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  1. +674 −0 COPYING
  2. +60 −0 Makefile
  3. +78 −0 include/proper.hrl
  4. +130 −0 include/proper_internal.hrl
  5. +8 −0 src/overview.edoc
  6. +314 −0 src/proper.erl
  7. +197 −0 src/proper_arith.erl
  8. +30 −0 src/proper_extra.erl
  9. +192 −0 src/proper_gen.erl
  10. +509 −0 src/proper_shrink.erl
  11. +229 −0 src/proper_tests.erl
  12. +448 −0 src/proper_types.erl
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674 COPYING
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+ IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
+WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS
+THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY
+GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE
+USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF
+DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD
+PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS),
+EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+SUCH DAMAGES.
+
+ 17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.
+
+ If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
+above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
+reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates
+an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the
+Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a
+copy of the Program in return for a fee.
+
+ END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
+
+ How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
+
+ If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
+possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
+free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
+
+ To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
+to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
+state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
+the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
+
+ <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
+ Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+
+Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
+
+ If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short
+notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
+
+ <program> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
+ This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
+ This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
+ under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
+
+The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
+parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands
+might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box".
+
+ You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school,
+if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary.
+For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see
+<http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+
+ The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program
+into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you
+may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with
+the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
+Public License instead of this License. But first, please read
+<http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html>.
View
60 Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,60 @@
+MODULES=proper proper_types proper_gen proper_shrink proper_arith proper_tests proper_extra
+HEADERS=proper proper_internal
+
+SRC_DIR=src
+HDR_DIR=include
+BIN_DIR=ebin
+DOC_DIR=doc
+TMP_PATTERN=*~ \\\#*\\\# *.dump core
+
+SRC_FILES=$(addprefix $(SRC_DIR)/, $(addsuffix .erl, $(MODULES)))
+HDR_FILES=$(addprefix $(HDR_DIR)/, $(addsuffix .hrl, $(HEADERS)))
+BIN_FILES=$(addprefix $(BIN_DIR)/, $(addsuffix .beam, $(MODULES)))
+DOC_FILES=$(DOC_DIR)/*
+TXT_FILES=COPYING Makefile README
+RELEASE_FILE=proper.tar.gz
+TMP_FILES=$(TMP_PATTERN) $(addprefix $(SRC_DIR)/, $(TMP_PATTERN)) $(addprefix $(HDR_DIR)/, $(TMP_PATTERN))
+
+ERL=erl -noinput -eval
+ERLC=erlc
+ERLC_FLAGS=-W2 -Ddebug -DTEST +debug_info +warn_missing_spec +warn_untyped_record
+EDOC_OPTIONS=[{overview, "$(SRC_DIR)/overview.edoc"}, {dialyzer_specs, all}, {report_missing_type, true}, {report_type_mismatch, true}, {pretty_print,erl_pp}, {preprocess, true}]
+DIALYZER_OPTIONS=-Wunmatched_returns
+RM=rm -f
+TAR=tar -czf
+
+
+# TODO: separate debug and optimization options
+# TODO: rules for help/text files
+# TODO: extra targets: test, tags, commit/update
+
+.PHONY: default all compile doc check clean distclean rebuild release
+
+default: compile
+
+all: compile doc
+
+compile: $(BIN_FILES)
+
+# TODO: this should be more fine-grained
+$(BIN_FILES): $(HDR_FILES)
+
+$(BIN_DIR)/%.beam: $(SRC_DIR)/%.erl
+ $(ERLC) $(ERLC_FLAGS) -I $(HDR_DIR) -o $(BIN_DIR) $<
+
+doc: $(SRC_FILES) $(HDR_FILES)
+ $(ERL) 'edoc:application(proper, ".", $(EDOC_OPTIONS)), halt().'
+
+check: compile
+ dialyzer $(DIALYZER_OPTIONS) $(BIN_DIR)
+
+clean:
+ $(RM) $(TMP_FILES)
+
+distclean: clean
+ $(RM) $(BIN_FILES) $(DOC_FILES) $(RELEASE_FILE)
+
+rebuild: distclean compile
+
+release: all clean
+ $(TAR) $(RELEASE_FILE) $(SRC_FILES) $(HDR_FILES) $(BIN_FILES) $(DOC_FILES) $(TXT_FILES)
View
78 include/proper.hrl
@@ -0,0 +1,78 @@
+%%% Copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis (manopapad@gmail.com)
+%%%
+%%% This file is part of PropEr.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+%%% it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+%%% the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
+%%% (at your option) any later version.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+%%% but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+%%% MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+%%% GNU General Public License for more details.
+%%%
+%%% You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+%%% along with PropEr. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+
+%% User header file
+% This shoulde be included in each file containing user type declarations and/or
+% properties to be tested.
+
+
+%% Generator macros
+
+-define(FORCE(X), (X)()).
+-define(DELAY(X), fun() -> X end).
+-define(SIZED(SizeArg,Gen), proper_types:sized(fun(SizeArg) -> Gen end)).
+-define(LET(X,RawType,Gen), proper_types:bind(RawType,fun(X) -> Gen end)).
+-define(SHRINK(Gen,AltGens),
+ proper_types:shrinkwith(?DELAY(Gen),?DELAY(AltGens))).
+-define(LETSHRINK(Xs,RawType,Gen),
+ proper_types:bind(RawType,
+ fun(Xs) ->
+ proper_types:shrinkwith(?DELAY(Gen),?DELAY(Xs))
+ end)).
+-define(SUCHTHAT(X,RawType,Condition),
+ proper_types:add_constraint(RawType,fun(X) -> Condition end,true)).
+-define(SUCHTHATMAYBE(X,RawType,Condition),
+ proper_types:add_constraint(RawType,fun(X) -> Condition end,false)).
+
+
+%% Type declaration macros
+
+-define(SEMI_OPAQUE(PropList), proper_types:new_type(PropList,semi_opaque)).
+-define(OPAQUE(PropList), proper_types:new_type(PropList,opaque)).
+
+
+%% Usage macros
+
+-define(FORALL(X,RawType,Prop), {'$forall',RawType,fun(X) -> Prop end}).
+-define(IMPLIES(Pre,Prop), {'$implies',Pre,?DELAY(Prop)}).
+-define(COLLECT(Category,Prop), {'$collect',Category,Prop}).
+-define(WHENFAIL(Action,Test), {'$whenfail',?DELAY(Action),?DELAY(Test)}).
+-define(NUMTESTS(N,Test), {'$numtests',N,Test}).
+-define(FAILS(Test), {'$fails',Test}).
+% TODO: -define(TRAPEXIT(Test), {'$trapexit',?DELAY(Test)}).
+% TODO: -define(TIMEOUT(Limit,Test), {'$timeout',Limit,?DELAY(Test)}).
+
+
+%% Default types
+
+-import(proper_types, [integer/2, float/2, atom/0, list/1, vector/2, union/1,
+ weighted_union/1, tuple/1, exactly/1, fixed_list/1]).
+
+
+%% Type aliases
+
+-import(proper_types, [integer/0, non_neg_integer/0, pos_integer/0,
+ neg_integer/0, float/0, non_neg_float/0, number/0,
+ boolean/0, byte/0, char/0, string/0, wunion/1]).
+
+
+%% QuickCheck compatibility
+
+-import(proper_types, [int/0, int/2, bool/0, choose/2, elements/1, oneof/1,
+ frequency/1]).
+-import(proper_types, [resize/2, relimit/2]).
+-import(proper, [numtests/2, collect/2, fails/1]).
View
130 include/proper_internal.hrl
@@ -0,0 +1,130 @@
+%%% Copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis (manopapad@gmail.com)
+%%%
+%%% This file is part of PropEr.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+%%% it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+%%% the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
+%%% (at your option) any later version.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+%%% but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+%%% MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+%%% GNU General Public License for more details.
+%%%
+%%% You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+%%% along with PropEr. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+
+%% Internal header file
+% This header is included in all PropEr module source files.
+
+
+%% Constants
+
+-define(DEFAULT_RNG_CONST, 10).
+-define(MAX_TRIES_TO_SATISFY_CONSTRAINTS, 50).
+-define(MAX_RANDOM_TRIES_WHEN_SHRINKING, 5).
+-define(MAX_LIST_LEN, 200). % TODO: make this into a parameter
+
+
+%% Generator macros
+
+-define(FORCE(X), (X)()).
+-define(DELAY(X), fun() -> X end).
+-define(SIZED(SizeArg,Gen), proper_types:sized(fun(SizeArg) -> Gen end)).
+-define(LET(X,RawType,Gen), proper_types:bind(RawType,fun(X) -> Gen end)).
