This solution is a compilation of NUnitLite targeting Mono for Android.
There now exists a test runner (credit to wmeints). It presents a summary of passes/failures and allows interrogation of individual test results. The example application demonstrates passing, failing and error throwing tests.
There is an alternative test runner that shows the tests in an expandable list. To use this, use TestRunnerExpandableActivity instead of TestRunnerActivity
The original NUnitLite readme is in NUnitLite.README.txt. It has notes on features and usage. Despite the text there, the version of NUnitLite used is 0.6.1.