Allows you to navigate a web page via WAI-ARIA landmarks, using the keyboard or a pop-up menu
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Build Status

This is a browser extension (for Firefox, Chrome and Opera) that enables navigation of WAI-ARIA landmarks, via the keyboard or a pop-up menu (from the extension's toolbar button).

Landmarks broadly signpost the areas of a page (e.g. navigation, search, main content and so on). They can make navigation considerably easier for people who use the keyboard to navigate and those using assistive technologies such as screen-readers, because they make it much quicker to get an overview and to navigate to (and between) areas of interest.

The following sections explain how to install and use the extension.

If you're a web author/developer, check out the information below on why landmarks rock, and how easy they are to put into your site—in fact, if you're using HTML 5, you probably already have landmarks on your site, but there are some ways to make them even more helpful, as discussed below.

Table of Contents


If you need support, please check the known issues for Landmarks and, if necessary, file a new issue using the "New Issue" button on that page.

Navigating Landmarks

Via Shortcut Key

You can use shortcut keys to navigate between landmarks. By default, the keys are:

  • Alt+Shift+n to move to the next landmark, and
  • Alt+Shift+p to move to the previous landmark.

(On a Mac, use the Option key, which is equivalent to Alt.)

Landmarks will be focused, and a border shown according to your border preferences.

You can change the keyboard shortcuts in the following browsers.

  • Chrome: More ⋮ → Settings → Extensions [on the left-hand side] → Keyboard shortcuts [at the bottom of the page]
  • Opera: Opera Menu / Speed Dial → Extensions → Extension Keyboard Shortcuts

Via Toolbar Pop-up

If landmarks are found on the page, the Landmarks button in the toolbar (which looks like an "L") will be badged with the number of landmarks found.

  1. Activate the Landmarks toolbar button. A pop-up will appear. If landmarks are present on the page, they will be shown in a nested list, reflecting the structure of the landmarks on the page.

  2. Activate a button in the list to move to that landmark. The landmark will be focused, and a border shown according to your border preferences.

  3. To close the pop-up, press Escape, or click outside of the pop-up.

Border Preferences

A border can be drawn around the landmarks as you navigate them, to make it clear where you are on the page. You can change the border style in the extension's preferences/options page. The available border styles are:

  • Momentary (default): the border remains visible for a short time, then disappears.
  • Persistent: the border remains visible at all times.
  • None: no border is drawn.

You can change this setting as follows.

  • Firefox: Menu ☰ → Add-ons → Extensions [on left-hand side, if not already activated] → Preferences [under Landmarks, then scroll down]
  • Chrome/Opera: Right-click on, or activate the context menu of, the Landmarks button in the toolbar → Options

Remember to use the "Save" button to save any changes. Also, due to the varied way in which web pages can be styled, the border will sometimes not appear to fully surround the landmark element.


You can build and run the current code locally as follows.

  1. Clone the Landmarks repository on GitHub to your computer.

  2. Ensure you have all the required build tools with npm install (you will need Node.js).

  3. Run the build script to build one or all of the extensions:

    • npm run build:firefox
    • npm run build:chrome
    • npm run build:opera
    • npm run build:all

    The built versions of the extension are placed in the build/<browser>/ directories and ZIP files for each will be created in the root of the checked-out repository.

  4. To load and use the extension locally in your browser...

Some further info on the test/build process:

  • Automated tests are run as a pre-requisite part of the build process; you can also run them with npm test.

  • You can remove the build/<browser>/ directories and ZIP files with npm run clean:firefox, npm run clean:chrome or npm run clean:all, as with the build scripts above.

  • Because the process of rasterising the SVG to variously-sized PNGs is slow, the PNGs are cached, so they only need to be re-generated when the SVG changes. You can clean out the cache with npm run clean:cache.

  • The pre-commit hook can be used to ensure only code that passes tests is committed (it does this by running a build, which, in turn, runs the tests). You can make a symlink from the .git/hooks/ directory to it and thus it (and the tests) will be run before you are asked for a commit message.

Test Pages

The following pages are incorporated into the automated test suite, but you can also visit them in-browser to try out the extension's UI.

