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Spring Cloud Function is a project with the following high-level goals:

  • Promote the implementation of business logic via functions.

  • Decouple the development lifecycle of business logic from any specific runtime target so that the same code can run as a web endpoint, a stream processor, or a task.

  • Support a uniform programming model across serverless providers, as well as the ability to run standalone (locally or in a PaaS).

  • Enable Spring Boot features (auto-configuration, dependency injection, metrics) on serverless providers.

It abstracts away all of the transport details and infrastructure, allowing the developer to keep all the familiar tools and processes, and focus firmly on business logic.

Here’s a complete, executable, testable Spring Boot application (implementing a simple string manipulation):

public class Application {

  public Function<Flux<String>, Flux<String>> uppercase() {
    return flux -> -> value.toUpperCase());

  public static void main(String[] args) {, args);

It’s just a Spring Boot application, so it can be built, run and tested, locally and in a CI build, the same way as any other Spring Boot application. The Function is from java.util and Flux is a Reactive Streams Publisher from Project Reactor. The function can be accessed over HTTP or messaging.

Spring Cloud Function has 4 main features:

  1. Wrappers for @Beans of type Function, Consumer and Supplier, exposing them to the outside world as either HTTP endpoints and/or message stream listeners/publishers with RabbitMQ, Kafka etc.

  2. Compiling strings which are Java function bodies into bytecode, and then turning them into @Beans that can be wrapped as above.

  3. Deploying a JAR file containing such an application context with an isolated classloader, so that you can pack them together in a single JVM.

  4. Adapters for AWS Lambda, Apache OpenWhisk and possibly other "serverless" service providers.

Getting Started

Build from the command line (and "install" the samples):

$ ./mvnw clean install

(If you like to YOLO add -DskipTests.)

Run one of the samples, e.g.

$ java -jar spring-cloud-function-samples/function-sample/target/*.jar

This runs the app and exposes its functions over HTTP, so you can convert a string to uppercase, like this:

$ curl -H "Content-Type: text/plain" localhost:8080/uppercase -d Hello

You can convert multiple strings (a Flux<String>) by separating them with new lines

$ curl -H "Content-Type: text/plain" localhost:8080/uppercase -d 'Hello
> World'

(You can use QJ in a terminal to insert a new line in a literal string like that.)

Building and Running a Function

The sample @SpringBootApplication above has a function that can be decorated at runtime by Spring Cloud Function to be an HTTP endpoint, or a Stream processor, for instance with RabbitMQ, Apache Kafka or JMS.

The @Beans can be Function, Consumer or Supplier (all from java.util), and their parametric types can be String or POJO. A Function is exposed as an HTTP POST if spring-cloud-function-web is on the classpath, and as a Spring Cloud Stream Processor if spring-cloud-function-stream is on the classpath and a property is configured in the Spring environment. A Consumer is also exposed as an HTTP POST, or as a Stream Sink. A Supplier translates to an HTTP GET, or a Stream Source.

Functions can be of Flux<String> or Flux<Pojo> and Spring Cloud Function takes care of converting the data to and from the desired types, as long as it comes in as plain text or (in the case of the POJO) JSON. TBD: support for Flux<Message<Pojo>> and maybe plain Pojo types (Fluxes implied and implemented by the framework).

Functions can be grouped together in a single application, or deployed one-per-jar. It’s up to the developer to choose. An app with multiple functions can be deployed multiple times in different "personalities", exposing different functions over different physical transports.

Deploying a Packaged Function

TBD: describe the deployer app.

Dynamic Compilation

To run these examples, change into the scripts directory:

cd scripts

Also, start a RabbitMQ server locally (e.g. execute rabbitmq-server).

Start the Function Registry Service:


Register a Function:

./ -n uppercase -f "f->>s.toString().toUpperCase())"

Run a REST Microservice using that Function:

./ -f uppercase -p 9000
curl -H "Content-Type: text/plain" -H "Accept: text/plain" localhost:9000/uppercase -d foo

Register a Supplier:

./ -n words -f "()->Flux.just(\"foo\",\"bar\")"

Run a REST Microservice using that Supplier:

./ -s words -p 9001
curl -H "Accept: application/json" localhost:9001/words

Register a Consumer:

./ -n print -t String -f "System.out::println"

Run a REST Microservice using that Consumer:

./ -c print -p 9002
curl -X POST -H "Content-Type: text/plain" -d foo localhost:9002/print

Run Stream Processing Microservices:

First register a streaming words supplier:

./ -n wordstream -f "()->Flux.intervalMillis(1000).map(i->\"message-\"+i)"

Then start the source (supplier), processor (function), and sink (consumer) apps (in reverse order):

./ -p 9103 -i uppercaseWords -c print
./ -p 9102 -i words -f uppercase -o uppercaseWords
./ -p 9101 -s wordstream -o words

The output will appear in the console of the sink app (one message per second, converted to uppercase):



Basic Compile and Test

To build the source you will need to install JDK 1.7.

