 OCaml ocaml 4.01.0-4ubuntu1
85 Octave octave 3.8.2-4
86 Ook! N/A -
87 PARI/GP pari-gp 2.7.2-1
88 Parrot asm parrot 6.6.0-1
89 Pascal fp-compiler 2.6.4+dfsg-4
90 Perl perl 5.20.2-2
91 PHP php5-cli 5.6.4+dfsg-4ubuntu6
92 Piet N/A -
93 Pike pike7.8 7.8.866-3
94 PostScript ghostscript 9.15+dfsg-0ubuntu2
95 PPT (Punched tape) bsdgames 2.17-22
96 Prolog swi-prolog 6.6.6-5
97 Python python 2.7.9-1
98 R r-base 3.1.2-2
99 Ratfor ratfor 1.0-15
100 REXX regina-rexx 3.6-2

Note that some languages are not available in Ubuntu (marked as N/A). This repository includes their implementations in vendor/. See also vendor/README in detail.

Frequently asked questions

Q. Why?

A. Take your pick.

Q. How?

A. Good news: I'm now writing "a book" about obfuscated programming. It will include a detailed explanation of how to write a quine, an ascii-art quine, and a uroboros quine like this quine-relay. It will be published in this year (if successful).

Bad news: It will be written in Japanese. I hope you could translate it to English and help me earn royalties.

Q. Language XXX is missing!

A. See the criteria for language inclusion in detail.

In short: please create a deb package and contribute it to Ubuntu.

Q. Does it really work?

A. Build Status

Q. How long did it take you?

A. Do you try to cross the world line?

Q. The code does not fit into my display!

A. Here you go.

Q. How was the code generated?

A.

$ sudo apt-get install rake ruby-cairo ruby-rsvg2 ruby-gdk-pixbuf2 \
  optipng advancecomp ruby-chunky-png
$ cd src
$ rake2.0 clobber
$ rake2.0

License

The MIT License applies to all resources except the files in the vendor/ directory.

The files in the vendor/ directory are from third-parties and are distributed under different licenses. See vendor/README in detail.


The MIT License (MIT)

Copyright (c) 2013, 2014 Yusuke Endoh (@mametter), @hirekoke

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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