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Lithium integration with Doctrine2

branch: master
README.md

li3_doctrine2 offers integration between the most RAD PHP framework and possibly the best PHP 5.3 ORM out there: Doctrine2

License

li3_doctrine2 is released under the MIT License.

Installation

Install Composer if you didn't already. Then add li3_doctrine2 as a required package (together with Doctrine and migrations):

{
    "config": {
        "vendor-dir": "libraries"
    },
    "require": {
        "doctrine/orm": ">=2.1",
        "doctrine/migrations": "dev-master",
        "mariano/li3_doctrine2": "dev-master"
    }
}

Finally, tell composer to install these packages:

$ composer install

You will now need to ensure that Composer's autoload file is loaded so all vendor classes (such as Doctrine) can be loaded, and then load the li3_doctrine2 library. Place the following at the end of your app/config/bootstrap/libraries.php file:

require_once(LITHIUM_LIBRARY_PATH . '/autoload.php');

Libraries::add('li3_doctrine2', [
    'path' => LITHIUM_LIBRARY_PATH . '/mariano/li3_doctrine2'
]);

Usage

Defining a connection

Setting up a connection with li3_doctrine2 is easy. All you need to do is add the following to your app/config/bootstrap/connections.php file (make sure to edit the settings to match your host, without altering the type setting):

Connections::add('default', [
    'type' => 'Doctrine',
    'driver' => 'pdo_mysql',
    'host' => 'localhost',
    'user' => 'root',
    'password' => 'password',
    'dbname' => 'my_db'
]);

Working with master-slave connections

Thanks to Doctrine, master/slave connection queries can be done quite easy. All you have to do is slightly change your connection definition so you can use the MasterSlaveConnection wrapper class, and instead of simply specifying a single server, you give the details for the master server, and each of the slave servers. Example:

Connections::add('default', [
    'type' => 'Doctrine',
    'driver' => 'pdo_mysql',
    'wrapperClass' => 'Doctrine\DBAL\Connections\MasterSlaveConnection',
    'master' => [
        'host' => 'master.example.com',
        'user' => 'root',
        'password' => 'password',
        'dbname' => 'my_db'
    ],
    'slaves' => [
        [
            'host' => 'slave1.example.com',
            'user' => 'root',
            'password' => 'password',
            'dbname' => 'my_db'
        ],
        [
            'host' => 'slave2.example.com',
            'user' => 'root',
            'password' => 'password',
            'dbname' => 'my_db'
        ]
    ]
]);

Working with models

Creating models

When looking to create your doctrine models, you have two choices: you can have them follow your custom class hierarchy (or none at all), or you could have them extend from the BaseEntity class provided by this library. The advantage of choosing the later is that your models will have lithium's validation support, and can be better integrated with the custom adapters provided by this library (such as for session management or for authorization.)

If you still want validation support but do not wish to extend BaseEntity your models should implement the li3_doctrine2\models\IModel interface.

Let us create a User model. Following doctrine's basic mapping guide we'll use annotations to define the properties, and we will also include lithium validation rules (that's why we are choosing to extend this model from BaseEntity):

<?php
namespace app\models;

use Doctrine\ORM\Mapping\Column;
use Doctrine\ORM\Mapping\Entity;
use Doctrine\ORM\Mapping\GeneratedValue;
use Doctrine\ORM\Mapping\Id;
use Doctrine\ORM\Mapping\Table;
use lithium\security\Password;

/**
 * @Entity
 * @Table(name="users")
 */
class User extends \li3_doctrine2\models\BaseEntity {
    /**
     * @Id
     * @GeneratedValue
     * @Column(type="integer")
     */
    private $id;

    /**
     * @Column(type="string",unique=true)
     */
    private $email;

    /**
     * @Column(type="text")
     */
    private $password;

    /**
     * @Column(type="string")
     */
    private $name;