+-define(SHRINK(Gen,AltGens),
+ proper_types:shrinkwith(?DELAY(Gen),?DELAY(AltGens))).
+-define(LETSHRINK(Xs,RawType,Gen),
+ proper_types:bind(RawType,
+ fun(Xs) ->
+ proper_types:shrinkwith(?DELAY(Gen),?DELAY(Xs))
+ end)).
+-define(SUCHTHAT(X,RawType,Condition),
+ proper_types:add_constraint(RawType,fun(X) -> Condition end,true)).
+-define(SUCHTHATMAYBE(X,RawType,Condition),
+ proper_types:add_constraint(RawType,fun(X) -> Condition end,false)).
+
+
+%% Type declaration macros
+
+-define(BASIC(PropList), proper_types:new_type(PropList,basic)).
+-define(WRAPPER(PropList), proper_types:new_type(PropList,wrapper)).
+-define(CONSTRUCTED(PropList), proper_types:new_type(PropList,constructed)).
+-define(SEMI_OPAQUE(PropList), proper_types:new_type(PropList,semi_opaque)).
+-define(OPAQUE(PropList), proper_types:new_type(PropList,opaque)).
+-define(SUBTYPE(Type,PropList), proper_types:subtype(Type,PropList)).
+
+
+%% Dialyzer Types
+
+-type extnum() :: 'plus_inf' | 'minus_inf' | number().
+-type ternary() :: 'true' | 'false' | 'unknown'.
+-type size() :: non_neg_integer().
+-type length() :: non_neg_integer().
+-type position() :: pos_integer().
+-type frequency() :: pos_integer().
+
+-type type() :: {'$type', [type_prop()]}.
+% TODO: update raw_type() when adding more standard types
+-type raw_type() :: type() | integer() | float() | atom() | tuple()
+ | maybe_improper_list(_,_) | <<_:_ * 1>>.
+-type instance() :: term().
+% TODO: update imm_instance() when adding more types: be careful when reading
+% anything that returns it
+-type imm_instance() :: raw_type()
+ | instance()
+ | {'$used', _, _}.
+-type index() :: term().
+-type value() :: term().
+-type parts() :: term().
+-type state() :: 'init' | 'done' | {'shrunk',position(),_} | term().
+
+-type type_prop() ::
+ {'kind', 'basic' | 'wrapper' | 'constructed' | 'semi_opaque' | 'opaque'}
+ | {'generator', fun((size()) -> imm_instance()) | fun(() -> imm_instance())}
+ | {'size_limit', size()}
+ | {'size_transform', fun((size()) -> size())}
+ | {'is_instance', fun((term()) -> ternary())}
+ | {'shrinkers',
+ [fun((imm_instance(),type(),state()) -> {[imm_instance()],state()})]}
+ | {'internal_type', raw_type()}
+ | {'internal_types',
+ tuple(type()) | maybe_improper_list(type(),type())}
+ % The items returned by 'remove' must be of this type.
+ | {'get_length', fun((imm_instance()) -> length())}
+ % If this is a container type, this should return the number of elements
+ % it contains.
+ | {'split', fun((imm_instance()) -> [imm_instance()])
+ | fun((length(),imm_instance()) ->
+ {imm_instance(),imm_instance()})}
+ % If present, the appropriate form depends on whether get_length is
+ % defined: if get_length is undefined, this must be in the one-argument
+ % form (e.g. a tree should be split into its subtrees), else it must be
+ % in the two-argument form (e.g. a list should be split in two at the
+ % index provided).
+ | {'join', fun((imm_instance(),imm_instance()) -> imm_instance())}
+ | {'get_indices', fun((imm_instance()) -> [index()])}
+ % If this is a container type, this should return a list of indices we
+ % can use to remove or insert elements from the given instance.
+ | {'remove', fun((index(),imm_instance()) -> imm_instance())}
+ | {'retrieve', fun((index(),imm_instance()) -> value())}
+ | {'update', fun((index(),value(),imm_instance()) -> imm_instance())}
+ | {'constraints', [{fun((instance()) -> boolean()), boolean()}]}
+ % A list of constraints on instances of this type: each constraint is a
+ % tuple of a fun that must return 'true' for each valid instance and a
+ % boolean field that specifies whether the condition is strict.
+ | {'parts_type', type()}
+ | {'combine', fun((parts()) -> imm_instance())}
+ | {'alt_gens', fun(() -> [imm_instance()])}.
+
+-record(opts, {quiet = false :: boolean(),
+ numtests = 100 :: pos_integer(),
+ max_shrinks = 300 :: non_neg_integer(),
+ expect_fail = false :: boolean(),
+ try_shrunk = false :: boolean(),
+ shrunk :: [imm_instance()]}).
+
+-record(ctx, {bound = [] :: [term()],
+ fail_actions = [] :: [fun(() -> _)],
+ categories = [] :: [term()]}).
View
8 src/overview.edoc
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+PropEr overview page
+
+
+@author Manolis Papadakis <manopapad@gmail.com>
+@copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis
+@version {@version}
+@title PropEr: a PROPerty-based testing tool for ERlang
+@doc No top-level documentation yet.
View
314 src/proper.erl
@@ -0,0 +1,314 @@
+%%% Copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis (manopapad@gmail.com)
+%%%
+%%% This file is part of PropEr.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+%%% it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+%%% the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
+%%% (at your option) any later version.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+%%% but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+%%% MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+%%% GNU General Public License for more details.
+%%%
+%%% You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+%%% along with PropEr. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+
+%% @author Manolis Papadakis <manopapad@gmail.com>
+%% @copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis
+%% @version {@version}
+%% @doc This is the main PropEr module.
+
+-module(proper).
+-export([numtests/2, collect/2, fails/1]).
+-export([set_size/1, delete_size/0, grow_size/0, get_size/1, parse_opts/1,
+ global_state_init/1, global_state_erase/1]).
+-export([check/1, check/2, still_fails/3, skip_to_next/1]).
+-export([print/3]).
+
+-include("proper_internal.hrl").
+
+
+%% Common functions
+
+numtests(N, Test) -> {'$numtests',N,Test}.
+
+collect(Category, Prop) -> {'$collect',Category,Prop}.
+
+fails(Test) -> {'$fails',Test}.
+
+set_size(Size) ->
+ put('$size', Size),
+ ok.
+
+delete_size() ->
+ erase('$size'),
+ ok.
+
+get_size() ->
+ get('$size').
+
+grow_size() ->
+ Size = get_size(),
+ set_size(Size + 1),
+ ok.
+
+get_size(Type) ->
+ Size1 = get_size(),
+ Size2 = case proper_types:find_prop(size_transform, Type) of
+ {ok, Transform} -> Transform(Size1);
+ error -> Size1
+ end,
+ % TODO: should the size be normalized (streched or pressed)?
+ case proper_types:find_prop(size_limit, Type) of
+ {ok, Limit} -> erlang:min(Size2, Limit);
+ error -> Size2
+ end.
+
+parse_opts(OptsList) ->
+ parse_opts_tr(OptsList, #opts{}).
+
+parse_opts_tr([], Opts) ->
+ Opts;
+parse_opts_tr([Opt | Rest], Opts) ->
+ NewOpts =
+ case Opt of
+ quiet -> Opts#opts{quiet = true};
+ {numtests,N} -> Opts#opts{numtests = N};
+ expect_fail -> Opts#opts{expect_fail = true};
+ {max_shrinks,N} -> Opts#opts{max_shrinks = N}
+ end,
+ parse_opts_tr(Rest, NewOpts).
+
+
+%% Main usage functions
+
+check(Test) ->
+ check(Test, #opts{}).
+
+check({'$numtests',N,Test}, Opts = #opts{}) ->
+ check(Test, Opts#opts{numtests = N});
+% We only allow a 'fails' to be an external wrapper, since the property
+% wrapped by a 'fails' is not delayed, and thus a failure-inducing exception
+% will cause the test to fail before the 'fails' is processed.
+check({'$fails',Test}, Opts = #opts{}) ->
+ check(Test, Opts#opts{expect_fail = true});
+check(Test, Opts = #opts{}) ->
+ global_state_init(Opts),
+ NumTests = Opts#opts.numtests,
+ Result = perform_tr(0, NumTests, Test, none, Opts),
+ report_results(Result, Opts),
+ FinalResult =
+ case Result of
+ {failed, Performed, Reason, ImmFailedTestCase} ->
+ FailedTestCase = proper_gen:clean_instance(ImmFailedTestCase),
+ {Shrinks, ImmMinTestCase} =
+ proper_shrink:shrink(ImmFailedTestCase, Test, Reason, Opts),
+ MinTestCase = proper_gen:clean_instance(ImmMinTestCase),
+ report_shrinking(Shrinks, MinTestCase, Opts),
+ {failed,Performed,Reason,FailedTestCase,Shrinks,MinTestCase};
+ _ ->
+ Result
+ end,
+ global_state_erase(Opts),
+ case Opts#opts.quiet of
+ true -> FinalResult;
+ false -> ok
+ end;
+check(Test, OptsList) ->
+ check(Test, parse_opts(OptsList)).
