Cool way how to speak with database server. It's ellegant and very ruby SQL query helper which works by similar way as Arel or another ORM selecting logic. It's derived from Dibi database layer in its ideas, so is much more simple and (of sure) much more KISS, readable and straightforward.
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README.md

Native Query

Native Query is cool way how to speak with database server. It's ellegant and very ruby SQL query helper which works by similar way as Arel or another ORM selecting logic. It's derived from Dibi database layer in its ideas, so is much more simple and (of sure) much more KISS, readable and straightforward.

It's build on top of the general Fluent Query library which servers as underlying layer, so can be extended to almost whatever – and not-only database – platform.

Connecting

# Include it!
require "fluent-query/mysql"
require "native-query"

# Setup it!
driver = FluentQuery::Drivers::MySQL
settings = {
    :username => "wikistatistics.net",
    :password => "alfabeta",
    :server => "localhost",
    :port => 5432,
    :database => "wikistatistics.net",
    :schema => "public"
}

# Create it!
model = NativeQuery::Model::new(driver, settings)

Now we have model prepared for use.

Selecting

Simply call method accroding to table name above the model. Its arguments will be fields which you would like to select:

records = model.maintainers :name, :code do
    ...
    get.all
end

The last command in the block is getter. You can take all records, one record only or single (first) value of first row. assoc method is described below.

Traversing through returned records is simple of sure:

records.each do |row|
    p row.code, row.name
end

Associative Fetching

Special associative method is the assoc one which is directly inspired by appropriate feature of the Dibi layer. It's aim is automatic aggregation of returned rows to multidimensional Hashes.

Simply give it key names from your dataset. Be warn, only one or two levels (e.g. dimesions in resultant Hash) are supported:

records = model.sites :maintainer_id, :language, :name do
    # ...
    get.assoc :maintainer_id, :language
end

Will transform the dataset:

# maintainer_id, language, name
[1, "en", "English Wikipedia"],
[1, "es", "Spain Wikipedia"],
[2, "cs", "Czech Wikihow"],
[2, "ja", "Japan Wikihow"],

To the following structure:

    1 => {
        "en" => "English Wikipedia",
        "es" => "Spain Wikipedia"
    },

    2 => {
        "cs" => "Czech Wikihow",
        "ja" => "Japan Wikihow"
    }

Conditions, ordering and limits

Limits and offsets are simple too:

records = model.maintainers :name, :code do
    # ...
    offset 5
    limit 3
    # ...
end

Will select sixth, seventh and eighth record.

Conditions

Conditions (WHERE equivalent) receives Ruby's native data types. So simply call:

records = model.maintainers :name, :code do
    where :active => true
    where :id => 5
    # ...
end

These confitions are simple and AND equivalency of sure. Because aim is to be simple and to don't complicate rather nice interface by giant stuff of sophisticated and complicated calls, you can provide whatever condition using FluentQuery strings:

records = model.maintainers :name, :code do
    # ...    
    where "[id] > 5"
    where "[name] IN %%l", names
    where "%%or", :id => 10, :name => "Wikia, Inc."
    # ...
end

Brackets always means "this identifer is a field name". See description of the Fluent Query below.

Ordering

Orders work by very predictable way. For example:

records = model.maintainers :name, :code do
    # ...
    order :name, :desc
    order :date, :asc, :id, :asc
    # ...
end

Means "order by name DESC and then by date, id ASC". You can combine both of styles mentioned above. If you need order by joined fields, simply replace symbol by array with table name and field name as you can see in advanced example below.

Joining

Two kinds of joining are available: automatic and manual. They have the same syntax principially, for manual joining is necessary to provide more informations of sure.

Manual Joining

For manual joining simply type:

records = model.maintainers :name, :code, :sites_code, :sites_name do
    # ...
    sites :code, :name, :language_name do
        direct :site_id => :id
        # ...
    end
    # ...
end

Which means select from table maintainers and join it with table sites by N:1 (direct) relation. Yes, you can join directly by "calling the table" and treating its block as your primary table. It's ellegant and very readable. For next level of joining simply do the same in the inner block.

