Official Golang implementation of the Ethereum protocol.
Automated builds are available for stable releases and the unstable master branch. Binary archives are published at https://geth.ethereum.org/downloads/.
Building the source
For prerequisites and detailed build instructions please read the Installation Instructions on the wiki.
bor requires both a Go (version 1.10 or later) and a C compiler. You can install
them using your favourite package manager. Once the dependencies are installed, run
or, to build the full suite of utilities:
The go-ethereum project comes with several wrappers/executables found in the
||Our main Ethereum CLI client. It is the entry point into the Ethereum network (main-, test- or private net), capable of running as a full node (default), archive node (retaining all historical state) or a light node (retrieving data live). It can be used by other processes as a gateway into the Ethereum network via JSON RPC endpoints exposed on top of HTTP, WebSocket and/or IPC transports.
||Source code generator to convert Ethereum contract definitions into easy to use, compile-time type-safe Go packages. It operates on plain Ethereum contract ABIs with expanded functionality if the contract bytecode is also available. However, it also accepts Solidity source files, making development much more streamlined. Please see our Native DApps wiki page for details.|
||Stripped down version of our Ethereum client implementation that only takes part in the network node discovery protocol, but does not run any of the higher level application protocols. It can be used as a lightweight bootstrap node to aid in finding peers in private networks.|
||Developer utility version of the EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) that is capable of running bytecode snippets within a configurable environment and execution mode. Its purpose is to allow isolated, fine-grained debugging of EVM opcodes (e.g.
||Developer utility tool to support our ethereum/rpc-test test suite which validates baseline conformity to the Ethereum JSON RPC specs. Please see the test suite's readme for details.|
||Developer utility tool to convert binary RLP (Recursive Length Prefix) dumps (data encoding used by the Ethereum protocol both network as well as consensus wise) to user-friendlier hierarchical representation (e.g.
||a CLI wizard that aids in creating a new Ethereum network.|
Going through all the possible command line flags is out of scope here (please consult our
CLI Wiki page),
but we've enumerated a few common parameter combos to get you up to speed quickly
on how you can run your own
Full node on the main Ethereum network
By far the most common scenario is people wanting to simply interact with the Ethereum network: create accounts; transfer funds; deploy and interact with contracts. For this particular use-case the user doesn't care about years-old historical data, so we can fast-sync quickly to the current state of the network. To do so:
$ geth console
This command will:
gethin fast sync mode (default, can be changed with the
--syncmodeflag), causing it to download more data in exchange for avoiding processing the entire history of the Ethereum network, which is very CPU intensive.
- Start up
consolesubcommand) through which you can invoke all official
web3methods as well as
geth's own management APIs. This tool is optional and if you leave it out you can always attach to an already running
A Full node on the Ethereum test network
Transitioning towards developers, if you'd like to play around with creating Ethereum contracts, you almost certainly would like to do that without any real money involved until you get the hang of the entire system. In other words, instead of attaching to the main network, you want to join the test network with your node, which is fully equivalent to the main network, but with play-Ether only.
$ geth --testnet console
console subcommand has the exact same meaning as above and they are equally
useful on the testnet too. Please see above for their explanations if you've skipped here.
--testnet flag, however, will reconfigure your
geth instance a bit:
- Instead of using the default data directory (
~/.ethereumon Linux for example),
gethwill nest itself one level deeper into a
~/.ethereum/testneton Linux). Note, on OSX and Linux this also means that attaching to a running testnet node requires the use of a custom endpoint since
geth attachwill try to attach to a production node endpoint by default. E.g.
geth attach <datadir>/testnet/bor.ipc. Windows users are not affected by this.
- Instead of connecting the main Ethereum network, the client will connect to the test network, which uses different P2P bootnodes, different network IDs and genesis states.
Note: Although there are some internal protective measures to prevent transactions from
crossing over between the main network and test network, you should make sure to always
use separate accounts for play-money and real-money. Unless you manually move
geth will by default correctly separate the two networks and will not make any
accounts available between them.
As an alternative to passing the numerous flags to the
bor binary, you can also pass a
configuration file via:
$ bor --config /path/to/your_config.toml
To get an idea how the file should look like you can use the
dumpconfig subcommand to
export your existing configuration:
$ bor --your-favourite-flags dumpconfig
Note: This works only with
geth v1.6.0 and above.
As a developer, sooner rather than later you'll want to start interacting with
geth and the
Ethereum network via your own programs and not manually through the console. To aid
geth has built-in support for a JSON-RPC based APIs (standard APIs
bor specific APIs).
These can be exposed via HTTP, WebSockets and IPC (UNIX sockets on UNIX based
platforms, and named pipes on Windows).
The IPC interface is enabled by default and exposes all the APIs supported by
whereas the HTTP and WS interfaces need to manually be enabled and only expose a
subset of APIs due to security reasons. These can be turned on/off and configured as
HTTP based JSON-RPC API options:
--rpcEnable the HTTP-RPC server
--rpcaddrHTTP-RPC server listening interface (default:
--rpcportHTTP-RPC server listening port (default:
--rpcapiAPI's offered over the HTTP-RPC interface (default:
--rpccorsdomainComma separated list of domains from which to accept cross origin requests (browser enforced)
--wsEnable the WS-RPC server
--wsaddrWS-RPC server listening interface (default:
--wsportWS-RPC server listening port (default:
--wsapiAPI's offered over the WS-RPC interface (default:
--wsoriginsOrigins from which to accept websockets requests
--ipcdisableDisable the IPC-RPC server
--ipcapiAPI's offered over the IPC-RPC interface (default:
--ipcpathFilename for IPC socket/pipe within the datadir (explicit paths escape it)
You'll need to use your own programming environments' capabilities (libraries, tools, etc) to
connect via HTTP, WS or IPC to a
geth node configured with the above flags and you'll
need to speak JSON-RPC on all transports. You
can reuse the same connection for multiple requests!
Note: Please understand the security implications of opening up an HTTP/WS based transport before doing so! Hackers on the internet are actively trying to subvert Ethereum nodes with exposed APIs! Further, all browser tabs can access locally running web servers, so malicious web pages could try to subvert locally available APIs!
The bor library (i.e. all code outside of the
cmd directory) is licensed under the
GNU Lesser General Public License v3.0,
also included in our repository in the
The bor binaries (i.e. all code inside of the
cmd directory) is licensed under the
GNU General Public License v3.0, also
included in our repository in the