+
+global_state_init(Opts) ->
+ proper_arith:rand_start(Opts),
+ set_size(-1),
+ ok.
+
+global_state_erase(_Opts) ->
+ delete_size(),
+ proper_arith:rand_stop(),
+ ok.
+
+perform_tr(0, 0, _Test, _CatDicts, _Opts) ->
+ {error, cant_satisfy};
+perform_tr(Performed, 0, _Test, CatDicts, _Opts) ->
+ {passed, Performed, CatDicts};
+perform_tr(Performed, Left, Test, CatDicts, Opts) ->
+ grow_size(),
+ case run(Test, Opts) of
+ {passed, Categories} ->
+ print(".", [], Opts),
+ NewCatDicts = update_catdicts(Categories, CatDicts),
+ perform_tr(Performed + 1, Left - 1, Test, NewCatDicts, Opts);
+ {failed, Reason, Bound} ->
+ print("!", [], Opts),
+ {failed, Performed + 1, Reason, Bound};
+ {error, rejected} ->
+ print("x", [], Opts),
+ perform_tr(Performed, Left - 1, Test, CatDicts, Opts);
+ Error = {error, _Reason} ->
+ Error
+ end.
+
+update_catdicts(Categories, none) ->
+ lists:map(fun(C) -> orddict:from_list([{C,1}]) end, Categories);
+update_catdicts(Categories, CatDicts) ->
+ lists:zipwith(fun(C,D) -> add_to_category(C,D) end,
+ Categories, CatDicts).
+
+add_to_category(Category, CatDict) ->
+ case orddict:find(Category, CatDict) of
+ {ok, Count} -> orddict:store(Category, Count + 1, CatDict);
+ error -> orddict:store(Category, 1, CatDict)
+ end.
+
+run(Test, Opts) ->
+ run(Test, #ctx{}, Opts).
+
+run(true, Context, _Opts) ->
+ {passed, lists:reverse(Context#ctx.categories)};
+run(false, Context, Opts) ->
+ % TODO: should this be suppressed when on quiet mode?
+ case Opts#opts.quiet of
+ true -> ok;
+ false -> lists:foreach(fun(A) -> ?FORCE(A) end,
+ lists:reverse(Context#ctx.fail_actions))
+ end,
+ {failed, false_property, lists:reverse(Context#ctx.bound)};
+run({'$forall',RawType,Prop}, Context = #ctx{bound = Bound}, Opts) ->
+ Type = proper_types:cook_outer(RawType),
+ case {Opts#opts.try_shrunk, Opts#opts.shrunk} of
+ {true, []} ->
+ {passed, didnt_crash};
+ {true, [ImmInstance | Rest]} ->
+ case proper_arith:surely(proper_types:is_instance(ImmInstance,
+ Type)) of
+ true ->
+ Instance = proper_gen:clean_instance(ImmInstance),
+ NewOpts = Opts#opts{shrunk = Rest},
+ run({'$apply',[Instance],Prop}, Context, NewOpts);
+ false ->
+ {error, wrong_type}
+ end;
+ {false, _} ->
+ case proper_gen:generate(Type) of
+ '$cant_generate' ->
+ {error, cant_generate};
+ ImmInstance ->
+ Instance = proper_gen:clean_instance(ImmInstance),
+ NewContext = Context#ctx{bound = [ImmInstance | Bound]},
+ run({'$apply',[Instance],Prop}, NewContext, Opts)
+ end
+ end;
+run({'$implies',Pre,Prop}, Context, Opts) ->
+ case Pre of
+ true -> run({'$apply',[],Prop}, Context, Opts);
+ false -> {error, rejected}
+ end;
+run({'$collect',NewCategory,Prop}, Context = #ctx{categories = Categories},
+ Opts) ->
+ NewContext = Context#ctx{categories = [NewCategory | Categories]},
+ run(Prop, NewContext, Opts);
+run({'$whenfail',Action,Prop}, Context = #ctx{fail_actions = FailActions},
+ Opts) ->
+ NewContext = Context#ctx{fail_actions = [Action | FailActions]},
+ run({'$apply',[],Prop}, NewContext, Opts);
+run({'$apply',Args,Prop}, Context, Opts) ->
+ % TODO: is it correct for this to cover errors and exits too?
+ try
+ run(erlang:apply(Prop, Args), Context, Opts)
+ catch
+ throw:Reason ->
+ {failed, false_property, Bound} = run(false, Context, Opts),
+ {failed, {throw,Reason}, Bound}
+ end.
+
+still_fails(TestCase, Test, OldReason) ->
+ Opts = #opts{quiet = true, try_shrunk = true, shrunk = TestCase},
+ case run(Test, Opts) of
+ % We check that it's the same fault that caused the crash.
+ % TODO: Should we check that the stacktrace is the same?
+ {failed, Reason, _Bound} -> OldReason =:= Reason;
+ _ -> false
+ end.
+
+% We should never encounter false ?IMPLIES or true final results.
+skip_to_next(false) ->
+ false;
+skip_to_next(Test = {'$forall',_RawType,_Prop}) ->
+ Test;
+skip_to_next({'$implies',true,Prop}) ->
+ skip_to_next({'$apply',[],Prop});
+skip_to_next({'$collect',_Category,Prop}) ->
+ skip_to_next(Prop);
+skip_to_next({'$whenfail',_Action,Prop}) ->
+ skip_to_next({'$apply',[],Prop});
+skip_to_next({'$apply',Args,Prop}) ->
+ try
+ skip_to_next(erlang:apply(Prop, Args))
+ catch
+ throw:_Reason -> false
+ end.
+
+
+% Output functions
+
+print(Str, Args, Opts) ->
+ case Opts#opts.quiet of
+ true -> ok;
+ false -> io:format(Str, Args)
+ end.
+
+report_results(_Result, #opts{quiet = true}) ->
+ ok;
+report_results({passed,Performed,CatDicts}, Opts) ->
+ case Opts#opts.expect_fail of
+ true -> io:format("~nError: no test failed~n", []);
+ false -> io:format("~nOK, passed ~b tests~n", [Performed])
+ end,
+ print_categories(Performed, CatDicts),
+ ok;
+report_results({failed,Performed,_Reason,ImmFailedTestCase}, Opts) ->
+ case Opts#opts.expect_fail of
+ true ->
+ io:format("~nOK, failed as expected, after ~b tests.~n",
+ [Performed]);
+ false ->
+ io:format("~nFailed, after ~b tests.~n", [Performed]),
+ FailedTestCase = proper_gen:clean_instance(ImmFailedTestCase),
+ print_instances(FailedTestCase),
+ io:format("Shrinking", [])
+ end,
+ ok;
+report_results({error,cant_generate}, _Opts) ->
+ io:format("~nError: couldn't produce an instance that satisfies all strict"
+ ++ " constraints after ~b tries~n",
+ [?MAX_TRIES_TO_SATISFY_CONSTRAINTS]),
+ ok;
+report_results({error,cant_satisfy}, _Opts) ->
+ io:format("~nError: no valid test could be generated.~n", []),
+ ok.
+
+print_categories(_Performed, []) ->
+ ok;
+print_categories(Performed, [CatDict]) ->
+ lists:foreach(fun({C,N}) ->
+ io:format("~7.3f\% ~w~n", [100 * N / Performed,C])
+ end,
+ orddict:to_list(CatDict)),
+ ok;
+print_categories(Performed, [CatDict | Rest]) ->
+ print_categories(Performed, [CatDict]),
+ io:format("~n", []),
+ print_categories(Performed, Rest).
+
+print_instances(Instances) ->
+ lists:foreach(fun(I) -> io:format("~w~n", [I]) end, Instances),
+ ok.
+
+report_shrinking(_Shrinks, _MinTestCase, #opts{quiet = true}) ->
+ ok;
+report_shrinking(Shrinks, MinTestCase, _Opts) ->
+ io:format("(~b times)~n", [Shrinks]),
+ print_instances(MinTestCase),
+ ok.
View
197 src/proper_arith.erl
@@ -0,0 +1,197 @@
+%%% Copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis (manopapad@gmail.com)
+%%%
+%%% This file is part of PropEr.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+%%% it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+%%% the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
+%%% (at your option) any later version.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+%%% but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+%%% MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+%%% GNU General Public License for more details.
