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Ground Control Points

When EXIF data contains GPS location, it is used by OpenSfM to georeference the reconstruction. Additionally, it is possible to use ground control points.

Ground control points (GCP) are landmarks visible on the images for which the geospatial position (latitude, longitude and altitude) is known. A single GCP can be observed in one or more images.

OpenSfM uses GCP in two steps of the reconstruction process: alignment and bundle adjustment. In the alignment step, points are used to globaly move the reconstruction so that the observed GCP align with their GPS position. Two or more observations for each GCP are required for it to be used during the aligment step.

In the bundle adjustment step, GCP observations are used as a constraint to refine the reconstruction. In this step, all ground control points are used. No minimum number of observation is required.

File format

GCPs can be specified by adding a text file named gcp_list.txt at the root folder of the dataset. The format of the file should be as follows.

  • The first line should contain the name of the projection used for the geo coordinates.

  • The following lines should contain the data for each ground control point observation. One per line and in the format:

    <geo_x> <geo_y> <geo_z> <im_x> <im_y> <image_name>

    Where <geo_x> <geo_y> <geo_z> are the geospatial coordinates of the GCP and <im_x> <im_y> are the pixel coordinates where the GCP is observed.

Supported projections

The geospatial coordinates can be specified in one the following formats.

  • WGS84: This is the standard latitude, longitude coordinates used by most GPS devices. In this case, <geo_x> = longitude, <geo_y> = latitude and <geo_z> = altitude
  • UTM: UTM projections can be specified using a string projection string such as WGS84 UTM 32N, where 32 is the region and N is . In this case, <geo_x> = E, <geo_y> = N and <geo_z> = altitude
  • proj4: Any valid proj4 format string can be used. For example, for UTM 32N we can use +proj=utm +zone=32 +north +ellps=WGS84 +datum=WGS84 +units=m +no_defs


This file defines 2 GCP whose coordinates are specified in the WGS84 standard. The first one is observed in both 01.jpg and 02.jpg, while the second one is only observed in 01.jpg

13.400740745 52.519134104 12.0792090446 2335.0 1416.7 01.jpg
13.400740745 52.519134104 12.0792090446 2639.1 938.0 02.jpg
13.400502446 52.519251158 16.7021233002 766.0 1133.1 01.jpg
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