This Extension's Support for Landmarks

The extension supports WAI-ARIA landmark roles, both as supplied via the role attribute and as implicit landmarks via HTML 5 elements. All landmark roles are supported, with some caveats, as per the relevant specifications, which are described below.

  • banner1
  • complementary
  • contentinfo1
  • form2
  • main
  • navigation
  • region2
  • search

If a landmark label is present (via the aria-labelledby or aria-label attributes), they'll be shown in the pop-up. As per the accessible name calculation algorithm used by browsers, the aria-labelledby attribute takes precedence over aria-label.


  1. Both <header> (banner) and <footer> (contentinfo) elements are not considered landmarks unless they are the page-wide header/footer elements. (As per the HTML element role mappings.)

  2. form and region landmarks are intended to be labelled. Ideally, this should be done with a visual label and an aria-labelledby attribute (so all users can perceive the label). However, if a label is only provided by the (non-visual) aria-label attribute, this extension will recognise it.

There is ambiguity in the WAI-ARIA specification as to whether they might still be counted as landmarks even if they are unlabelled. Most assistive technologies do not count unlabelled forms or regions, because doing so could add a lot of noise to landmark navigation. Therefore this extension also ignores them.

Information for Web Authors, Designers and Developers

As described at start of this document, landmarks can really help various people get a quick overview of your site, and navigate it much more effectively. This can save them a lot of time, so please consider implementing landmarks on your site; here is some information to help you do so...

Please bear in mind the following when implementing landmarks...

  • It's important that landmarks are not over-used, because their power comes from providing a concise overview of the content of the page. The heading hierarchy for the page can be relied upon for more fine-grained navigation within a particular area of a page.

    Rule of thumb: Use as few landmarks as possible, but ensure that all of the content on the page is within a landmark region.

  • If you're using HTML 5 elements such as <header>, <nav>, <main> and others, then your page will inherit some landmarks automagically. However it can be really helpful to label them (especially if there's more than one of a landmark on a page, such as a separate site-wide and page-local <nav>). The W3C documentation has all the details, but essentialy you would use either the aria-labelledby or aria-label attribute.

    Rule of thumb: If you've more than one type of landmark, then be sure to label them, so their purpose is clear.


This is a fork of the original landmarks extension written by davidtodd at IBM. Thanks to stevefaulkner for suggesting I work on this, and for feature suggestions (and again to davidtodd for supporting me doing so), and to The Paciello Group for donating a significant chunk of the development time.


  • 2.0.7 - 11th of May 2017
    • Officially support Opera.
    • Make the landmark highlight more visible.
    • Open a help page when the extension is installed/updated on Firefox (this was already supported on Chrome, and is on Opera).
    • Make use of Firefox’s synching of settings across devices.
    • More tests, and numerous other code improvements behind the scenes.
    • Partly works on Edge; still a few things to sort out before it's robust (also, the extensions store is not yet immediately open to submissions from allcomers).
  • 2.0.6 - 2nd of February 2017
    • Add a test suite to ensure landmarks are identified correctly.
    • Various large internal code-quality improvements.
  • 2.0.5 - 5th of December 2016
    • No user-facing changes.
    • Fix error in packaging (the new build system was not actually compressing the ZIP file, which different parts of the submission process for Chrome and Firefox didn't like—oops!)
    • Add more code robustosity checks with ESLint.
  • 2.0.4 - 4th of December 2016
    • Clean up the appearance of the pop-up.
    • Increase 'momentary' highlight duration to two seconds, from one second.
    • Remove a workaround for a bug in Firefox pop-up sizing that was fixed in Firefox 50.
    • Drop Grunt and switch to just using NPM and scripts for building the extensions.
    • Track builds with Travis CI.
    • Use ESLint and EditorConfig code standards and quality tools.
  • 2.0.3 - 23rd of September 2016
    • When installed/updated on Chrome, show the web page, with a (hopefully) helpful notice about the install/upgrade.
    • Automatically re-inject the content script on Chrome when the extension is updated (or inject it when the extension is installed), as users would expect it to start working straight away. (Firefox does this itself.)
    • Locale is now en_GB (instead of en).
    • Switch to using grunt-phantom-rasterize for converting the SVGs to PNGs.
  • 2.0.2 - 12th of August 2016
    • First WebExtension Release