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This is the source code used in the research paper:

An Empirical Analysis of Anonymity in Zcash George Kappos, Haaroon Yousaf, Mary Maller, Sarah Meiklejohn, 27th USENIX Security Symposium 2018,


All authors are supported by the EUH2020 TITANIUM project under grant agreement number 740558.

Please read this from start to finish before attempting the analysis.


  • Docker
  • At least 3x storage space of the current blockchain


  • Clone this repository
  • CD into the root of this repository zcash-empirical-analysis


The container directories of the data store directories must equal the value stores in the research/ file. This is paramount, as this config is used during analysis

If you would like to increase the blockheight that this analysis is performed upon, you can do so by changing the integer value of blockheight in the research/docker/ file

Data store directories

  • Create three directories for each of the containers and add them to the docker-compose.yml file

    • .zcash : zcash container, stores raw blockchain data downloaded by the zcash node
    • pgdata : postgres container, stores parsed Zcash blockchain data
    • research : research and postgres container, stores created parquet files and analysis data
  • The directories are used as volumes, they are mounted on their respective docker containers




    /data/data1/zcash/.zcash is the <local_directory>, a folder on the host machine

    /root/.zcash is the <container_directory>, the above folder but mounted in the docker container

  • Do not change the container directory, simply change the <local_directory> as required

Zcash Client

  • Copy the zcash-client/docker/zcash.conf.backup file to the .zcash folder created earlier as .zcash/zcash.conf

  • Configure the zcash.conf file by setting the rpcuser and rpcpassword variables

  • Set the same values to the RPC_USER and RPC_PASSWORD variables in the research/docker/ and zcashpostgres/docker/

  • Set the variable rpcclienttimeout to 120, e.g. rpcclienttimeout=120

Address files

Sections (Heuristics and Clustering) within the analysis files require user address and tags in csv format. Due to the sensitivity of this data, we do not provide such addresses. Instead, the following files must be created in research/docker/addresses/ and, if desired, filled with addresses. The analysis can still be run without them being filled, but not if they are not present.

All csv files expect the ; as the delimeter. All addresses are expected to be tAddresses (transparent addresses used in Zcash)

  • pool_addresses.csv

    • The addresses and tags in this file should be related to mining pools, which can be found on mining pool websites
    • Double-column csv file with header address;tag, where each address has a single string as a tag (e.g., tAddressA;poolX)
    • Tags can be repeated but tAddresses must be unique
  • address_tags.csv

    • The addresses and tags in this file can be related to any entity, and could be collected manually or scraped online
    • Double-column csv file with header address;tag, where each address has a single string as a tag (e.g., tAddressA;exchangeX)
    • Tags can be repeated but tAddresses must be unique
  • founders_addresses.csv

    • These are the addresses of the Zcash founders, which can be found in the source code and whitepaper
    • Single-column csv file with header address, where each address must be on a separate line

Setting up the containers

  • Build and run the three containers by executing the following commands in the zcash-empirical-analysis folder

      docker-compose build
      docker-compose up -d
  • This creates and runs the zcash, zcashpostgres and research containers with a network between them so they can interact

Container Interaction

  • To connect to the docker-node run the command below

          docker exec -it <containername> bash
  • You must wait for the Zcash node to sync to an appropriate height of the blockchain, you can check this by executing the command via the script

      ./zcash-client/docker/ <command> <arguments>

    which will execute the command on the zcash-cli interface and return the results

    Note: If you get a permission denied error then chmod +x the script file

  • Once the Zcash node is synced, the postgres database can be populated with data

    • Login into the zcashpostgres node using the docker command above and run the following

    • To setup the database and instantiate the tables Note: This will erase all previous data

        cd $SCRIPTS
    • To parse the Zcash node data into postgres

        cd $SCRIPTS

      Note: This command will take 1 hour per 1,500 blocks. It will parse all the available data on the node. If re-run it will start from the last block committed in postgres If you cannot get a connection refused error, please check that the rpcallowip in the zcash.conf has been correctly set to the range used in the docker network

  • Once the above steps are complete you may continue

  • First ensure the research container is running, this can be done by executing the command below you should see a container called research with a running or up status

      docker-compose ps

    Note: The research container may fail to run if the Apache Spark download fails, if this happens then check if the spark download link in the research/Dockerfile is active, if it isn't active then please replace this link with a url from the Apache Spark mirror

  • To do the analysis the container requires that the Zcash blockchain is parsed as Apache Spark Parquet files. On docker this used method A, but other methods would use less storage space. Due to time constraints we could not resolve the Spark issues.

