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%%% Copyright 2010-2011 Manolis Papadakis <manopapad@gmail.com>,
%%% Eirini Arvaniti <eirinibob@gmail.com>
%%% and Kostis Sagonas <kostis@cs.ntua.gr>
%%%
%%% This file is part of PropEr.
%%%
%%% PropEr is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
%%% it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
%%% the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
%%% (at your option) any later version.
%%%
%%% PropEr is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
%%% but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
%%% MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
%%% GNU General Public License for more details.
%%%
%%% You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
%%% along with PropEr. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
%%% @copyright 2010-2011 Manolis Papadakis, Eirini Arvaniti and Kostis Sagonas
%%% @version {@version}
%%% @author Manolis Papadakis
%%% @doc Generator subsystem and generators for basic types.
%%%
%%% You can use <a href="#index">these</a> functions to try out the random
%%% instance generation and shrinking subsystems.
%%%
%%% CAUTION: These functions should never be used inside properties. They are
%%% meant for demonstration purposes only.
-module(proper_gen).
-export([pick/1, pick/2, pick/3, sample/1, sample/3, sampleshrink/1, sampleshrink/2]).
-export([safe_generate/1]).
-export([generate/1, normal_gen/1, alt_gens/1, clean_instance/1,
get_ret_type/1]).
-export([integer_gen/3, float_gen/3, atom_gen/1, atom_rev/1, binary_gen/1,
binary_rev/1, binary_len_gen/1, bitstring_gen/1, bitstring_rev/1,
bitstring_len_gen/1, list_gen/2, distlist_gen/3, vector_gen/2,
union_gen/1, weighted_union_gen/1, tuple_gen/1, loose_tuple_gen/2,
loose_tuple_rev/2, exactly_gen/1, fixed_list_gen/1, function_gen/2,
any_gen/1, native_type_gen/2, safe_weighted_union_gen/1,
safe_union_gen/1]).
-export_type([instance/0, imm_instance/0, sized_generator/0, nosize_generator/0,
generator/0, reverse_gen/0, combine_fun/0, alt_gens/0]).
-include("proper_internal.hrl").
-compile({parse_transform, vararg}).
%%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
%% Types
%%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
%% TODO: update imm_instance() when adding more types: be careful when reading
%% anything that returns it
%% @private_type
-type imm_instance() :: proper_types:raw_type()
| instance()
| {'$used', imm_instance(), imm_instance()}
| {'$to_part', imm_instance()}.
-type instance() :: term().
%% A value produced by the random instance generator.
-type error_reason() :: 'arity_limit' | 'cant_generate' | {'typeserver',term()}.
%% @private_type
-type sized_generator() :: fun((size()) -> imm_instance()).
%% @private_type
-type typed_sized_generator() :: {'typed',
fun((proper_types:type(),size()) ->
imm_instance())}.
%% @private_type
-type nosize_generator() :: fun(() -> imm_instance()).
%% @private_type
-type typed_nosize_generator() :: {'typed',
fun((proper_types:type()) ->
imm_instance())}.
%% @private_type
-type generator() :: sized_generator()
| typed_sized_generator()
| nosize_generator()
| typed_nosize_generator().
%% @private_type
-type plain_reverse_gen() :: fun((instance()) -> imm_instance()).
%% @private_type
-type typed_reverse_gen() :: {'typed',
fun((proper_types:type(),instance()) ->
imm_instance())}.
%% @private_type
-type reverse_gen() :: plain_reverse_gen() | typed_reverse_gen().
%% @private_type
-type combine_fun() :: fun((instance()) -> imm_instance()).
%% @private_type
-type alt_gens() :: fun(() -> [imm_instance()]).
%% @private_type
-type fun_seed() :: {non_neg_integer(),non_neg_integer()}.
%%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
%% Instance generation functions
%%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
%% @private
-spec safe_generate(proper_types:raw_type()) ->
{'ok',imm_instance()} | {'error',error_reason()}.
safe_generate(RawType) ->
try generate(RawType) of
ImmInstance -> {ok, ImmInstance}
catch
throw:'$arity_limit' -> {error, arity_limit};
throw:'$cant_generate' -> {error, cant_generate};
throw:{'$typeserver',SubReason} -> {error, {typeserver,SubReason}}
end.
%% @private
-spec generate(proper_types:raw_type()) -> imm_instance().
generate(RawType) ->
Type = proper_types:cook_outer(RawType),
ok = add_parameters(Type),
Instance = generate(Type, get('$constraint_tries'), none),
ok = remove_parameters(Type),
Instance.