    /**
     * Validation rules
     */
    protected $validates = [
        'email' => [
            'required' => ['notEmpty', 'message' => 'Email is required'],
            'valid' => ['email', 'message' => 'You must specify a valid email address', 'skipEmpty' => true]
        ],
        'password' => ['notEmpty', 'message' => 'Password must not be blank'],
        'name' => ['notEmpty', 'message' => 'Please provide your full name']
    ];

    public function getId() {
        return $this->id;
    }

    public function getEmail() {
        return $this->email;
    }

    public function setEmail($email) {
        $this->email = $email;
    }

    public function getPassword() {
        return $this->password;
    }

    public function setPassword($password) {
        $this->password = !empty($password) ? Password::hash($password) : null;
    }

    public function getName() {
        return $this->name;
    }

    public function setName($name) {
        $this->name = $name;
    }
}
?>

You should note that if you make your model properties private, each property must have a getter and a setter method, otherwise validation and other features provided by BaseEntity won't work.

Using the Doctrine shell to generate the schema

Once you have your model(s) created, you can use doctrine's shell to generate the schema. li3_doctrine2 offers a wrapper for doctrine's shell that reutilizes lithium's connection details. To run the access the core directory of your application and do:

$ libraries/li3_doctrine2/bin/doctrine

That will give you all the available commands. For example, to get the SQL you should run to create the schema for your models, do:

$ libraries/li3_doctrine2/bin/doctrine orm:schema-tool:create --dump-sql

which will give an output similar to the following:

CREATE TABLE users (
    id INT AUTO_INCREMENT NOT NULL, 
    email VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL, 
    password LONGTEXT NOT NULL, 
    name VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL, 
    UNIQUE INDEX UNIQ_1483A5E9E7927C74 (email), 
    PRIMARY KEY(id)
) ENGINE = InnoDB

Getting the entity manager

Doctrine's EntityManager is the way we have to interact with the underlying database, which means we'll always need to obtain it. You can do so by running the following code (change default to the name of your connection as defined in app/config/connections.php):

$em = \lithium\data\Connections::get('default')->getEntityManager();

If your models extend from BaseEntity, then all of them have a static method named getEntityManager() (which uses a static property inherited from BaseEntity named $connectionName to figure out what connection to use):

$em = User::getEntityManager();

BaseEntity also offers a getRepository() method which will return the repository for the model (see the section Fetching record below.)

Fetching records

Once you have the entity manager, you can fetch a user with ID 1 (notice how we use the fully qualified class name for the model) using the entity manager:

$user = $em->find('app\models\User', 1);

or using model repositories:

$user = $em->getRepository('app\models\User')->findOneById(1);

If your model extends from BaseEntity, then the above could be retwritten as:

$user = User::getRepository()->findOneById(1);

If you want to find out more about querying models with Doctrine, go through its Querying guide.

Creating/Updating/Deleting records

Records are persisted (or removed) though the entity manager, as shown in Doctrine's Persisting guide.

One thing to note is that if your models extend from BaseEntity, you have validation rules defined for them, and the data you provide does not validate, persisting it will throw a ValidateException (the following example uses the User model we defined earlier):

$user = new User();
$user->setName('John Doe');
$user->setEmail('bademail@');

try {
    $em->persist($user);
    $em->flush();
} catch(\li3_doctrine2\models\ValidateException $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage();
}

You should also note that BaseEntity provides a method named set() which comes very handy if the user data is to be populated from a form submission. If so, the above code could be rewritten as:

You may notice that we send a list of field names as the second argument to the set() method. More about this in the section Field whitelist in BaseEntity::set()

$user = new User();
$user->set($this->request->data, ['name', 'email']);

try {
    $em->persist($user);
    $em->flush();
} catch(\li3_doctrine2\models\ValidateException $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage();
}

In this last example, if lithium's Form helper is bound to the record instance, it will properly show validation errors. The following view code uses the $user variable from the example above to bind the form to its validation errors:

<?php echo $this->form->create(isset($user) ? $user : null); ?>
    <?php echo $this->form->field('email'); ?>
    <?php echo $this->form->field('password', ['type' => 'password']); ?>
    <?php echo $this->form->field('name'); ?>
    <?php echo $this->form->submit('Signup'); ?>
<?php echo $this->form->end(); ?>

Field whitelist in BaseEntity::set()

In the preceeding example, we shown the set() method, inherited from BaseEntity, as a convenient way to populate entity fields as that come from of a form submission. As part of the shown set() usage, you may have noticed a list of fields passed on the second argument:

$user->set($this->request->data, ['name', 'email']);

This argument is a whitelist of fields that specifies which fields that are part of the first argument ($this->request->data in this case) are allowed to be set on the entity.