+%%%
+%%% You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+%%% along with PropEr. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+
+%% @author Manolis Papadakis <manopapad@gmail.com>
+%% @copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis
+%% @version {@version}
+%% @doc This module contains helper arithmetic and random functions.
+
+-module(proper_arith).
+-export([le/2, and3/2, or3/2, any3/1, all3/1, maybe/1, surely/1]).
+-export([rand_start/1, rand_stop/0]).
+-export([rand_int/0, rand_int/1, rand_int/2,
+ rand_non_neg_int/0, rand_non_neg_int/1]).
+-export([rand_float/0, rand_float/1, rand_float/2,
+ rand_non_neg_float/0, rand_non_neg_float/1]).
+-export([jumble/1, rand_choose/1, freq_choose/1]).
+
+-include("proper_internal.hrl").
+
+
+-spec le(extnum(), extnum()) -> boolean().
+le(minus_inf, _B) -> true;
+le(_A, plus_inf) -> true;
+le(A, B) -> A =< B.
+
+-spec and3(ternary(), ternary()) -> ternary().
+and3(true, true) -> true;
+and3(false, _) -> false;
+and3(_, false) -> false;
+and3(_, _) -> unknown.
+
+-spec or3(ternary(), ternary()) -> ternary().
+or3(false, false) -> false;
+or3(true, _) -> true;
+or3(_, true) -> true;
+or3(_, _) -> unknown.
+
+-spec any3([ternary()]) -> ternary().
+any3(TernList) ->
+ any3_tr(TernList, false).
+
+-spec any3_tr([ternary()], boolean()) -> ternary().
+any3_tr([], true) ->
+ unknown;
+any3_tr([], false) ->
+ false;
+any3_tr([true | _Rest], _FoundUnknown) ->
+ true;
+any3_tr([false | Rest], FoundUnknown) ->
+ any3_tr(Rest, FoundUnknown);
+any3_tr([unknown | Rest], _FoundUnknown) ->
+ any3_tr(Rest, true).
+
+-spec all3([ternary()]) -> ternary().
+all3(TernList) ->
+ all3_tr(TernList, false).
+
+-spec all3_tr([ternary()], boolean()) -> ternary().
+all3_tr([], true) ->
+ unknown;
+all3_tr([], false) ->
+ true;
+all3_tr([true | Rest], FoundUnknown) ->
+ all3_tr(Rest, FoundUnknown);
+all3_tr([false | _Rest], _FoundUnknown) ->
+ false;
+all3_tr([unknown | Rest], _FoundUnknown) ->
+ all3_tr(Rest, true).
+
+-spec maybe(ternary()) -> boolean().
+maybe(true) -> true;
+maybe(false) -> false;
+maybe(unknown) -> true.
+
+-spec surely(ternary()) -> boolean().
+surely(true) -> true;
+surely(false) -> false;
+surely(unknown) -> false.
+
+%% @doc Seeds the random number generator. This function should be run before
+%% calling any other function from this module.
+-spec rand_start(#opts{}) -> 'ok'.
+rand_start(_Opts) ->
+ _ = random:seed(now()),
+ % TODO: read options for crypto usage and alternative RNG bijections here,
+ % start the crypto server here
+ ok.
+
+-spec rand_stop() -> 'ok'.
+rand_stop() ->
+ erase(random_seed),
+ ok.
+
+%% @doc Returns a random integer. Probability is higher for values closer to 0.
+-spec rand_int() -> integer().
+rand_int() ->
+ round(rand_float()).
+
+-spec rand_int(non_neg_integer()) -> integer().
+rand_int(Const) ->
+ round(rand_float(Const)).
+
+-spec rand_non_neg_int() -> non_neg_integer().
+rand_non_neg_int() ->
+ trunc(rand_non_neg_float()).
+
+-spec rand_non_neg_int(non_neg_integer()) -> non_neg_integer().
+rand_non_neg_int(Const) ->
+ trunc(rand_non_neg_float(Const)).
+
+-spec rand_int(integer(), integer()) -> integer().
+% TODO: global option to use crypto module's rand_uniform(Lo,Hi) (caution:
+% produced values will be Lo le N lt Hi)
+rand_int(Low, High) when Low =< High ->
+ Low + random:uniform(High - Low + 1) - 1.
+
+-spec rand_float() -> float().
+rand_float() ->
+ rand_float(?DEFAULT_RNG_CONST).
+
+-spec rand_float(non_neg_integer()) -> float().
+rand_float(Const) ->
+ X = rand_non_neg_float(Const),
+ case random:uniform(2) of
+ 1 -> X;
+ 2 -> -X
+ end.
+
+-spec rand_non_neg_float() -> float().
+rand_non_neg_float() ->
+ rand_non_neg_float(?DEFAULT_RNG_CONST).
+
+-spec rand_non_neg_float(non_neg_integer()) -> float().
+rand_non_neg_float(Const) when Const >= 0 ->
+ case random:uniform() of
+ 1.0 -> rand_non_neg_float(Const);
+ X -> Const * zero_one_to_zero_inf(X)
+ end.
+
+-spec rand_float(float(), float()) -> float().
+rand_float(Low, High) when Low =< High ->
+ Low + random:uniform() * (High - Low).
+
+-spec zero_one_to_zero_inf(float()) -> float().
+% This function must return only non-negative values and map 0.0 to 0.0, but
+% may be undefined at 1.0.
+% TODO: read global options and decide here which bijection to use
+zero_one_to_zero_inf(X) ->
+ 10 * X / math:sqrt(1 - X*X).
+
+-spec jumble([X]) -> [X].
+%% @doc Produces a random permutation of a list.
+jumble(List) ->
+ jumble_tr(List, length(List), []).
+
+-spec jumble_tr([X], non_neg_integer(), [X]) -> [X].
+jumble_tr([], 0, Acc) ->
+ Acc;
+jumble_tr(List, Len, Acc) ->
+ Pos = rand_int(0, Len - 1),
+ {List1, [H|List2]} = lists:split(Pos, List),
+ jumble_tr(List1 ++ List2, Len - 1, [H|Acc]).
+
+-spec rand_choose([X]) -> {position(),X}.
+rand_choose(Choices) when Choices =/= [] ->
+ Pos = rand_int(1, length(Choices)),
+ {Pos, lists:nth(Pos, Choices)}.
+
+-spec freq_choose([{frequency(),X}]) -> {frequency(),X}.
+freq_choose(Choices) when Choices =/= [] ->
+ AddFreq = fun({Freq,_},Acc) -> Freq + Acc end,
+ SumFreq = lists:foldl(AddFreq, 0, Choices),
+ freq_select(rand_int(1, SumFreq), Choices, 1).
+
+-spec freq_select(pos_integer(), [{frequency(),X}], position())
+ -> {position(),X}.
+freq_select(N, [{Freq,Choice} | Rest], Pos) ->
+ case N =< Freq of
+ true ->
+ {Pos,Choice};
+ false ->
+ freq_select(N - Freq, Rest, Pos + 1)
+ end.
View
30 src/proper_extra.erl
@@ -0,0 +1,30 @@
+%%% Copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis (manopapad@gmail.com)
+%%%
+%%% This file is part of PropEr.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+%%% it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+%%% the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
+%%% (at your option) any later version.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+%%% but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+%%% MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+%%% GNU General Public License for more details.
+%%%
+%%% You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+%%% along with PropEr. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+
+%% @author Manolis Papadakis <manopapad@gmail.com>
+%% @copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis
+%% @version {@version}
+%% @doc Some additional types from the standard library are declared here.
+
+-module(proper_extra).
+-export([]).
+
+-include("proper_internal.hrl").
+
+
+% TODO: array, dict, set, gb_tree, gb_set, orddict, ordset, queue. sofs, ...
+% TODO: syntax trees
View
192 src/proper_gen.erl
@@ -0,0 +1,192 @@
+%%% Copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis (manopapad@gmail.com)
+%%%
+%%% This file is part of PropEr.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+%%% it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+%%% the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
+%%% (at your option) any later version.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+%%% but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+%%% MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+%%% GNU General Public License for more details.
+%%%
+%%% You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+%%% along with PropEr. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+
+%% @author Manolis Papadakis <manopapad@gmail.com>
+%% @copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis
+%% @version {@version}
+%% @doc The generator subsystem and generators for basic types are contained in
+%% this module.
+
+-module(proper_gen).
+-export([generate/1, generate/3, sample/2, normal_gen/1, alt_gens/1,
+ clean_instance/1]).
+-export([integer_gen/3, float_gen/3, atom_gen/0, list_gen/2, vector_gen/2,
+ union_gen/1, weighted_union_gen/1, tuple_gen/1, exactly_gen/1,
+ fixed_list_gen/1]).
