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Embed static files in Go binaries (proposed replacement for gobuffalo/packr)
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README.md

Pkger

github.com/markbates/pkger is a tool for embedding static files into Go binaries. It will, hopefully, be a replacement for github.com/gobuffalo/packr/v2.

Requirements

  • Go 1.13+
  • Go Modules

How it Works (Module Aware Pathing)

Pkger is powered by the dark magic of Go Modules, so they're like, totally required.

With Go Modules pkger can resolve packages with accuracy. No more guessing and trying to figure out build paths, GOPATHS, etc... for this tired old lad.

With the module's path correctly resolved, it can serve as the "root" directory for that module, and all files in that module's directory are available.

Paths:

  • Paths should use UNIX style paths: /cmd/pkger/main.go
  • If unspecified the path's package is assumed to be the current module.
  • Packages can specified in at the beginning of a path with a : seperator. github.com/markbates/pkger:/cmd/pkger/main.go
  • There are no relative paths. All paths are absolute to the modules root.
"github.com/gobuffalo/buffalo:/go.mod" => $GOPATH/pkg/mod/github.com/gobuffalo/buffalo@v0.14.7/go.mod

CLI

Installation

$ go get github.com/markbates/pkger/cmd/pkger
$ pkger -h

Usage

$ pkger

The result will be a pkged.go file in the root of the module with the embedded information and the package name of the module.

// ./pkged.go
package <.>

// Pkger stuff here

The -o flag can be used specify the directory of the pkged.go file.

$ pkger -o cmd/reader

The result will be a pkged.go file in the cmd/reader folder with the embedded information and the package name of that folder.

// cmd/reader/pkged.go
package <reader>

// Pkger stuff here

Including Files at Package Time

There may be reasons where you don't reference a particular file, or folder, that you want embedded in your application, such as a build artifact.

To do this you may use either the github.com/markbates/pkger#Include function to set a no-op parser directive to include the specified path.

Alternatively, you may use the -include flag with the pkger and pkger list commands.

$ pkger list -include /actions -include github.com/gobuffalo/buffalo:/app.go

app
 > app:/actions
 > app:/actions/actions.go
 > app:/assets
 > app:/assets/css
 > app:/assets/css/_buffalo.scss
 > app:/assets/css/application.scss
 > app:/assets/images
 > app:/assets/images/favicon.ico
 > app:/assets/images/logo.svg
 > app:/assets/js
 > app:/assets/js/application.js
 > app:/go.mod
 > app:/locales/all.en-us.yaml
 > app:/public
 > app:/public/assets
 > app:/public/assets/.keep
 > app:/public/assets/app.css
 > app:/public/images
 > app:/public/images/img1.png
 > app:/public/index.html
 > app:/public/robots.txt
 > app:/templates
 > app:/templates/_flash.plush.html
 > app:/templates/application.plush.html
 > app:/templates/index.plush.html
 > app:/web
 > app:/web/web.go
 > github.com/gobuffalo/buffalo:/app.go
 > github.com/gobuffalo/buffalo:/logo.svg

Reference Application

The reference application for the README examples, as well as all testing, can be found at https://github.com/markbates/pkger/tree/master/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref.

├── actions
│   └── actions.go
├── assets
│   ├── css
│   │   ├── _buffalo.scss
│   │   └── application.scss
│   ├── images
│   │   ├── favicon.ico
│   │   └── logo.svg
│   └── js
│       └── application.js
├── go.mod
├── go.sum
├── locales
│   └── all.en-us.yaml
├── main.go
├── mod
│   └── mod.go
├── models
│   └── models.go
├── public
│   ├── assets
│   │   └── app.css
│   ├── images
│   │   └── img1.png
│   ├── index.html
│   └── robots.txt
├── templates
│   ├── _flash.plush.html
│   ├── application.plush.html
│   └── index.plush.html
└── web
    └── web.go

13 directories, 20 files

API Usage

Pkger's API is modeled on that of the os package in Go's standard library. This makes Pkger usage familiar to Go developers.

The two most important interfaces are github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging#Pkger and github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging#File.

type Pkger interface {
  Parse(p string) (Path, error)
  Current() (here.Info, error)
  Info(p string) (here.Info, error)
  Create(name string) (File, error)
  MkdirAll(p string, perm os.FileMode) error
  Open(name string) (File, error)
  Stat(name string) (os.FileInfo, error)
  Walk(p string, wf filepath.WalkFunc) error
  Remove(name string) error
  RemoveAll(path string) error
}

type File interface {
  Close() error
  Info() here.Info
  Name() string
  Open(name string) (http.File, error)
  Path() Path
  Read(p []byte) (int, error)
  Readdir(count int) ([]os.FileInfo, error)
  Seek(offset int64, whence int) (int64, error)
  Stat() (os.FileInfo, error)
  Write(b []byte) (int, error)
}

These two interfaces, along with the os#FileInfo, provide the bulk of the API surface area.

