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This is an object-oriented plotting library.
A procedural interface is provided by the companion pyplot module,
which may be imported directly, e.g.::
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
or using ipython::
at your terminal, followed by::
In [1]: %matplotlib
In [2]: import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
at the ipython shell prompt.
For the most part, direct use of the object-oriented library is
encouraged when programming; pyplot is primarily for working
interactively. The
exceptions are the pyplot commands :func:`~matplotlib.pyplot.figure`,
:func:`~matplotlib.pyplot.subplots`, and
:func:`~pyplot.savefig`, which can greatly simplify scripting.
Modules include:
defines the :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes` class. Most pylab
commands are wrappers for :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes`
methods. The axes module is the highest level of OO access to
the library.
defines the :class:`~matplotlib.figure.Figure` class.
defines the :class:`~matplotlib.artist.Artist` base class for
all classes that draw things.
defines the :class:`~matplotlib.lines.Line2D` class for
drawing lines and markers
defines classes for drawing polygons
defines the :class:`~matplotlib.text.Text`,
:class:`~matplotlib.text.TextWithDash`, and
:class:`~matplotlib.text.Annotate` classes
defines the :class:`~matplotlib.image.AxesImage` and
:class:`~matplotlib.image.FigureImage` classes
classes for efficient drawing of groups of lines or polygons
classes for interpreting color specifications and for making
colormaps and the :class:`~matplotlib.image.ScalarMappable`
mixin class for providing color mapping functionality to other
classes for calculating tick mark locations and for formatting
tick labels
a subpackage with modules for various gui libraries and output
The base matplotlib namespace includes:
a global dictionary of default configuration settings. It is
initialized by code which may be overridded by a matplotlibrc
a function for setting groups of rcParams values
a function for setting the matplotlib backend. If used, this
function must be called immediately after importing matplotlib
for the first time. In particular, it must be called
**before** importing pylab (if pylab is imported).
matplotlib was initially written by John D. Hunter (1968-2012) and is now
developed and maintained by a host of others.
Occasionally the internal documentation (python docstrings) will refer
to MATLAB®, a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc.
from __future__ import (absolute_import, division, print_function,
from matplotlib.externals import six
import sys
import distutils.version
from itertools import chain
import io
import inspect
import locale
import os
import re
import tempfile
import warnings
import contextlib
import distutils.sysconfig
import functools
# cbook must import matplotlib only within function
# definitions, so it is safe to import from it here.
from matplotlib.cbook import is_string_like, mplDeprecation, dedent, get_label
from matplotlib.compat import subprocess
from matplotlib.rcsetup import (defaultParams,
import numpy
from matplotlib.externals.six.moves.urllib.request import urlopen
from matplotlib.externals.six.moves import reload_module as reload
# Get the version from the versioneer file. For a git checkout,
# this is computed based on the number of commits since the last tag.
from ._version import get_versions
__version__ = str(get_versions()['version'])
del get_versions
__version__numpy__ = str('1.6') # minimum required numpy version
__bibtex__ = """@Article{Hunter:2007,
Author = {Hunter, J. D.},
Title = {Matplotlib: A 2D graphics environment},
Journal = {Computing In Science \& Engineering},
Volume = {9},
Number = {3},
Pages = {90--95},
abstract = {Matplotlib is a 2D graphics package used for Python
for application development, interactive scripting, and
publication-quality image generation across user
interfaces and operating systems.},
publisher = {IEEE COMPUTER SOC},
year = 2007
import dateutil
except ImportError:
raise ImportError("matplotlib requires dateutil")
def compare_versions(a, b):
"return True if a is greater than or equal to b"
if a:
if six.PY3:
if isinstance(a, bytes):
a = a.decode('ascii')
if isinstance(b, bytes):
b = b.decode('ascii')
a = distutils.version.LooseVersion(a)
b = distutils.version.LooseVersion(b)
return a >= b
return False
if not compare_versions(six.__version__, '1.3'):
raise ImportError(
'six 1.3 or later is required; you have %s' % (
import pyparsing
except ImportError:
raise ImportError("matplotlib requires pyparsing")
if not compare_versions(pyparsing.__version__, '1.5.6'):
raise ImportError(
"matplotlib requires pyparsing >= 1.5.6")
# pyparsing 2.0.0 bug, but it may be patched in distributions
f = pyparsing.Forward()
f <<= pyparsing.Literal('a')
bad_pyparsing = f is None
except TypeError:
bad_pyparsing = True
# pyparsing 1.5.6 does not have <<= on the Forward class, but
# pyparsing 2.0.0 and later will spew deprecation warnings if
# using << instead. Additionally, the <<= in pyparsing 1.5.7 is
# broken, since it doesn't return self. In order to support
# pyparsing 1.5.6 and above with a common code base, this small
# monkey patch is applied.
if bad_pyparsing:
def _forward_ilshift(self, other):
return self
pyparsing.Forward.__ilshift__ = _forward_ilshift
if not hasattr(sys, 'argv'): # for modpython
sys.argv = [str('modpython')]
major, minor1, minor2, s, tmp = sys.version_info
_python27 = (major == 2 and minor1 >= 7)
_python34 = (major == 3 and minor1 >= 4)
if not (_python27 or _python34):
raise ImportError('matplotlib requires Python 2.7 or 3.4 or later')
if not compare_versions(numpy.__version__, __version__numpy__):
raise ImportError(
'numpy %s or later is required; you have %s' % (
__version__numpy__, numpy.__version__))
def _is_writable_dir(p):
p is a string pointing to a putative writable dir -- return True p
is such a string, else False
p + '' # test is string like
except TypeError:
return False
# Test whether the operating system thinks it's a writable directory.
# Note that this check is necessary on Google App Engine, because the
# subsequent check will succeed even though p may not be writable.
if not os.access(p, os.W_OK) or not os.path.isdir(p):
return False
# Also test that it is actually possible to write to a file here.
t = tempfile.TemporaryFile(dir=p)
return False
return True
class Verbose(object):
A class to handle reporting. Set the fileo attribute to any file
instance to handle the output. Default is sys.stdout
levels = ('silent', 'helpful', 'debug', 'debug-annoying')
vald = dict([(level, i) for i, level in enumerate(levels)])
# parse the verbosity from the command line; flags look like
# --verbose-silent or --verbose-helpful
_commandLineVerbose = None
for arg in sys.argv[1:]:
# cast to str because we are using unicode_literals,
# and argv is always str
if not arg.startswith(str('--verbose-')):
level_str = arg[10:]
# If it doesn't match one of ours, then don't even
# bother noting it, we are just a 3rd-party library
# to somebody else's script.
if level_str in levels:
_commandLineVerbose = level_str
def __init__(self):
self.fileo = sys.stdout
def set_level(self, level):
'set the verbosity to one of the Verbose.levels strings'
if self._commandLineVerbose is not None:
level = self._commandLineVerbose
if level not in self.levels:
warnings.warn('matplotlib: unrecognized --verbose-* string "%s".'
' Legal values are %s' % (level, self.levels))
self.level = level
def set_fileo(self, fname):
std = {
'sys.stdout': sys.stdout,
'sys.stderr': sys.stderr,
if fname in std:
self.fileo = std[fname]
fileo = open(fname, 'w')
except IOError:
raise ValueError('Verbose object could not open log file "{0}"'
' for writing.\nCheck your matplotlibrc '
'verbose.fileo setting'.format(fname))
self.fileo = fileo
def report(self, s, level='helpful'):
print message s to self.fileo if self.level>=level. Return
value indicates whether a message was issued
print(s, file=self.fileo)
return True
return False
def wrap(self, fmt, func, level='helpful', always=True):
return a callable function that wraps func and reports it
output through the verbose handler if current verbosity level
is higher than level
if always is True, the report will occur on every function
call; otherwise only on the first time the function is called
assert six.callable(func)
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
ret = func(*args, **kwargs)
if (always or not wrapper._spoke):
spoke = % ret, level)
if not wrapper._spoke:
wrapper._spoke = spoke
return ret
wrapper._spoke = False
wrapper.__doc__ = func.__doc__
return wrapper
def ge(self, level):
'return true if self.level is >= level'
return self.vald[self.level] >= self.vald[level]
verbose = Verbose()
def checkdep_dvipng():
s = subprocess.Popen(['dvipng', '-version'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout, stderr = s.communicate()
line = stdout.decode('ascii').split('\n')[1]
v = line.split()[-1]
return v
except (IndexError, ValueError, OSError):
return None
def checkdep_ghostscript():
if sys.platform == 'win32':