+
+-include("proper_internal.hrl").
+
+
+%% Instance generation functions
+
+generate(Type = {'$type',_Props}) ->
+ generate(Type, ?MAX_TRIES_TO_SATISFY_CONSTRAINTS, '$none');
+generate(RawType) ->
+ generate(proper_types:cook_outer(RawType)).
+
+generate(_Type, 0, '$none') ->
+ '$cant_generate';
+generate(_Type, 0, Fallback) ->
+ Fallback;
+generate(Type, Tries, Fallback) ->
+ {Instance, Result} =
+ case proper_types:get_prop(kind, Type) of
+ constructed ->
+ PartsType = proper_types:get_prop(parts_type, Type),
+ Combine = proper_types:get_prop(combine, Type),
+ ImmParts = generate(PartsType),
+ Parts = clean_instance(ImmParts),
+ ImmInstance1 = Combine(Parts),
+ ImmInstance2 =
+ case proper_types:is_raw_type(ImmInstance1) of
+ true -> generate(ImmInstance1);
+ false -> ImmInstance1
+ end,
+ {clean_instance(ImmInstance2),{'$used',ImmParts,ImmInstance2}};
+ Kind ->
+ ImmInstance1 = normal_gen(Type),
+ ImmInstance2 =
+ case proper_types:is_raw_type(ImmInstance1) of
+ true -> generate(ImmInstance1);
+ false -> ImmInstance1
+ end,
+ CleanInstance = clean_instance(ImmInstance2),
+ ImmInstance3 =
+ case Kind of
+ opaque -> CleanInstance;
+ _ -> ImmInstance2
+ end,
+ {CleanInstance,ImmInstance3}
+ end,
+ case proper_types:satisfies_all(Instance, Type) of
+ {_,true} -> Result;
+ {true,false} -> generate(Type, Tries - 1, Result);
+ {false,false} -> % TODO: is it okay to grow the size here?
+ proper:grow_size(),
+ generate(Type, Tries - 1, Fallback)
+ end.
+
+sample(Size, RawType) ->
+ Opts = #opts{},
+ proper:global_state_init(Opts),
+ proper:set_size(Size),
+ ImmInstance = generate(RawType),
+ %io:format("~p~n~n", [ImmInstance]),
+ proper:global_state_erase(Opts),
+ clean_instance(ImmInstance).
+
+% functions that produce one step
+normal_gen(Type) ->
+ Gen = proper_types:get_prop(generator, Type),
+ if
+ is_function(Gen, 0) -> Gen();
+ is_function(Gen, 1) -> Size = proper:get_size(Type),
+ Gen(Size)
+ end.
+
+alt_gens(Type) ->
+ case proper_types:find_prop(alt_gens, Type) of
+ {ok, AltGens} -> ?FORCE(AltGens);
+ error -> []
+ end.
+
+% TODO: is it possible to have a raw_type tuple here?
+clean_instance({'$used',_ImmParts,ImmInstance}) ->
+ clean_instance(ImmInstance);
+clean_instance({'$gen',_GenNum,ImmInstance}) ->
+ clean_instance(ImmInstance);
+clean_instance(ImmInstance) ->
+ if
+ is_list(ImmInstance) ->
+ % CAUTION: this must handle improper lists
+ safemap(fun ?MODULE:clean_instance/1, ImmInstance);
+ is_tuple(ImmInstance) ->
+ tuplemap(fun ?MODULE:clean_instance/1, ImmInstance);
+ true ->
+ ImmInstance
+ end.
+
+safemap(Fun, List) ->
+ safemap_tr(Fun, List, []).
+
+safemap_tr(_Fun, [], AccList) ->
+ lists:reverse(AccList);
+safemap_tr(Fun, [Head | Tail], AccList) ->
+ safemap_tr(Fun, Tail, [Fun(Head) | AccList]);
+safemap_tr(Fun, ImproperTail, AccList) ->
+ lists:reverse(AccList) ++ Fun(ImproperTail).
+
+tuplemap(Fun, Tuple) ->
+ erlang:list_to_tuple(lists:map(Fun, erlang:tuple_to_list(Tuple))).
+
+
+%% Basic type generators
+
+integer_gen(Size, minus_inf, plus_inf) ->
+ proper_arith:rand_int(Size);
+integer_gen(Size, minus_inf, High) ->
+ High - proper_arith:rand_non_neg_int(Size);
+integer_gen(Size, Low, plus_inf) ->
+ Low + proper_arith:rand_non_neg_int(Size);
+integer_gen(_Size, Low, High) ->
+ proper_arith:rand_int(Low, High).
+
+float_gen(Size, minus_inf, plus_inf) ->
+ proper_arith:rand_float(Size);
+float_gen(Size, minus_inf, High) ->
+ High - proper_arith:rand_non_neg_float(Size);
+float_gen(Size, Low, plus_inf) ->
+ Low + proper_arith:rand_non_neg_float(Size);
+float_gen(_Size, Low, High) ->
+ proper_arith:rand_float(Low, High).
+
+% we make sure we never clash by checking that the first character is not '$'
+atom_gen() ->
+ ?LET(Str,
+ ?SUCHTHAT(X,
+ proper_types:relimit(255,
+ proper_types:list(proper_types:byte())),
+ length(X) =:= 0 orelse first(X) =/= $$),
+ erlang:list_to_atom(Str)).
+
+first([Head | _Rest]) -> Head.
+
+list_gen(Size, ElemType) ->
+ Len = proper_arith:rand_int(0, Size),
+ vector_gen(Len, ElemType).
+
+vector_gen(Len, ElemType) ->
+ fixed_list_gen(lists:duplicate(Len, ElemType)).
+
+union_gen(Choices) ->
+ {_Choice,Type} = proper_arith:rand_choose(Choices),
+ generate(Type).
+
+weighted_union_gen(FreqChoices) ->
+ {_Choice,Type} = proper_arith:freq_choose(FreqChoices),
+ generate(Type).
+
+tuple_gen(Fields) ->
+ erlang:list_to_tuple(fixed_list_gen(Fields)).
+
+exactly_gen(X) ->
+ X.
+
+fixed_list_gen({ProperHead,ImproperTail}) ->
+ lists:map(fun ?MODULE:generate/1, ProperHead) ++ generate(ImproperTail);
+fixed_list_gen(ProperFields) ->
+ lists:map(fun ?MODULE:generate/1, ProperFields).
View
509 src/proper_shrink.erl
@@ -0,0 +1,509 @@
+%%% Copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis (manopapad@gmail.com)
+%%%
+%%% This file is part of PropEr.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+%%% it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+%%% the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
+%%% (at your option) any later version.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+%%% but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+%%% MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+%%% GNU General Public License for more details.
+%%%
+%%% You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+%%% along with PropEr. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+
+%% @author Manolis Papadakis <manopapad@gmail.com>
+%% @copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis
+%% @version {@version}
+%% @doc The shrinking subsystem and all predefined shrinkers are contained in
+%% this module.
+
+-module(proper_shrink).
+-export([shrink/4]).
+-export([alternate_shrinker/3, unwrap_shrinker/3, parts_shrinker/3,
+ recursive_shrinker/3]).
+-export([split_shrinker/3, remove_shrinker/3, elements_shrinker/3]).
+-export([integer_shrinker/4, float_shrinker/4, union_first_choice_shrinker/3,
+ union_recursive_shrinker/3]).
+
+-include("proper_internal.hrl").
+
+
+%% Main shrinking functions
+
+shrink(ImmFailedTestCase, Test, Reason, Opts) ->
+ shrink_to_fixpoint(ImmFailedTestCase, Test, Reason,
+ 0, Opts#opts.max_shrinks, Opts).
+
+% TODO: is it too much if we try to reach an equilibrium by repeaing all the
+% shrinkers?
+% TODO: is it possible to get stuck in an infinite loop (unions are the most
+% dangerous)? should we check if the returned values have been
+% encountered before?
+shrink_to_fixpoint(ImmFailedTestCase, _Test, _Reason,
+ TotalShrinks, 0, _Opts) ->
+ {TotalShrinks, ImmFailedTestCase};
+shrink_to_fixpoint(ImmFailedTestCase, Test, Reason,
+ TotalShrinks, ShrinksLeft, Opts) ->
+ {Shrinks, ImmMinTestCase} =
+ shrink_tr([], ImmFailedTestCase, proper:skip_to_next(Test), Reason,
+ 0, ShrinksLeft, init, Opts),
+ case Shrinks of
+ 0 -> {TotalShrinks, ImmMinTestCase};
+ N -> shrink_to_fixpoint(ImmMinTestCase, Test, Reason,
+ TotalShrinks + N, ShrinksLeft - N, Opts)
+ end.