I've struggled against not including the whitelist argument with the idea that security should be enforced in the application logic. However, recent events in the rails arena convinced me that my original intention of forcing a whitelist has more advantages than disadvantages.

In any case, if you wish to avoid setting a whitelist, you can pass an empty array on the second argument, and false to the third argument. So the example above would be changed to:

$user->set($this->request->data, [], false)

Extensions

li3_doctrine2 also offers a set of extensions to integrate different parts of your lithium application with your doctrine models.

Validators

For convenience, li3_doctrine2 adds some custom validators that require interaction with Doctrine2 entities. To use these validators, you will have to set the validators option to true when adding the library:

Libraries::add('li3_doctrine2', [
    'path' => LITHIUM_LIBRARY_PATH . '/mariano/li3_doctrine2',
    'validators' => true
]);

Unique validator

This validator will fail if the value for the given field already exists for the model we are validating. To add this validator to a field named email for your User model, you'd add the following expression to the model's $validates property (you'll see we also add other lithium's built in rules for informational purposes only):

'email' => [
    'required' => ['notEmpty', 'message' => 'Email is required'],
    'valid' => ['email', 'message' => 'You must specify a valid email address, 'skipEmpty' => true],
    'unique' => ['unique', 'message' => 'This email is already being used for another account, 'skipEmpty' => true]
]

The unique validator accepts a handful of options:

  • conditions: Extra conditions that will be added to the default condition (in the above example the default condition would be email => value, where value is the value given when submitting the form). Defaults to: [].
  • getEntityManager: The method defined in the model that is used to obtain the model's entity manager. If your model extends from BaseEntity, the default will work just fine. If you don't want to extend from BaseEntity, you have to either implement this method, or use the connection option. Defaults to: getEntityManager
  • connection: If the method defined in getEntityManager does not exist in the model, or is empty, a connection name is needed to obtain the model's entity manager. Defaults to: default
  • checkPrimaryKey: If set to true, the model's identifier (its primary key value) will be used to make sure than when looking for uniqueness, the same record does not trigger a failed validation. Defaults to: true

Session

Some installations require session data to be stored on a centralized location. While there are powerful, storage-centric solutions for session storage, using the database is still a popular choice.

If you wish to store your session data on the database using Doctrine models, then you will need to use li3_doctrine2's session adapter. You start by creating the model that the library will use to represent a session record. For example, create a file named Session.php and place it in your app/models folder with the following contents:

<?php
namespace app\models;

/**
 * @Entity
 * @Table(name="sessions")
 */
class Session extends \li3_doctrine2\models\BaseSession {
}
?>

We are extending from BaseSession since it provides us with the needed methods the session adapter will expect it to have.

If you still want to use the session adapter with your own Doctrine models, but do not wish to extend BaseSession, then your session model should implement the li3_doctrine2\models\ISession interface. You should also note that if you do not pass the entityManager setting to the session configuration, then your session model should implement a static method named getEntityManager() that should return Doctrine's entity manager for the session model. This method is not part of the interface signature because it is optional, and is only used if you don't set the entityManager session configuration setting.

Once the model is created, create its database table using the doctrine console. Finally, edit your app/config/bootstrap/session.php file and use the following to configure the session:

Session::config([
    'default' => [
        'adapter' => 'li3_doctrine2\extensions\adapter\session\Entity',
        'model' => 'app\models\Session'
    ]
]);

If you wish to override session INI settings, use the ini setting. For example, if you wish your session data to be valid across all subdomains, replace the session definition with the following:

$host = $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'];
if (strpos($host, '.') !== false) {
    $host = preg_replace('/^.*?([^\.]+\.[^\.]+)$/', '\\1', $host);
}
Session::config([
    'default' => [
        'adapter' => 'li3_doctrine2\extensions\adapter\session\Entity',
        'model' => 'app\models\Session',
        'ini' => ['cookie_domain' => '.' . $host]
    ]
]);

Authentication

Even when you could easily build your own authentication library, using lithium's implementation is highly recommended. If you wish to go this route, you'll need li3_doctrine's Form adapter for authentication, since it allows it to interact with Doctrine models. The model you wish to use should extend from BaseEntity.