Spring Cloud uses Maven for most build-related activities, and you should be able to get off the ground quite quickly by cloning the project you are interested in and typing

$ ./mvnw install
You can also install Maven (>=3.3.3) yourself and run the mvn command in place of ./mvnw in the examples below. If you do that you also might need to add -P spring if your local Maven settings do not contain repository declarations for spring pre-release artifacts.
Be aware that you might need to increase the amount of memory available to Maven by setting a MAVEN_OPTS environment variable with a value like -Xmx512m -XX:MaxPermSize=128m. We try to cover this in the .mvn configuration, so if you find you have to do it to make a build succeed, please raise a ticket to get the settings added to source control.

For hints on how to build the project look in .travis.yml if there is one. There should be a "script" and maybe "install" command. Also look at the "services" section to see if any services need to be running locally (e.g. mongo or rabbit). Ignore the git-related bits that you might find in "before_install" since they’re related to setting git credentials and you already have those.

The projects that require middleware generally include a docker-compose.yml, so consider using Docker Compose to run the middeware servers in Docker containers. See the README in the scripts demo repository for specific instructions about the common cases of mongo, rabbit and redis.

If all else fails, build with the command from .travis.yml (usually ./mvnw install).


The spring-cloud-build module has a "docs" profile, and if you switch that on it will try to build asciidoc sources from src/main/asciidoc. As part of that process it will look for a README.adoc and process it by loading all the includes, but not parsing or rendering it, just copying it to ${main.basedir} (defaults to ${basedir}, i.e. the root of the project). If there are any changes in the README it will then show up after a Maven build as a modified file in the correct place. Just commit it and push the change.

Working with the code

If you don’t have an IDE preference we would recommend that you use Spring Tools Suite or Eclipse when working with the code. We use the m2eclipse eclipse plugin for maven support. Other IDEs and tools should also work without issue as long as they use Maven 3.3.3 or better.

Importing into eclipse with m2eclipse

We recommend the m2eclipse eclipse plugin when working with eclipse. If you don’t already have m2eclipse installed it is available from the "eclipse marketplace".

Older versions of m2e do not support Maven 3.3, so once the projects are imported into Eclipse you will also need to tell m2eclipse to use the right profile for the projects. If you see many different errors related to the POMs in the projects, check that you have an up to date installation. If you can’t upgrade m2e, add the "spring" profile to your settings.xml. Alternatively you can copy the repository settings from the "spring" profile of the parent pom into your settings.xml.

Importing into eclipse without m2eclipse

If you prefer not to use m2eclipse you can generate eclipse project metadata using the following command:

$ ./mvnw eclipse:eclipse

The generated eclipse projects can be imported by selecting import existing projects from the file menu.


Spring Cloud is released under the non-restrictive Apache 2.0 license, and follows a very standard Github development process, using Github tracker for issues and merging pull requests into master. If you want to contribute even something trivial please do not hesitate, but follow the guidelines below.

Sign the Contributor License Agreement

Before we accept a non-trivial patch or pull request we will need you to sign the Contributor License Agreement. Signing the contributor’s agreement does not grant anyone commit rights to the main repository, but it does mean that we can accept your contributions, and you will get an author credit if we do. Active contributors might be asked to join the core team, and given the ability to merge pull requests.

Code of Conduct

This project adheres to the Contributor Covenant code of conduct. By participating, you are expected to uphold this code. Please report unacceptable behavior to

Code Conventions and Housekeeping

None of these is essential for a pull request, but they will all help. They can also be added after the original pull request but before a merge.

  • Use the Spring Framework code format conventions. If you use Eclipse you can import formatter settings using the eclipse-code-formatter.xml file from the Spring Cloud Build project. If using IntelliJ, you can use the Eclipse Code Formatter Plugin to import the same file.

  • Make sure all new .java files to have a simple Javadoc class comment with at least an @author tag identifying you, and preferably at least a paragraph on what the class is for.

  • Add the ASF license header comment to all new .java files (copy from existing files in the project)

  • Add yourself as an @author to the .java files that you modify substantially (more than cosmetic changes).

  • Add some Javadocs and, if you change the namespace, some XSD doc elements.

  • A few unit tests would help a lot as well — someone has to do it.

  • If no-one else is using your branch, please rebase it against the current master (or other target branch in the main project).

  • When writing a commit message please follow these conventions, if you are fixing an existing issue please add Fixes gh-XXXX at the end of the commit message (where XXXX is the issue number).