+
+% TODO: 'tries_left' instead of 'shrinks_left'?
+shrink_tr(Shrunk, TestTail, _Test, _Reason, Shrinks, 0, _State, _Opts) ->
+ {Shrinks, lists:reverse(Shrunk) ++ TestTail};
+shrink_tr(Shrunk, [], false, _Reason, Shrinks, _ShrinksLeft, init, _Opts) ->
+ {Shrinks, lists:reverse(Shrunk)};
+shrink_tr(Shrunk, TestTail, {'$forall',RawType,Prop}, Reason,
+ Shrinks, ShrinksLeft, State, Opts) ->
+ Type = proper_types:cook_outer(RawType),
+ shrink_tr(Shrunk, TestTail, {'$forall2',Type,Prop}, Reason,
+ Shrinks, ShrinksLeft, State, Opts);
+shrink_tr(Shrunk, [ImmInstance | Rest], {'$forall2',_Type,Prop}, Reason,
+ Shrinks, ShrinksLeft, done, Opts) ->
+ Instance = proper_gen:clean_instance(ImmInstance),
+ NewTest = proper:skip_to_next({'$apply',[Instance],Prop}),
+ shrink_tr([ImmInstance | Shrunk], Rest, NewTest, Reason,
+ Shrinks, ShrinksLeft, init, Opts);
+shrink_tr(Shrunk, TestTail = [ImmInstance | Rest],
+ Test = {'$forall2',Type,Prop}, Reason,
+ Shrinks, ShrinksLeft, State, Opts) ->
+ {NewImmInstances,NewState} = shrink_one(ImmInstance, Type, State),
+ % we also test if the recently returned instance is a valid instance for its
+ % type, since we don't check constraints while shrinking
+ % TODO: perhaps accept an 'unknown'?
+ % TODO: maybe this covers the LET parts-type test too?
+ % TODO: should we try producing new test tails while shrinking?
+ IsValid =
+ fun(I) ->
+ I =/= ImmInstance andalso
+ proper:still_fails([I | Rest], {'$forall',Type,Prop}, Reason)
+ end,
+ case find_first(IsValid, NewImmInstances) of
+ none ->
+ shrink_tr(Shrunk, TestTail, Test, Reason,
+ Shrinks, ShrinksLeft, NewState, Opts);
+ {Pos, ShrunkImmInstance} ->
+ proper:print(".", [], Opts),
+ %proper:print("~w~n", [ShrunkImmInstance], Opts),
+ shrink_tr(Shrunk, [ShrunkImmInstance | Rest], Test, Reason,
+ Shrinks + 1, ShrinksLeft - 1, {shrunk,Pos,NewState}, Opts)
+ end.
+
+find_first(Pred, List) ->
+ find_first_tr(Pred, List, 1).
+
+find_first_tr(_Pred, [], _Pos) ->
+ none;
+find_first_tr(Pred, [X | Rest], Pos) ->
+ case Pred(X) of
+ true -> {Pos, X};
+ false -> find_first_tr(Pred, Rest, Pos + 1)
+ end.
+
+shrink_one(ImmInstance, Type, init) ->
+ Shrinkers = get_shrinkers(Type),
+ shrink_one(ImmInstance, Type, {shrinker,Shrinkers,init});
+shrink_one(_ImmInstance, _Type, {shrinker,[],init}) ->
+ {[], done};
+shrink_one(ImmInstance, Type, {shrinker,[_Shrinker | Rest],done}) ->
+ shrink_one(ImmInstance, Type, {shrinker,Rest,init});
+shrink_one(ImmInstance, Type, {shrinker,Shrinkers,State}) ->
+ [Shrinker | _Rest] = Shrinkers,
+ {NewImmInstances,NewState} = Shrinker(ImmInstance, Type, State),
+ {NewImmInstances, {shrinker,Shrinkers,NewState}};
+shrink_one(ImmInstance, Type, {shrunk,N,{shrinker,Shrinkers,State}}) ->
+ shrink_one(ImmInstance, Type, {shrinker,Shrinkers,{shrunk,N,State}}).
+
+get_shrinkers(Type) ->
+ CustomShrinkers =
+ case proper_types:find_prop(shrinkers, Type) of
+ {ok, Shrinkers} -> Shrinkers;
+ error -> []
+ end,
+ StandardShrinkers =
+ case proper_types:get_prop(kind, Type) of
+ basic -> [];
+ wrapper -> [fun ?MODULE:alternate_shrinker/3,
+ fun ?MODULE:unwrap_shrinker/3];
+ constructed -> [fun ?MODULE:parts_shrinker/3,
+ fun ?MODULE:recursive_shrinker/3];
+ semi_opaque -> [fun ?MODULE:split_shrinker/3,
+ fun ?MODULE:remove_shrinker/3,
+ fun ?MODULE:elements_shrinker/3];
+ opaque -> [fun ?MODULE:split_shrinker/3,
+ fun ?MODULE:remove_shrinker/3,
+ fun ?MODULE:elements_shrinker/3]
+ end,
+ CustomShrinkers ++ StandardShrinkers.
+
+
+%% Non-opaque type shrinkers
+
+% we stop at the smaller alternative shrinker
+% TODO: 'is_raw_type' check?
+alternate_shrinker(Instance, Type, init) ->
+ Choices = proper_types:unwrap(Type),
+ union_first_choice_shrinker(Instance, Choices, init);
+alternate_shrinker(_Instance, _Type, _State) ->
+ {[], done}.
+
+unwrap_shrinker(Instance, Type, init) ->
+ Choices = proper_types:unwrap(Type),
+ union_recursive_shrinker(Instance, Choices, init);
+unwrap_shrinker(Instance, _Type, State) ->
+ union_recursive_shrinker(Instance, dummy, State).
+
+% TODO: move some of the generation code in the proper_gen module
+parts_shrinker(Instance = {'$used',_ImmParts,_ImmInstance}, Type, init) ->
+ PartsType = proper_types:get_prop(parts_type, Type),
+ parts_shrinker(Instance, Type, {parts,PartsType,dummy,init});
+parts_shrinker(_CleanInstance, _Type, init) ->
+ {[], done};
+parts_shrinker(_Instance, _Type, {parts,_PartsType,_Lookup,done}) ->
+ {[], done};
+parts_shrinker({'$used',ImmParts,ImmInstance}, Type,
+ {parts,PartsType,_Lookup,PartsState}) ->
+ {NewImmParts,NewPartsState} = shrink_one(ImmParts, PartsType, PartsState),
+ Combine = proper_types:get_prop(combine, Type),
+ DirtyNewInstances =
+ lists:map(fun(P) -> try_combine(P, ImmInstance, PartsType, Combine) end,
+ NewImmParts),
+ NotError = fun(X) ->
+ case X of
+ {'$used',_,'$error'} -> false;
+ _ -> true
+ end
+ end,
+ {NewInstances,NewLookup} = filter(NotError, DirtyNewInstances),
+ {NewInstances, {parts,PartsType,NewLookup,NewPartsState}};
+parts_shrinker(Instance, Type,
+ {shrunk,N,{parts,PartsType,Lookup,PartsState}}) ->
+ ActualN = lists:nth(N, Lookup),
+ parts_shrinker(Instance, Type,
+ {parts,PartsType,dummy,{shrunk,ActualN,PartsState}}).
+
+filter(Pred, List) ->
+ filter_tr(Pred, List, [], 1, []).
+
+filter_tr(_Pred, [], Result, _Pos, Lookup) ->
+ {lists:reverse(Result), lists:reverse(Lookup)};
+filter_tr(Pred, [X | Rest], Result, Pos, Lookup) ->
+ case Pred(X) of
+ true ->
+ filter_tr(Pred, Rest, [X | Result], Pos + 1, [Pos | Lookup]);
+ false ->
+ filter_tr(Pred, Rest, Result, Pos + 1, Lookup)
+ end.
+
+try_combine(ImmParts, OldImmInstance, PartsType, Combine) ->
+ case proper_arith:surely(proper_types:is_instance(ImmParts, PartsType)) of
+ true ->
+ Parts = proper_gen:clean_instance(ImmParts),
+ ImmInstance = Combine(Parts),
+ case proper_types:is_raw_type(ImmInstance) of
+ true ->
+ InnerType = proper_types:cook_outer(ImmInstance),
+ % TODO: special case if the immediately internal is a LET?