    • Method A: slower, requires less RAM, however takes up more disk space.
      • First run the following in the zcashpostgres container, these will create csv files from Postgres and store them in /root/research

          psql -U postgres -d zcashdb -c "Copy (Select * From transactions) To STDOUT With CSV HEADER DELIMITER ';';" > /root/research/public.transaction.csv
          psql -U postgres -d zcashdb -c "Copy (Select * From vin) To STDOUT With CSV HEADER DELIMITER ';';" > /root/research/
          psql -U postgres -d zcashdb -c "Copy (Select * From vout) To STDOUT With CSV HEADER DELIMITER ';';" > /root/research/public.vout.csv
          psql -U postgres -d zcashdb -c "Copy (Select * From vjoinsplit) To STDOUT With CSV HEADER DELIMITER ';';" > /root/research/public.vjoinsplit.csv
          psql -U postgres -d zcashdb -c "Copy (Select * From coingen) To STDOUT With CSV HEADER DELIMITER ';';" > /root/research/public.coingen.csv
          psql -U postgres -d zcashdb -c "Copy (Select * From blocks) To STDOUT With CSV HEADER DELIMITER ';';" > /root/research/public.block.csv
      • Next run the following in the research container, this will create parquet files from the csv files

          cd $SCRIPTS
      • Delete the csv files when the above command is complete

          rm -rf $RESEARCH/public.transaction.csv
          rm -rf $RESEARCH/
          rm -rf $RESEARCH/public.vout.csv
          rm -rf $RESEARCH/public.vjoinsplit.csv
          rm -rf $RESEARCH/public.coingen.csv
          rm -rf $RESEARCH/public.block.csv


All research commands must be run in the research container.

All results are saved to the /root/research mounted folder.

Initial research

Initial Analysis

Generates statistics containing: total number of blocks, transactions & Types (shielded, deshielded, transparent, mixed, private). The result is saved to a text file root/research/initial_analysis.txt


Address Statistics

Generates address-based statistics such as coins sent, coins received, current coins, transactions sent and received, blocks mined, estimated amount in pool.


These are saved in the file addresses_values.csv

The results are saved as a list of rows in a pickled file address_values.pkl

Note: This script must be run before the address clustering as it is dependent on the calculated address values

The format of the rows in the list are as follows:

            "address": "addressA"
            "pool_recv": 0.0,
            "pool_sent": 0.0,
            "coingens_recv": 0,
            "vouts_count": 0,
            "vins_count": 0,
            "txs_recv": 0,
            "txs_sent": 0,
            "recv": 0.0,
            "sent": 0.0,
            "no_txs_total": 0

It also generates separate rich list txt files for the top 10 addresses that:

  • sent coins - rich_list_top_10_sent.csv
  • received coins - rich_list_top_10_recv.csv
  • current balance - rich_list_top_10_value.csv


The analysis consists of the files and which create the data for our results and plot the graphs of the paper respectively.

Our analysis consists of the graphs 2, 4, 5, 6, 8a, 8b, 8c, 9 as shown in the paper as well as the heuristics 3, 4, 5

To run the analysis, login to the research container and run the following

python 2 4 5 6 8a 8b 8c 9 h3 h4 h5

These will plot and save the following graphs in the folder $RESEARCH/Graphs:

  • Graph 2 : $RESEARCH/Graphs/TransactionTypes.pdf

  • Graph 4 : $RESEARCH/Graphs/TotalValueOverTime.pdf

  • Graph 5 : $RESEARCH/Graphs/Deposits-Withdrawals.pdf

  • Graph 6 : $RESEARCH/Graphs/DepositsPerIdentity.pdf

  • Graph 8a : $RESEARCH/Graphs/WithdrawalsPerIdentityNoHeuristic.pdf

  • Graph 8b : $RESEARCH/Graphs/WithdrawalsPerIdentityHeuristicF.pdf

  • Graph 8c : /$RESEARCH/Graphs/WithdrawalsPerIdentityHeuristicFM.pdf

  • Graph 9 : $RESEARCH/Graphs/FounderCorrelation.pdf

The user can choose which graphs to produce and which heuristics to run.