# mgs is the name in miktex
gs_execs = ['gswin32c', 'gswin64c', 'mgs', 'gs']
gs_execs = ['gs']
for gs_exec in gs_execs:
s = subprocess.Popen(
[gs_exec, '--version'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout, stderr = s.communicate()
if s.returncode == 0:
v = stdout[:-1].decode('ascii')
return gs_exec, v
except (IndexError, ValueError, OSError):
return None, None
def checkdep_tex():
s = subprocess.Popen(['tex', '-version'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout, stderr = s.communicate()
line = stdout.decode('ascii').split('\n')[0]
pattern = '3\.1\d+'
match =, line)
v =
return v
except (IndexError, ValueError, AttributeError, OSError):
return None
def checkdep_pdftops():
s = subprocess.Popen(['pdftops', '-v'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout, stderr = s.communicate()
lines = stderr.decode('ascii').split('\n')
for line in lines:
if 'version' in line:
v = line.split()[-1]
return v
except (IndexError, ValueError, UnboundLocalError, OSError):
return None
def checkdep_inkscape():
s = subprocess.Popen(['inkscape', '-V'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout, stderr = s.communicate()
lines = stdout.decode('ascii').split('\n')
for line in lines:
if 'Inkscape' in line:
v = line.split()[1]
return v
except (IndexError, ValueError, UnboundLocalError, OSError):
return None
def checkdep_xmllint():
s = subprocess.Popen(['xmllint', '--version'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout, stderr = s.communicate()
lines = stderr.decode('ascii').split('\n')
for line in lines:
if 'version' in line:
v = line.split()[-1]
return v
except (IndexError, ValueError, UnboundLocalError, OSError):
return None
def checkdep_ps_distiller(s):
if not s:
return False
flag = True
gs_req = '7.07'
gs_sugg = '7.07'
gs_exec, gs_v = checkdep_ghostscript()
if compare_versions(gs_v, gs_sugg):
elif compare_versions(gs_v, gs_req):'ghostscript-%s found. ghostscript-%s or later '
'is recommended to use the ps.usedistiller option.')
% (gs_v, gs_sugg))
flag = False
warnings.warn(('matplotlibrc ps.usedistiller option can not be used '
'unless ghostscript-%s or later is installed on your '
'system') % gs_req)
if s == 'xpdf':
pdftops_req = '3.0'
pdftops_req_alt = '0.9' # poppler version numbers, ugh
pdftops_v = checkdep_pdftops()
if compare_versions(pdftops_v, pdftops_req):
elif (compare_versions(pdftops_v, pdftops_req_alt) and not
compare_versions(pdftops_v, '1.0')):
flag = False
warnings.warn(('matplotlibrc ps.usedistiller can not be set to '
'xpdf unless xpdf-%s or later is installed on '
'your system') % pdftops_req)
if flag:
return s
return False
def checkdep_usetex(s):
if not s:
return False
tex_req = '3.1415'
gs_req = '7.07'
gs_sugg = '7.07'
dvipng_req = '1.5'
flag = True
tex_v = checkdep_tex()
if compare_versions(tex_v, tex_req):
flag = False
warnings.warn(('matplotlibrc text.usetex option can not be used '
'unless TeX-%s or later is '
'installed on your system') % tex_req)
dvipng_v = checkdep_dvipng()
if compare_versions(dvipng_v, dvipng_req):
flag = False
warnings.warn('matplotlibrc text.usetex can not be used with *Agg '
'backend unless dvipng-1.5 or later is '
'installed on your system')
gs_exec, gs_v = checkdep_ghostscript()
if compare_versions(gs_v, gs_sugg):
elif compare_versions(gs_v, gs_req):'ghostscript-%s found. ghostscript-%s or later is '
'recommended for use with the text.usetex '
'option.') % (gs_v, gs_sugg))
flag = False
warnings.warn(('matplotlibrc text.usetex can not be used '
'unless ghostscript-%s or later is '
'installed on your system') % gs_req)
return flag
def _get_home():
"""Find user's home directory if possible.
Otherwise, returns None.
if six.PY2 and sys.platform == 'win32':
path = os.path.expanduser(b"~").decode(sys.getfilesystemencoding())
path = os.path.expanduser("~")
except ImportError:
# This happens on Google App Engine (pwd module is not present).
if os.path.isdir(path):
return path
for evar in ('HOME', 'USERPROFILE', 'TMP'):
path = os.environ.get(evar)
if path is not None and os.path.isdir(path):
return path
return None
def _create_tmp_config_dir():
If the config directory can not be created, create a temporary
Returns None if a writable temporary directory could not be created.