-spec add_parameters(proper_types:type()) -> 'ok'.
add_parameters(Type) ->
case proper_types:find_prop(parameters, Type) of
{ok, Params} ->
OldParams = erlang:get('$parameters'),
case OldParams of
undefined ->
erlang:put('$parameters', Params);
_ ->
erlang:put('$parameters', Params ++ OldParams)
end,
ok;
_ ->
ok
end.
-spec remove_parameters(proper_types:type()) -> 'ok'.
remove_parameters(Type) ->
case proper_types:find_prop(parameters, Type) of
{ok, Params} ->
AllParams = erlang:get('$parameters'),
case AllParams of
Params->
erlang:erase('$parameters');
_ ->
erlang:put('$parameters', AllParams -- Params)
end,
ok;
_ ->
ok
end.
-spec generate(proper_types:type(), non_neg_integer(),
'none' | {'ok',imm_instance()}) -> imm_instance().
generate(_Type, 0, none) ->
throw('$cant_generate');
generate(_Type, 0, {ok,Fallback}) ->
Fallback;
generate(Type, TriesLeft, Fallback) ->
ImmInstance =
case proper_types:get_prop(kind, Type) of
constructed ->
PartsType = proper_types:get_prop(parts_type, Type),
Combine = proper_types:get_prop(combine, Type),
ImmParts = generate(PartsType),
Parts = clean_instance(ImmParts),
ImmInstance1 = Combine(Parts),
%% TODO: We can just generate the internal type: if it's not
%% a type, it will turn into an exactly.
ImmInstance2 =
case proper_types:is_raw_type(ImmInstance1) of
true -> generate(ImmInstance1);
false -> ImmInstance1
end,
{'$used',ImmParts,ImmInstance2};
_ ->
ImmInstance1 = normal_gen(Type),
case proper_types:is_raw_type(ImmInstance1) of
true -> generate(ImmInstance1);
false -> ImmInstance1
end
end,
case proper_types:satisfies_all(clean_instance(ImmInstance), Type) of
{_,true} -> ImmInstance;
{true,false} -> generate(Type, TriesLeft - 1, {ok,ImmInstance});
{false,false} -> generate(Type, TriesLeft - 1, Fallback)
end.
%% @equiv pick(Type, 10)
-spec pick(Type::proper_types:raw_type()) -> {'ok',instance()} | 'error'.
pick(RawType) ->
pick(RawType, 10).
%% @equiv pick(Type, Size, now())
-spec pick(Type::proper_types:raw_type(), size()) -> {'ok', instance()} | 'error'.
pick(RawType, Size) ->
pick(RawType, Size, now()).
%% @doc Generates a random instance of `Type', of size `Size' with seed `Seed'.
-spec pick(Type::proper_types:raw_type(), size(), seed()) ->
{'ok',instance()} | 'error'.
pick(RawType, Size, Seed) ->
proper:global_state_init_size_seed(Size, Seed),
case clean_instance(safe_generate(RawType)) of
{ok,Instance} = Result ->
Msg = "WARNING: Some garbage has been left in the process registry "
"and the code server~n"
"to allow for the returned function(s) to run normally.~n"
"Please run proper:global_state_erase() when done.~n",
case contains_fun(Instance) of
true -> io:format(Msg, []);
false -> proper:global_state_erase()
end,
Result;
{error,Reason} ->
proper:report_error(Reason, fun io:format/2),
proper:global_state_erase(),
error
end.
%% @equiv sample(Type, 10, 20)
-spec sample(Type::proper_types:raw_type()) -> 'ok'.
sample(RawType) ->
sample(RawType, 10, 20).
%% @doc Generates and prints one random instance of `Type' for each size from
%% `StartSize' up to `EndSize'.
-spec sample(Type::proper_types:raw_type(), size(), size()) -> 'ok'.
sample(RawType, StartSize, EndSize) when StartSize =< EndSize ->
Tests = EndSize - StartSize + 1,
Prop = ?FORALL(X, RawType, begin io:format("~p~n",[X]), true end),
Opts = [quiet,{start_size,StartSize},{max_size,EndSize},{numtests,Tests}],
_ = proper:quickcheck(Prop, Opts),
ok.
%% @equiv sampleshrink(Type, 10)
-spec sampleshrink(Type::proper_types:raw_type()) -> 'ok'.
sampleshrink(RawType) ->
sampleshrink(RawType, 10).
%% @doc Generates a random instance of `Type', of size `Size', then shrinks it
%% as far as it goes. The value produced on each step of the shrinking process
%% is printed on the screen.