This is done by specifying command line arguments to the file

The valid arguments are: 2 4 5 6 8a 8b 8c 9 h3 h4 h5 e.g. If the user to produce the graphs 4 and 5 run heuristic h5, they would run

python 4 5 h5

The results of heuristics 3, 4, 5 are stored in files founders_heuristic_addresses.csv, miners_heuristic_addresses.csv and heuristic5.txt:

  • founders_heuristic_addresses.csv - single column csv file with the header 'address' - each address is on a separate line - these addresses are the founders addresses from the founders heuristic

  • miners_heuristic_addresses.csv - single column csv file with header 'address' - each address is on a separate line - these addresses are the miner addresses from the mining heuristic,

  • heuristic5.txt - Details about results in heuristic 5

  • miners_addresses.csv - single column csv file with header 'address' - where each address is on a separate line and associated with a miner

Address Clustering and Tagging

Note: This task is dependent on the following files

These files must be provided by the user, the details of them can be found above

  • Pool Addresses pool_addresses.csv
  • Founders Addresses founders_addresses.csv
  • Address tags address_tags.csv

These files are automatically generated by the following tasks

  • Address Statistics address_values.pkl, Generated in task Address Statistics
  • Miners Addresses miners_addresses.csv, Generated in task Heuristic
  • Founders Heuristic founders_heuristic_addresses.csv, Generated in task Heuristic
  • Miners Heuristic miners_heuristic_addresses.csv, Generated in task Heuristic

The clustering process builds, tags and produces statistics for the groups of addresses that have been used as inputs in the transaction. This is done by creating addresses as nodes in a graph, and joining them via edges if they had been used as inputs in a transaction. This is done from the first transaction to the last (depending on the latest block height). Once complete, the code extracts the clusters (connected components) of the graph and computes statistics based on the addresses contained within the clusters. Each address is associated with only one cluster. You may find that there are many clusters which have only one address, which means that this address had only ever been used as the sole input in a transaction.

To run the address clustering, execute the following in the research container

    cd $SCRIPTS

The statistics produced are: cluster size (starting from 0), clustered addresses, tags for pools, miners, founders, miners heuristic and founders heuristic, size, coingens sent and received, pool sent and received, total amount of coins sent and received, transactions sent and received, number of distinct transactions within that cluster and tags.

This script outputs the results in the following files:

  • - statistics about the clusters and details about the addresses
  • cluster_stats.pkl - a python pickled dictionary containing the clusters ranked in order by size, largest starting at 0, and the above statistics in dictionary
  • clusters_graph.pkl - the graph used to generate the clusters
  • clusters_stats.csv - statistics but in csv format

Running analysis via

You can run all of the scripts within the analysis by executing the following in the research container



  • In the future you may want to re-run the experiment using a more up-to-date blockchain
  • To do this do the following
    • Ensure the zcash container is synced to the latest block height
    • Re-run the configuration steps, editing the research/docker/ file with a higher block height
    • Re-run the analysis, you may keep the manual csv files you previously created


Other ways to generate the data

Below are two alternate methods that can be used to generate the parquet files. These require much less hard drive space, but use much more RAM. There are issues that prevent the files being created due to the connection between the spark workers in docker. Thus, these can be run outside of docker fine, but has issues if run within docker.

  • Method B: faster but requires much more RAM on the machine, however due to issues with spark in docker and time constraints we were unable to get this to run on large block sizes. This runs fine if spark is run outside of docker.

    • Run the following in the research container, this will create Apache Spark parquet files directly from the postgres database and store them in /root/research which is mapped to the folder above.

            cd $SCRIPTS

      Note: This command can fail if there is not enough memory for the Spark instance

  • Method C: faster as it parses data from the node directly into memory, then into spark files. We found issues running this on large block sizes, but this runs well outside of a docker container.

    • Run the following in the research container, this will create Apache Spark parquet files directly from the Zcash node and store them in /root/research which is mapped to the folder above.

            cd $SCRIPTS

      Note: This command can fail if there is not enough memory for the Spark instance

  • Method D: A much faster method and space-efficient method to parse the blockchain is to directly read the raw block data (blk0*.dat files) into parquet. This has been left for future work.


Source code used in the 'An Empirical Analysis of Anonymity in Zcash' research







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