If you still want to use the Form adapter but do not wish to extend BaseEntity, then your model should implement the li3_doctrine2\models\IUser interface. You should also note that if you do not pass the entityManager setting to the auth configuration, then your model should implement a static method named getEntityManager() that should return Doctrine's entity manager for the model. This method is not part of the interface signature because it is optional, and is only used if you don't set the entityManager session configuration setting.

Once you have your model, you need to configure Auth. Edit your app/config/bootstrap/session.php and add the following to the end:

use lithium\security\Auth;

Auth::config([
    'default' => [
        'adapter' => 'li3_doctrine2\extensions\adapter\security\auth\Form',
        'model' => 'app\models\User',
        'fields' => ['email', 'password']
    ]
]);

Once this is done, you can use Auth as usual.

Integrating libraries

In this section I'll cover some of the doctrine extension libraries out there, how to integrate them with li3_doctrine2, and how to let li3_doctrine2 work with other lithium libraries that might be of use for your application.

DoctrineExtensions

If there is one tool I would recommend you checkout for your Doctrine models, that would be DoctrineExtensions. It provides with a set of behavioral extensions to the Doctrine core that will simplify your development.

To use DoctrineExtensions, you should first add it as GIT submodule. To do so, switch to the core directory holding your lithium application, and do:

$ git submodule add https://github.com/l3pp4rd/DoctrineExtensions.git libraries/_source/DoctrineExtensions

You would then use your connection configuration (in app/config/connections.php) to configure Doctrine with your desired behaviors. For example, if you wish to use Timestampable and Sluggable, you would first add the library in app/config/libraries.php:

Libraries::add('Gedmo', [
    'path' => LITHIUM_LIBRARY_PATH . '/_source/DoctrineExtensions/lib/Gedmo'
]);

And then you would filter the createEntityManager() method in the Doctrine datasource to add the behaviors. Edit your app/config/connections.php file and add the following right below the connection definition:

Connections::get('default')->applyFilter('createEntityManager',
    function($self, $params, $chain) {
        $params['eventManager']->addEventSubscriber(
            new \Gedmo\Timestampable\TimestampableListener()
        );
        $params['eventManager']->addEventSubscriber(
            new \Gedmo\Sluggable\SluggableListener()
        );
        return $chain->next($self, $params, $chain);
    }
);

Li3Perf

li3_perf is a handy utility that you should use (only when the development environment is activated, though) to keep track of bottlenecks, and potential performance problems.

One of the features it offers is the ability to show all the database queries that were executed as part of a request. In order to use that functionality with li3_doctrine2, a little work has to be done. Fortunately, it's quite easy.

Create a file named Li3PerfSQLLogger.php and place it in your app/libraries/_source folder with the following contents:

<?php
namespace app\libraries\_source;

use Doctrine\DBAL\Logging\SQLLogger;
use li3_perf\extensions\util\Data;

class Li3PerfSQLLogger implements SQLLogger {
    protected $query;
    protected $start;

    public function startQuery($sql, array $params = null, array $types = null) {
        $this->start = microtime(true);
        $this->query = compact('sql', 'params', 'types');
    }

    public function stopQuery() {
        $ellapsed = (microtime(true) - $this->start) * 1000;
        Data::append('queries', [array_merge(
            ['explain' => ['millis' => $ellapsed]],
            $this->query
        )]);
    }
}

?>

Now, we need to filter the createEntityManager() method of the Doctrine datasource. Edit your app/config/connections.php file and add the following right below the connection definition:

Connections::get('default')->applyFilter('createEntityManager',
    function($self, $params, $chain) {
        if (\lithium\core\Libraries::get('li3_perf')) {
            $params['configuration']->setSQLLogger(
                new \app\libraries\_source\Li3PerfSQLLogger()
            );
        }
        return $chain->next($self, $params, $chain);
    }
);

Notice how we are only using the logger we created if the li3_perf library is activated. You should now see your queries on the performance toolbar.

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