Open

func run() error {
	f, err := pkger.Open("/public/index.html")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer f.Close()

	info, err := f.Stat()
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	fmt.Println("Name: ", info.Name())
	fmt.Println("Size: ", info.Size())
	fmt.Println("Mode: ", info.Mode())
	fmt.Println("ModTime: ", info.ModTime())

	if _, err := io.Copy(os.Stdout, f); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	return nil
}

Stat

func run() error {
	info, err := pkger.Stat("/public/index.html")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	fmt.Println("Name: ", info.Name())
	fmt.Println("Size: ", info.Size())
	fmt.Println("Mode: ", info.Mode())
	fmt.Println("ModTime: ", info.ModTime())

	return nil
}

Walk

func run() error {
	w := tabwriter.NewWriter(os.Stdout, 0, 0, 0, ' ', tabwriter.Debug)
	defer w.Flush()

	return pkger.Walk("/public", func(path string, info os.FileInfo, err error) error {
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}

		fmt.Fprintf(w,
			"%s \t %d \t %s \t %s \t\n",
			info.Name(),
			info.Size(),
			info.Mode(),
			info.ModTime().Format(time.RFC3339),
		)

		return nil
	})

}

Understanding the Parser

The github.com/markbates/pkger/parser#Parser works by statically analyzing the source code of your module using the go/parser to find a selection of declarations.

The following declarations in your source code will tell the parser to embed files or folders.

  • pkger.Dir("<path>") - Embeds all files under the specified path.
  • pkger.Open("<path>") - Embeds the file, or folder, of the specified path.
  • pkger.Stat("<path>") - Embeds the file, or folder, of the specified path.
  • pkger.Walk("<path>", filepath.WalkFunc) - Embeds all files under the specified path.
  • pkger.Include("<path>") - Include is a no-op that directs the pkger tool to include the desired file or folder.

CLI Usage

To see what declarations the parser has found, you can use the pkger parse command to get a JSON list of the declarations.

$ pkger parse

{
 ".": [
  {
   "file": {
    "Abs": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref/foo/bar/baz",
    "Path": {
     "Pkg": "app",
     "Name": "/foo/bar/baz"
    },
    "Here": {
     "Dir": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref",
     "ImportPath": "app",
     "Module": {
      "Path": "app",
      "Main": true,
      "Dir": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref",
      "GoMod": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref/go.mod",
      "GoVersion": "1.13"
     },
     "Name": "main"
    }
   },
   "pos": {
    "Filename": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref/main.go",
    "Offset": 629,
    "Line": 47,
    "Column": 27
   },
   "type": "pkger.MkdirAll",
   "value": "/foo/bar/baz"
  },
  {
   "file": {
    "Abs": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref/foo/bar/baz/biz.txt",
    "Path": {
     "Pkg": "app",
     "Name": "/foo/bar/baz/biz.txt"
    },
    "Here": {
     "Dir": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref",
     "ImportPath": "app",
     "Module": {
      "Path": "app",
      "Main": true,
      "Dir": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref",
      "GoMod": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref/go.mod",
      "GoVersion": "1.13"
     },
     "Name": "main"
    }
   },
   "pos": {
    "Filename": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref/main.go",
    "Offset": 706,
    "Line": 51,
    "Column": 25
   },
   "type": "pkger.Create",
   "value": "/foo/bar/baz/biz.txt"
  },
  ...
 ]
}

For a module aware list use the pkger list command.

$ pkger list

app
 > app:/assets
 > app:/assets/css
 > app:/assets/css/_buffalo.scss
 > app:/assets/css/application.scss
 > app:/assets/images
 > app:/assets/images/favicon.ico
 > app:/assets/images/logo.svg
 > app:/assets/js
 > app:/assets/js/application.js
 > app:/go.mod
 > app:/locales/all.en-us.yaml
 > app:/public
 > app:/public/assets
 > app:/public/assets/.keep
 > app:/public/assets/app.css
 > app:/public/images
 > app:/public/images/img1.png
 > app:/public/index.html
 > app:/public/robots.txt
 > app:/templates
 > app:/templates/_flash.plush.html
 > app:/templates/application.plush.html
 > app:/templates/index.plush.html
 > app:/web
 > app:/web/web.go
 > github.com/gobuffalo/buffalo:/logo.svg

The -json flag can be used to get a more detailed list in JSON.

$ pkger list -json

{
 "ImportPath": "app",
 "Files": [
  {
   "Abs": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref/assets",
   "Path": {
    "Pkg": "app",
    "Name": "/assets"
   },
   "Here": {
    "Dir": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref/assets",
    "ImportPath": "",
    "Module": {
     "Path": "app",
     "Main": true,
     "Dir": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref",
     "GoMod": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref/go.mod",
     "GoVersion": "1.13"
    },
    "Name": "assets"
   }
  },
  {
   "Abs": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref/assets/css",
   "Path": {
    "Pkg": "app",
    "Name": "/assets/css"
   },
   "Here": {
    "Dir": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref/assets",
    "ImportPath": "",
    "Module": {
     "Path": "app",
     "Main": true,
     "Dir": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref",
     "GoMod": "$GOPATH/src/github.com/markbates/pkger/pkging/pkgtest/testdata/ref/go.mod",
     "GoVersion": "1.13"
    },
    "Name": "assets"
   }
  },
  ...
}
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