-spec sampleshrink(Type::proper_types:raw_type(), size()) -> 'ok'.
sampleshrink(RawType, Size) ->
proper:global_state_init_size(Size),
Type = proper_types:cook_outer(RawType),
case safe_generate(Type) of
{ok,ImmInstance} ->
Shrunk = keep_shrinking(ImmInstance, [], Type),
PrintInst = fun(I) -> io:format("~p~n",[clean_instance(I)]) end,
lists:foreach(PrintInst, Shrunk);
{error,Reason} ->
proper:report_error(Reason, fun io:format/2)
end,
proper:global_state_erase(),
ok.
-spec keep_shrinking(imm_instance(), [imm_instance()], proper_types:type()) ->
[imm_instance(),...].
keep_shrinking(ImmInstance, Acc, Type) ->
case proper_shrink:shrink(ImmInstance, Type, init) of
{[], _NewState} ->
lists:reverse([ImmInstance|Acc]);
{[Shrunk|_Rest], _NewState} ->
keep_shrinking(Shrunk, [ImmInstance|Acc], Type)
end.
-spec contains_fun(term()) -> boolean().
contains_fun(List) when is_list(List) ->
proper_arith:safe_any(fun contains_fun/1, List);
contains_fun(Tuple) when is_tuple(Tuple) ->
contains_fun(tuple_to_list(Tuple));
contains_fun(Fun) when is_function(Fun) ->
true;
contains_fun(_Term) ->
false.
%%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
%% Utility functions
%%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
%% @private
-spec normal_gen(proper_types:type()) -> imm_instance().
normal_gen(Type) ->
case proper_types:get_prop(generator, Type) of
{typed, Gen} ->
if
is_function(Gen, 1) -> Gen(Type);
is_function(Gen, 2) -> Gen(Type, proper:get_size(Type))
end;
Gen ->
if
is_function(Gen, 0) -> Gen();
is_function(Gen, 1) -> Gen(proper:get_size(Type))
end
end.
%% @private
-spec alt_gens(proper_types:type()) -> [imm_instance()].
alt_gens(Type) ->
case proper_types:find_prop(alt_gens, Type) of
{ok, AltGens} -> ?FORCE(AltGens);
error -> []
end.
%% @private
-spec clean_instance(imm_instance()) -> instance().
clean_instance({'$used',_ImmParts,ImmInstance}) ->
clean_instance(ImmInstance);
clean_instance({'$to_part',ImmInstance}) ->
clean_instance(ImmInstance);
clean_instance(ImmInstance) ->
if
is_list(ImmInstance) ->
%% CAUTION: this must handle improper lists
proper_arith:safe_map(fun clean_instance/1, ImmInstance);
is_tuple(ImmInstance) ->
proper_arith:tuple_map(fun clean_instance/1, ImmInstance);
true ->
ImmInstance
end.
%%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
%% Basic type generators
%%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
%% @private
-spec integer_gen(size(), proper_types:extint(), proper_types:extint()) ->
integer().
integer_gen(Size, inf, inf) ->
proper_arith:rand_int(Size);
integer_gen(Size, inf, High) ->
High - proper_arith:rand_non_neg_int(Size);
integer_gen(Size, Low, inf) ->
Low + proper_arith:rand_non_neg_int(Size);
integer_gen(Size, Low, High) ->
proper_arith:smart_rand_int(Size, Low, High).
%% @private
-spec float_gen(size(), proper_types:extnum(), proper_types:extnum()) ->
float().
float_gen(Size, inf, inf) ->
proper_arith:rand_float(Size);
float_gen(Size, inf, High) ->
High - proper_arith:rand_non_neg_float(Size);
float_gen(Size, Low, inf) ->
Low + proper_arith:rand_non_neg_float(Size);
float_gen(_Size, Low, High) ->
proper_arith:rand_float(Low, High).
%% @private
-spec atom_gen(size()) -> proper_types:type().
%% We make sure we never clash with internal atoms by checking that the first
%% character is not '$'.
atom_gen(Size) ->
?LET(Str,
?SUCHTHAT(X,
proper_types:resize(Size,
proper_types:list(proper_types:byte())),
X =:= [] orelse hd(X) =/= $$),
list_to_atom(Str)).
%% @private
-spec atom_rev(atom()) -> imm_instance().
atom_rev(Atom) ->
{'$used', atom_to_list(Atom), Atom}.
%% @private
-spec binary_gen(size()) -> proper_types:type().
binary_gen(Size) ->
?LET(Bytes,
proper_types:resize(Size,
proper_types:list(proper_types:byte())),
list_to_binary(Bytes)).