All fields selected from the joined table are prefixed by its name and it's necessary of sure to tell interpret you want return them, as you can see above. It's practical because you know about orgination of the field whenever further in your source code.

Slightly more complicated is M:N relation type which works in semiautomatic way only:

records = model.maintainers :name, :code, :sites_code, :sites_name do
    # ...
    sites :code, :name, :language_name do
        indirect :sites_maintainers, :id => :id
        # ...
    end
    # ...
end

Which means the same as:

SELECT ... FROM `maintainers` 
    JOIN `sites_maintainers` ON `maintainers`.`id` = `sites_maintainers`.`maintainers_id`
    JOIN `sites` ON `sites_maintainers`.`sites_id` = `site`.`id`
    ...

Only LEFT JOIN is supported. For other joining types, use direct Fluent Query interface (see below). Special conditions in ON clausule is possible to achieve simply by giving the Fluent Query string:

records = model.maintainers :name, :code, :sites_code, :sites_name do
    # ...
    sites :code, :name, :language_name do
        indirect :sites_maintainers, "[maintainers.id] = [sites_maintainers.strange_1]", "[sites_maintainers.strange_2] = [site.id]"
        # ...
    end
    # ...
end

And the same for direct joining of sure.

Automatic joining

Automatic joining is recommended joining way although it has some strict requirements for table and field names:

  • primary keys are expected to be named id,
  • foreign key fields are expected to be named <target-table>_id,
  • M:N linking tables are expected to be named <source-table>_<target-table>.

But then you can use the following nice syntax for both direct:

records = model.maintainers :name, :code, :sites_code, :sites_name do
    # ...
    sites :code, :name, :language_name do
        direct
        # ...
    end
    # ...
end

Which will be transformed approximately (it's driver dependent) into:

SELECT `name`, `code`, `sites`.`code`, `sites`.`name`
    FROM `maintainers`
    JOIN `sites` ON `maintainers`.`id` = `sites`.`maintainer_id`
    ...

Or indirect:

records = model.maintainers :name, :code, :sites_code, :sites_name do
    # ...
    sites :code, :name, :language_name do
        indirect
        # ...
    end
    # ...
end

Which will be transformed approximately (it's driver dependent) into:

SELECT `name`, `code`, `sites`.`code` AS `sites_code`, `sites`.`name` AS `sites_name`
    FROM `maintainers`
    JOIN `maintainers_sites` ON `maintainers`.`id` = `maintainers_sites`.`maintainer_id`
    JOIN `sites` ON `maintainers_sites`.`site_id` = `site`.`id`
    ...

Should be noted, if you need backward indirect joining (so in opposite direction than in examples above), simply call direct backward or indirect backward.

Inserts, Updates and Deletes

Native Query doesn't support native inserting, updating and deleting, but provides bridge to appropriate Fluent Query methods. Some examples:

model.insert(:maintainers, :name => "Wikimedia", :country => "United States")

# Will be:
#   INSERT INTO `maintainers` (`name`, `country`) VALUES ("Wikimedia", "United States")

model.update(:maintainers).set(:country => "Czech Republic").where(:id => 10).limit(1)

# Will be:
#   UPDATE `maintainers` SET `country` = "Czech Republic" WHERE `id` = 10 LIMIT 1

model.delete(:maintainers).where(:id => 10).limit(1)

# Will be:
#   DELETE FROM `maintainers` WHERE `id` = 10 LIMIT 1

Transactions

Transactions support is available manual:

  • model.begin
  • model.commit
  • model.rollback

Or by automatic way:

model.transaction do
    #...
end

Fluent Queries

The Native Query library is built on top of the Fluent Query library which provides way how to fluently translate series of method calls to some query language (but typically SQL). Some example:

model.select("[id], [name]").from("[maintainers]").orderBy("[code] ASC")

Will be rendered to:

SELECT `id`, `name` FROM `maintainers` ORDER BY `code` ASC

It looks trivial, but for example call model.heyReturnMeSomething("[yeah]") will be transformed to:

HEY RETURN ME SOMETHING `yeah`

Which gives big potential. Of sure, escaping, aggregation and chaining of chunks for example for WHERE directive or another is necessary. It's ensured by appropriate language (e.g. database) driver.