+ case proper_arith:surely(proper_types:is_instance(
+ OldImmInstance, InnerType)) of
+ true ->
+ {'$used',ImmParts,OldImmInstance};
+ false ->
+ % TODO: return more than one? then we must flatten
+ NewImmInstance = proper_gen:generate(InnerType,
+ ?MAX_RANDOM_TRIES_WHEN_SHRINKING, '$error'),
+ {'$used',ImmParts,NewImmInstance}
+ end;
+ false ->
+ {'$used',ImmParts,ImmInstance}
+ end;
+ false ->
+ {'$used',dummy,'$error'}
+ end.
+
+recursive_shrinker(Instance = {'$used',ImmParts,_ImmInstance}, Type, init) ->
+ Combine = proper_types:get_prop(combine, Type),
+ Parts = proper_gen:clean_instance(ImmParts),
+ ImmInstance = Combine(Parts),
+ case proper_types:is_raw_type(ImmInstance) of
+ true ->
+ InnerType = proper_types:cook_outer(ImmInstance),
+ recursive_shrinker(Instance, Type, {inner,InnerType,init});
+ false ->
+ {[], done}
+ end;
+recursive_shrinker(_CleanInstance, _Type, init) ->
+ {[], done};
+recursive_shrinker(_Instance, _Type, {inner,_InnerType,done}) ->
+ {[], done};
+recursive_shrinker({'$used',ImmParts,ImmInstance}, _Type,
+ {inner,InnerType,InnerState}) ->
+ {NewImmInstances,NewInnerState} =
+ shrink_one(ImmInstance, InnerType, InnerState),
+ NewInstances =
+ lists:map(fun(I) -> {'$used',ImmParts,I} end, NewImmInstances),
+ {NewInstances, {inner,InnerType,NewInnerState}};
+recursive_shrinker(Instance, Type, {shrunk,N,{inner,InnerType,InnerState}}) ->
+ recursive_shrinker(Instance, Type, {inner,InnerType,{shrunk,N,InnerState}}).
+
+
+%% Opaque type shrinkers
+
+split_shrinker(Instance, Type, init) ->
+ case {proper_types:find_prop(split, Type),
+ proper_types:find_prop(get_length, Type),
+ proper_types:find_prop(join, Type)} of
+ {error, _, _} ->
+ {[], done};
+ {{ok,_Split}, error, _} ->
+ split_shrinker(Instance, Type, no_pos);
+ {{ok,_Split}, {ok,GetLength}, {ok,_Join}} ->
+ split_shrinker(Instance, Type, {slices,2,GetLength(Instance)})
+ end;
+split_shrinker(Instance, Type, no_pos) ->
+ Split = proper_types:get_prop(split, Type),
+ {Split(Instance), done};
+split_shrinker(Instance, Type, {shrunk,done}) ->
+ split_shrinker(Instance, Type, no_pos);
+% implementation of the ddmin algorithm, but stopping before the granularity
+% reaches 1, since we run a 'remove' shrinker after this
+% TODO: on sucess, start over with the whole testcase or keep removing slices?
+split_shrinker(Instance, Type, {slices,N,Len}) ->
+ case Len < 2 * N of
+ true ->
+ {[], done};
+ false ->
+ {SmallSlices,BigSlices} = slice(Instance, Type, N, Len),
+ {SmallSlices ++ BigSlices, {slices,2*N,Len}}
+ end;
+split_shrinker(Instance, Type, {shrunk,Pos,{slices,DoubleN,_Len}}) ->
+ N = DoubleN div 2,
+ GetLength = proper_types:get_prop(get_length, Type),
+ case Pos =< N of
+ true ->
+ split_shrinker(Instance, Type, {slices,2,GetLength(Instance)});
+ false ->
+ split_shrinker(Instance, Type, {slices,N-1,GetLength(Instance)})
+ end.
+
+slice(Instance, Type, Slices, Len) ->
+ BigSlices = Len rem Slices,
+ SmallSlices = Slices - BigSlices,
+ SmallSliceLen = Len div Slices,
+ BigSliceLen = SmallSliceLen + 1,
+ BigSliceTotal = BigSlices * BigSliceLen,
+ WhereToSlice =
+ lists:map(fun(X) -> {1 + X * BigSliceLen, BigSliceLen} end,
+ lists:seq(0, BigSlices - 1)) ++
+ lists:map(fun(X) -> {BigSliceTotal + 1 + X * SmallSliceLen,
+ SmallSliceLen} end,
+ lists:seq(0, SmallSlices - 1)),
+ lists:unzip(lists:map(
+ fun({From,SliceLen}) -> take_slice(Instance, Type, From, SliceLen) end,
+ WhereToSlice)).
+
+take_slice(Instance, Type, From, SliceLen) ->
+ Split = proper_types:get_prop(split, Type),
+ Join = proper_types:get_prop(join, Type),
+ {Front,ImmBack} = Split(From - 1, Instance),
+ {Slice,Back} = Split(SliceLen, ImmBack),
+ {Slice, Join(Front, Back)}.
+
+% TODO: try removing more than one elemnent: 2,4,... or 2,3,... - when to stop?
+remove_shrinker(Instance, Type, init) ->
+ case {proper_types:find_prop(get_indices, Type),
+ proper_types:find_prop(remove, Type)} of
+ {{ok,_GetIndices}, {ok,_Remove}} ->
+ remove_shrinker(Instance, Type,
+ {shrunk,1,{indices,ordsets:from_list([]),dummy}});
+ _ ->
+ {[], done}
+ end;
+remove_shrinker(_Instance, _Type, {indices,_Checked,[]}) ->
+ {[], done};
+remove_shrinker(Instance, Type, {indices,Checked,[Index | Rest]}) ->
+ Remove = proper_types:get_prop(remove, Type),
+ {[Remove(Index, Instance)],
+ {indices,ordsets:add_element(Index, Checked),Rest}};
+remove_shrinker(Instance, Type, {shrunk,1,{indices,Checked,_ToCheck}}) ->
+ % TODO: normally, indices wouldn't be expected to change for the remaining
+ % elements, but this happens for lists, so we'll just avoid
+ % re-checking any indices we have already tried (even though these
+ % might correspond to new elements now - at least they don't in the
+ % case of lists)
+ % TODO: ordsets are used to ensure efficiency, but the ordsets module
+ % compares elements with == instead of =:=, that could cause us to
+ % miss some elements in some cases
+ GetIndices = proper_types:get_prop(get_indices, Type),
+ Indices = ordsets:from_list(GetIndices(Instance)),
+ NewToCheck = ordsets:subtract(Indices, Checked),
+ remove_shrinker(Instance, Type, {indices,Checked,NewToCheck}).
+
+% TODO: is it safe to assume that all functions and the indices will not change
+% after any update?
+% TODO: shrink many elements concurrently?
+elements_shrinker(Instance, Type, init) ->
+ case {proper_types:find_prop(get_indices, Type),
+ proper_types:find_prop(retrieve, Type),
+ proper_types:find_prop(update, Type)} of
+ {{ok,GetIndices}, {ok,Retrieve}, {ok,_Update}} ->
+ GetElemType =
+ case proper_types:find_prop(internal_type, Type) of
+ {ok,RawInnerType} ->
+ InnerType = proper_types:cook_outer(RawInnerType),
+ fun(_I) -> InnerType end;
+ error ->
+ InnerTypes =
+ proper_types:get_prop(internal_types, Type),
+ fun(I) -> Retrieve(I, InnerTypes) end
+ end,
+ Indices = GetIndices(Instance),
+ elements_shrinker(Instance, Type, {inner,Indices,GetElemType,init});
+ _ ->
+ {[], done}
+ end;
+elements_shrinker(_Instance, _Type,
+ {inner,[],_GetElemType,init}) ->
+ {[], done};
+elements_shrinker(Instance, Type,
+ {inner,[_Index | Rest],GetElemType,done}) ->
+ elements_shrinker(Instance, Type, {inner,Rest,GetElemType,init});
+elements_shrinker(Instance, Type,
+ {inner,Indices = [Index | _Rest],GetElemType,InnerState}) ->
+ Retrieve = proper_types:get_prop(retrieve, Type),
+ Update = proper_types:get_prop(update, Type),
+ Elem = Retrieve(Index, Instance),
+ InnerType = GetElemType(Index),
+ {NewImmElems,NewInnerState} = shrink_one(Elem, InnerType, InnerState),
+ NewElems =
+ case proper_types:get_prop(kind, Type) of
+ opaque -> lists:map(fun proper_gen:clean_instance/1, NewImmElems);
+ _ -> NewImmElems
+ end,
+ NewInstances = lists:map(fun(E) -> Update(Index,E,Instance) end, NewElems),
+ {NewInstances, {inner,Indices,GetElemType,NewInnerState}};
+elements_shrinker(Instance, Type,
+ {shrunk,N,{inner,Indices,GetElemType,InnerState}}) ->
+ elements_shrinker(Instance, Type,
+ {inner,Indices,GetElemType,{shrunk,N,InnerState}}).