%% @private
-spec binary_rev(binary()) -> imm_instance().
binary_rev(Binary) ->
{'$used', binary_to_list(Binary), Binary}.
%% @private
-spec binary_len_gen(length()) -> proper_types:type().
binary_len_gen(Len) ->
?LET(Bytes,
proper_types:vector(Len, proper_types:byte()),
list_to_binary(Bytes)).
%% @private
-spec bitstring_gen(size()) -> proper_types:type().
bitstring_gen(Size) ->
?LET({BytesHead, NumBits, TailByte},
{proper_types:resize(Size,proper_types:binary()),
proper_types:range(0,7), proper_types:range(0,127)},
<<BytesHead/binary, TailByte:NumBits>>).
%% @private
-spec bitstring_rev(bitstring()) -> imm_instance().
bitstring_rev(BitString) ->
List = bitstring_to_list(BitString),
{BytesList, BitsTail} = lists:splitwith(fun erlang:is_integer/1, List),
{NumBits, TailByte} = case BitsTail of
[] -> {0, 0};
[Bits] -> N = bit_size(Bits),
<<Byte:N>> = Bits,
{N, Byte}
end,
{'$used',
{{'$used',BytesList,list_to_binary(BytesList)}, NumBits, TailByte},
BitString}.
%% @private
-spec bitstring_len_gen(length()) -> proper_types:type().
bitstring_len_gen(Len) ->
BytesLen = Len div 8,
BitsLen = Len rem 8,
?LET({BytesHead, NumBits, TailByte},
{proper_types:binary(BytesLen), BitsLen,
proper_types:range(0, 1 bsl BitsLen - 1)},
<<BytesHead/binary, TailByte:NumBits>>).
%% @private
-spec list_gen(size(), proper_types:type()) -> [imm_instance()].
list_gen(Size, ElemType) ->
Len = proper_arith:rand_int(0, Size),
vector_gen(Len, ElemType).
%% @private
-spec distlist_gen(size(), sized_generator(), boolean()) -> [imm_instance()].
distlist_gen(RawSize, Gen, NonEmpty) ->
Len = case NonEmpty of
true -> proper_arith:rand_int(1, erlang:max(1,RawSize));
false -> proper_arith:rand_int(0, RawSize)
end,
Size = case Len of
1 -> RawSize - 1;
_ -> RawSize
end,
%% TODO: this produces a lot of types: maybe a simple 'div' is sufficient?
Sizes = proper_arith:distribute(Size, Len),
InnerTypes = [Gen(S) || S <- Sizes],
fixed_list_gen(InnerTypes).
%% @private
-spec vector_gen(length(), proper_types:type()) -> [imm_instance()].
vector_gen(Len, ElemType) ->
vector_gen_tr(Len, ElemType, []).
-spec vector_gen_tr(length(), proper_types:type(), [imm_instance()]) ->
[imm_instance()].
vector_gen_tr(0, _ElemType, AccList) ->
AccList;
vector_gen_tr(Left, ElemType, AccList) ->
vector_gen_tr(Left - 1, ElemType, [generate(ElemType) | AccList]).
%% @private
-spec union_gen([proper_types:type(),...]) -> imm_instance().
union_gen(Choices) ->
{_Choice,Type} = proper_arith:rand_choose(Choices),
generate(Type).
%% @private
-spec weighted_union_gen([{frequency(),proper_types:type()},...]) ->
imm_instance().
weighted_union_gen(FreqChoices) ->
{_Choice,Type} = proper_arith:freq_choose(FreqChoices),
generate(Type).
%% @private
-spec safe_union_gen([proper_types:type(),...]) -> imm_instance().
safe_union_gen(Choices) ->
{Choice,Type} = proper_arith:rand_choose(Choices),
try generate(Type)
catch
error:_ ->
safe_union_gen(proper_arith:list_remove(Choice, Choices))
end.
%% @private
-spec safe_weighted_union_gen([{frequency(),proper_types:type()},...]) ->
imm_instance().
safe_weighted_union_gen(FreqChoices) ->
{Choice,Type} = proper_arith:freq_choose(FreqChoices),
try generate(Type)
catch
error:_ ->
safe_weighted_union_gen(proper_arith:list_remove(Choice,
FreqChoices))
end.
%% @private
-spec tuple_gen([proper_types:type()]) -> tuple().
tuple_gen(Fields) ->
list_to_tuple(fixed_list_gen(Fields)).