And what a more: order of tokens isn't mandatory, so with exception of initial world (SELECT, INSERT etc.) you can add them according to your needs.

Placeholders

Simple translation calls to queries isn't the only functionality. Very helpful are also placeholders. They works principially by the same way as #printf method, but are more suitable for use in queries and supports automatic quoting. Available are:

  • %%s which quotes string,
  • %%i which quotes integer,
  • %%b which quotes boolean,
  • %%f which quotes float,
  • %%d which quotes date,
  • %%t which quotes date-time,

And also three special:

  • %%sql which quotes subquery (expects query object),
  • %%and which joins input by AND operator (expects hash),
  • %%or which joins input by OR operator (expects hash).

An example:

model.select("[id], [name]") \
  .from("[maintainers]") \
  .where("[id] = %%i AND company = %%s", 5, "Wikia") \
  .where("[language] IN %%l", ["cz", "en"]) \
  .or \
  .where("[active] IS %%b", true)

Will be transformed to:

SELECT `id`, `name` FROM `maintainers` 
    WHERE `id` = 5 
        AND `company` = "Wikia"
        AND `language` IN ("cz", "en")
        OR `active` IS TRUE

It's way how to write complex or special queries. But direct values assigning is supported, so for example:

model.select(:id, :name) \
  .from(:maintainers) \
  .where(:id => 5, :company => "Wikia") \
  .where("[language] IN %%l", ["cz", "en"])   # %l will join items by commas
  .or \
  .where(:active => true)

Will give you expected result too and as you can see, it's much more readable, flexible, so preferred.

Relation to Native Query

You can take Fluent Query object from the Native Query by:

# Query it!
query = model.maintainers :name, :code do
    where :active => true
    order :name, :asc
    limit 1
    get.query   # takes the Fluent Query object
end

query.execute!

And if necessary build it by #build method to string. Build method is also available above Native Query object directly. To execute query or fetch data is possible through #do(*args) or #execute(*args). Result will be result object similar to Native Query's one.

Examples

Simple example:

# Query it!
records = model.maintainers :name, :code do
    where :active => true
    order :name, :asc
    limit 1
    get.all
end

Will be transformed to:

SELECT `name`, `code` FROM `maintainers` 
    WHERE `active` IS TRUE
    ORDER BY `name` ASC
    LIMIT 1

Advanced automatic joining (advanced example):

# here selects two fields from 'projects' table and two other fields from joined 'sites' table
projects = model.projects :name, :code, :sites_code, :sites_name do
    sites :code, :name, :language_name do
        where :active => true
    end

    maintainers do                  # joins 'projects' table with table 'maintainers'
        indirect backward           # ...by indirect way, so M:N
        where :active => true   
        where :id => 10
    end

    where :active => true
    order :code, [:sites, :code]

    get.assoc(:code, :sites_code)
end

Will be transformed to:

SELECT `name`, `code`, `sites`.`code` AS `sites_code`, `sites`.`name` AS `sites_name` 
    FROM `projects`
    JOIN `sites` ON `projects`.`id` = `sites`.`project_id`
    JOIN `maintainers_projects` 
        ON `projects`.`id` = `maintainers_projects`.`project_id`
    JOIN `maintainers` 
        ON `maintainers`.`id` = `maintainers_projects`.`maintainer_id`
    WHERE `sites`.`active` IS TRUE
        AND `maintainers`.`active` IS TRUE
        AND `maintainers`.`id` = 10
        AND `active` IS TRUE
        ORDER BY `code`, `sites`.`code` ASC

Contributing

  1. Fork it.
  2. Create a branch (git checkout -b 20101220-my-change).
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am "Added something").
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin 20101220-my-change).
  5. Create an Issue with a link to your branch.
  6. Enjoy a refreshing Diet Coke and wait.

Copyright

Copyright © 2010-2012 Martin Kozák. See LICENSE.txt for further details.