+
+
+%% Custom shrinkers
+
+integer_shrinker(X, Low, High, init) ->
+ Operators = [fun(Y) -> Y div 10 end,
+ fun(Y) -> Y - sign(Y) end,
+ fun(Y) -> abs(Y) end],
+ number_shrinker(X, 0, Low, High, {operators,Operators});
+integer_shrinker(X, Low, High, State) ->
+ number_shrinker(X, 0, Low, High, State).
+
+float_shrinker(X, Low, High, init) ->
+ Operators = [fun(Y) -> Y / 10.0 end,
+ fun(Y) -> Y - sign(Y) end,
+ fun(Y) -> abs(Y) end],
+ number_shrinker(X, 0.0, Low, High, {operators,Operators});
+float_shrinker(X, Low, High, State) ->
+ number_shrinker(X, 0.0, Low, High, State).
+
+% TODO: produce a few (random) values per operator
+number_shrinker(_X, _Target, _Low, _High, {operators,[]}) ->
+ {[], done};
+number_shrinker(X, Target, Low, High, {operators,[Op | Rest]}) ->
+ {op_to_target(X,Target,Low,High,Op), {just_used,Op,Rest}};
+number_shrinker(X, Target, Low, High, {just_used,_Op,Rest}) ->
+ number_shrinker(X, Target, Low, High, {operators,Rest});
+number_shrinker(X, Target, Low, High, {shrunk,_Pos,{just_used,Op,Rest}}) ->
+ number_shrinker(X, Target, Low, High, {operators,[Op | Rest]}).
+
+% Op should be a function that approaces Target,
+% X should be between Low and High
+op_to_target(_Target, _Target, _Low, _High, _Op) ->
+ [];
+op_to_target(X, Target, Low, High, Op) ->
+ NewX = Op(X),
+ case NewX =:= X of
+ true ->
+ [];
+ false ->
+ case proper_arith:le(Low, Target) of
+ false ->
+ case proper_arith:le(Low, NewX) of
+ false -> [];
+ true -> [NewX]
+ end;
+ true ->
+ case proper_arith:le(Target, High) of
+ false ->
+ case proper_arith:le(NewX, High) of
+ false -> [];
+ true -> [NewX]
+ end;
+ true ->
+ [NewX]
+ end
+ end
+ end.
+
+sign(X) ->
+ if
+ X >= 0 -> +1;
+ X < 0 -> -1
+ end.
+
+% TODO: just try first choice?
+% TODO: do this incrementally?
+union_first_choice_shrinker(Instance, Choices, init) ->
+ case first_plausible_choice(Instance, Choices) of
+ none ->
+ {[],done};
+ {N,_Type} ->
+ % TODO: some kind of constraints test here?
+ {lists:filter(fun(X) -> X =/= '$error' end,
+ lists:map(fun(T) ->
+ proper_gen:generate(
+ T, ?MAX_RANDOM_TRIES_WHEN_SHRINKING,
+ '$error')
+ end,
+ lists:sublist(Choices, N - 1))),
+ done}
+ end;
+union_first_choice_shrinker(_Instance, _Choices, {shrunk,_Pos,done}) ->
+ {[], done}.
+
+union_recursive_shrinker(Instance, Choices, init) ->
+ case first_plausible_choice(Instance, Choices) of
+ none ->
+ {[],done};
+ {N,Type} ->
+ union_recursive_shrinker(Instance, Choices, {inner,N,Type,init})
+ end;
+union_recursive_shrinker(_Instance, _Choices, {inner,_N,_Type,done}) ->
+ {[],done};
+union_recursive_shrinker(Instance, _Choices, {inner,N,Type,InnerState}) ->
+ {NewInstances,NewInnerState} = shrink_one(Instance, Type, InnerState),
+ {NewInstances, {inner,N,Type,NewInnerState}};
+union_recursive_shrinker(Instance, Choices,
+ {shrunk,Pos,{inner,N,Type,InnerState}}) ->
+ union_recursive_shrinker(Instance, Choices,
+ {inner,N,Type,{shrunk,Pos,InnerState}}).
+
+first_plausible_choice(Instance, Choices) ->
+ first_plausible_choice_tr(Instance, Choices, 1).
+
+first_plausible_choice_tr(_Instance, [], _Pos) ->
+ none;
+first_plausible_choice_tr(Instance, [Type | Rest], Pos) ->
+ case proper_arith:surely(proper_types:is_instance(Instance, Type)) of
+ true -> {Pos,Type};
+ false -> first_plausible_choice_tr(Instance, Rest, Pos + 1)
+ end.
View
229 src/proper_tests.erl
@@ -0,0 +1,229 @@
+%%% Copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis (manopapad@gmail.com)
+%%%
+%%% This file is part of PropEr.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+%%% it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+%%% the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
+%%% (at your option) any later version.
+%%%
+%%% PropEr is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+%%% but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+%%% MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+%%% GNU General Public License for more details.
+%%%
+%%% You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+%%% along with PropEr. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+
+%% @hidden
+%% @author Manolis Papadakis <manopapad@gmail.com>
+%% @copyright 2010 Manolis Papadakis
+%% @version {@version}
+%% @doc Unit tests (kind of)
+
+-module(proper_tests).
+-compile([export_all]).
+
+-include("proper.hrl").
+
+
+%% Functions to test
+
+no_duplicates(L) ->
+ lists:usort(L) == lists:sort(L).
+
+is_sorted([]) -> true;
+is_sorted([_]) -> true;
+is_sorted([A | [B|T]]) when A =< B -> is_sorted([B | T]);
+is_sorted(_) -> false.
+
+same_elements(L1, L2) ->
+ length(L1) =:= length(L2) andalso same_elems(L1, L2).
+
+same_elems([], []) ->
+ true;
+same_elems([H|T], L) ->
+ lists:member(H, L) andalso same_elems(T, lists:delete(H, L));
+same_elems(_, _) ->
+ false.
+
+correctly_sorted(Old, New) ->
+ same_elements(Old, New) andalso is_sorted(New).
+
+partition(Pivot, List) ->
+ partition_tr(Pivot, List, [], []).
+
+partition_tr(_Pivot, [], Lower, Higher) ->
+ {Lower, Higher};
+partition_tr(Pivot, [H|T], Lower, Higher) ->
+ if
+ H =< Pivot -> partition_tr(Pivot, T, [H|Lower], Higher);
+ H > Pivot -> partition_tr(Pivot, T, Lower, [H|Higher])
+ end.
+
+quicksort([]) -> [];
+quicksort([H|T]) ->
+ {Lower, Higher} = partition(H, T),
+ quicksort(Lower) ++ [H] ++ quicksort(Higher).
+
+
+%% Datatypes
+
+uvector(0,_Gen) ->
+ [];
+uvector(N,Gen) ->
+ ?LET(Values,uvector(N-1,Gen),
+ ?LET(Value,?SUCHTHAT(V,Gen, not lists:member(V,Values)),
+ [Value|Values])).
+
+subset(Generators) ->
+ ?LET(Keep,[ {bool(),G} || G<-Generators],
+ [ G || {true,G}<-Keep]).
+
+plain_ascii_char() ->
+ choose(0, 127).
+
+data() ->
+ ?LET(AsciiString,
+ list(plain_ascii_char()),
+ oneof([
+ AsciiString,
+ erlang:list_to_binary(AsciiString)
+ ])).
+
+datalen(Data) when is_list(Data) -> length(Data);
+datalen(Data) when is_binary(Data) -> binary.
+
+shuffle([]) ->
+ [];
+shuffle(L) ->
+ ?LET(X,elements(L),[X | shuffle(lists:delete(X,L))]).
+
+nelist(ElemType) ->
+ [ElemType | list(ElemType)].
+
+non_empty(ListG) ->
+ ?SUCHTHAT(List, ListG, List /= []).
+
+ulist(G) ->
+ ?LET(L,list(G),L--(L--lists:usort(L))).
+
+unique(Generator) ->
+ ?LET(Values,list(Generator),
+ lists:usort(Values)).
+
+ulist2(ElemType) ->
+ ?SUCHTHAT(L, list(ElemType), no_duplicates(L)).
+
+kvlist(KeyType, ValueType) ->
+ ?LET(Keys,
+ list(KeyType),
+ [{K,ValueType} || K <- Keys]).
+
+my_binary() ->
+ ?SIZED(Size,
+ ?LET(NrBytes,choose(0,Size),my_binary(NrBytes))).
+
+my_binary(NrBytes) ->
+ ?LET(Bytes,
+ vector(NrBytes,choose(0,255)),
+ erlang:list_to_binary(Bytes)).
+
+lol