%% @private
-spec loose_tuple_gen(size(), proper_types:type()) -> proper_types:type().
loose_tuple_gen(Size, ElemType) ->
?LET(L,
proper_types:resize(Size, proper_types:list(ElemType)),
list_to_tuple(L)).
%% @private
-spec loose_tuple_rev(tuple(), proper_types:type()) -> imm_instance().
loose_tuple_rev(Tuple, ElemType) ->
CleanList = tuple_to_list(Tuple),
List = case proper_types:find_prop(reverse_gen, ElemType) of
{ok,{typed, ReverseGen}} ->
[ReverseGen(ElemType,X) || X <- CleanList];
{ok,ReverseGen} -> [ReverseGen(X) || X <- CleanList];
error -> CleanList
end,
{'$used', List, Tuple}.
%% @private
-spec exactly_gen(T) -> T.
exactly_gen(X) ->
X.
%% @private
-spec fixed_list_gen([proper_types:type()]) -> imm_instance()
; ({[proper_types:type()],proper_types:type()}) ->
maybe_improper_list(imm_instance(), imm_instance() | []).
fixed_list_gen({ProperHead,ImproperTail}) ->
[generate(F) || F <- ProperHead] ++ generate(ImproperTail);
fixed_list_gen(ProperFields) ->
[generate(F) || F <- ProperFields].
%% @private
-spec function_gen(arity(), proper_types:type()) -> function().
function_gen(Arity, RetType) ->
FunSeed = {proper_arith:rand_int(0, ?SEED_RANGE - 1),
proper_arith:rand_int(0, ?SEED_RANGE - 1)},
create_fun(Arity, RetType, FunSeed).
%% @private
-spec any_gen(size()) -> imm_instance().
any_gen(Size) ->
case get('$any_type') of
undefined -> real_any_gen(Size);
{type,AnyType} -> generate(proper_types:resize(Size, AnyType))
end.
-spec real_any_gen(size()) -> imm_instance().
real_any_gen(0) ->
SimpleTypes = [proper_types:integer(), proper_types:float(),
proper_types:atom()],
union_gen(SimpleTypes);
real_any_gen(Size) ->
FreqChoices = [{?ANY_SIMPLE_PROB,simple}, {?ANY_BINARY_PROB,binary},
{?ANY_EXPAND_PROB,expand}],
case proper_arith:freq_choose(FreqChoices) of
{_,simple} ->
real_any_gen(0);
{_,binary} ->
generate(proper_types:resize(Size, proper_types:bitstring()));
{_,expand} ->
%% TODO: statistics of produced terms?
NumElems = proper_arith:rand_int(0, Size - 1),
ElemSizes = proper_arith:distribute(Size - 1, NumElems),
ElemTypes = [?LAZY(real_any_gen(S)) || S <- ElemSizes],
case proper_arith:rand_int(1,2) of
1 -> fixed_list_gen(ElemTypes);
2 -> tuple_gen(ElemTypes)
end
end.
%% @private
-spec native_type_gen(mod_name(), string()) -> proper_types:type().
native_type_gen(Mod, TypeStr) ->
case proper_typeserver:translate_type({Mod,TypeStr}) of
{ok,Type} -> Type;
{error,Reason} -> throw({'$typeserver',Reason})
end.
%%------------------------------------------------------------------------------
%% Function-generation functions
%%------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-spec create_fun(arity(), proper_types:type(), fun_seed()) -> function().
create_fun(Arity, RetType, FunSeed) ->
Handler = fun(Args) -> function_body(Args, RetType, FunSeed) end,
Err = fun() -> throw('$arity_limit') end,
'MAKE_FUN'(Arity, Handler, Err).
%% @private
-spec get_ret_type(function()) -> proper_types:type().
get_ret_type(Fun) ->
{arity,Arity} = erlang:fun_info(Fun, arity),
put('$get_ret_type', true),
RetType = apply(Fun, lists:duplicate(Arity,dummy)),
erase('$get_ret_type'),
RetType.
-spec function_body([term()], proper_types:type(), fun_seed()) ->
proper_types:type() | instance().
function_body(Args, RetType, {Seed1,Seed2}) ->
case get('$get_ret_type') of
true ->
RetType;
_ ->
SavedSeed = get(?SEED_NAME),
update_seed({Seed1,Seed2,erlang:phash2(Args,?SEED_RANGE)}),
Ret = clean_instance(generate(RetType)),
put(?SEED_NAME, SavedSeed),
proper_symb:internal_eval(Ret)
end.
-ifdef(USE_SFMT).
update_seed(Seed) ->
sfmt:seed(Seed).
-else.
update_seed(Seed) ->
put(random_seed, Seed).
-endif.
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