import getpass
import tempfile
from matplotlib.cbook import mkdirs
tempdir = tempfile.gettempdir()
except NotImplementedError:
# Some restricted platforms (such as Google App Engine) do not provide
# gettempdir.
return None
username = getpass.getuser()
except KeyError:
username = str(os.getuid())
tempdir = tempfile.mkdtemp(prefix='matplotlib-%s-' % username, dir=tempdir)
os.environ['MPLCONFIGDIR'] = tempdir
return tempdir
get_home = verbose.wrap('$HOME=%s', _get_home, always=False)
def _get_xdg_config_dir():
Returns the XDG configuration directory, according to the `XDG
base directory spec
path = os.environ.get('XDG_CONFIG_HOME')
if path is None:
path = get_home()
if path is not None:
path = os.path.join(path, '.config')
return path
def _get_xdg_cache_dir():
Returns the XDG cache directory, according to the `XDG
base directory spec
path = os.environ.get('XDG_CACHE_HOME')
if path is None:
path = get_home()
if path is not None:
path = os.path.join(path, '.cache')
return path
def _get_config_or_cache_dir(xdg_base):
from matplotlib.cbook import mkdirs
configdir = os.environ.get('MPLCONFIGDIR')
if configdir is not None:
configdir = os.path.abspath(configdir)
if not os.path.exists(configdir):
if not _is_writable_dir(configdir):
return _create_tmp_config_dir()
return configdir
p = None
h = get_home()
if h is not None:
p = os.path.join(h, '.matplotlib')
if (sys.platform.startswith('linux') and xdg_base):
p = os.path.join(xdg_base, 'matplotlib')
if p is not None:
if os.path.exists(p):
if _is_writable_dir(p):
return p
except OSError:
return p
return _create_tmp_config_dir()
def _get_configdir():
Return the string representing the configuration directory.
The directory is chosen as follows:
1. If the MPLCONFIGDIR environment variable is supplied, choose that.
2a. On Linux, if `$HOME/.matplotlib` exists, choose that, but warn that
that is the old location. Barring that, follow the XDG specification
and look first in `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME`, if defined, or `$HOME/.config`.
2b. On other platforms, choose `$HOME/.matplotlib`.
3. If the chosen directory exists and is writable, use that as the
configuration directory.
4. If possible, create a temporary directory, and use it as the
configuration directory.
5. A writable directory could not be found or created; return None.
return _get_config_or_cache_dir(_get_xdg_config_dir())
get_configdir = verbose.wrap('CONFIGDIR=%s', _get_configdir, always=False)
def _get_cachedir():
Return the location of the cache directory.
The procedure used to find the directory is the same as for
_get_config_dir, except using `$XDG_CACHE_HOME`/`~/.cache` instead.
return _get_config_or_cache_dir(_get_xdg_cache_dir())
get_cachedir = verbose.wrap('CACHEDIR=%s', _get_cachedir, always=False)
def _decode_filesystem_path(path):
if isinstance(path, bytes):
return path.decode(sys.getfilesystemencoding())
return path
def _get_data_path():
'get the path to matplotlib data'
if 'MATPLOTLIBDATA' in os.environ:
path = os.environ['MATPLOTLIBDATA']
if not os.path.isdir(path):
raise RuntimeError('Path in environment MATPLOTLIBDATA not a '
return path
_file = _decode_filesystem_path(__file__)
path = os.sep.join([os.path.dirname(_file), 'mpl-data'])
if os.path.isdir(path):
return path
# setuptools' namespace_packages may highjack this init file
# so need to try something known to be in matplotlib, not basemap
import matplotlib.afm
_file = _decode_filesystem_path(matplotlib.afm.__file__)
path = os.sep.join([os.path.dirname(_file), 'mpl-data'])
if os.path.isdir(path):
return path
# py2exe zips pure python, so still need special check
if getattr(sys, 'frozen', None):
exe_path = os.path.dirname(_decode_filesystem_path(sys.executable))
path = os.path.join(exe_path, 'mpl-data')
if os.path.isdir(path):
return path
# Try again assuming we need to step up one more directory
path = os.path.join(os.path.split(exe_path)[0], 'mpl-data')
if os.path.isdir(path):
return path
# Try again assuming sys.path[0] is a dir not a exe
path = os.path.join(sys.path[0], 'mpl-data')
if os.path.isdir(path):
return path
raise RuntimeError('Could not find the matplotlib data files')
def _get_data_path_cached():
if defaultParams['datapath'][0] is None:
defaultParams['datapath'][0] = _get_data_path()
return defaultParams['datapath'][0]
get_data_path = verbose.wrap('matplotlib data path %s', _get_data_path_cached,
def get_example_data(fname):
get_example_data is deprecated -- use matplotlib.cbook.get_sample_data
raise NotImplementedError('get_example_data is deprecated -- use '
'matplotlib.cbook.get_sample_data instead')
def get_py2exe_datafiles():
datapath = get_data_path()
_, tail = os.path.split(datapath)
d = {}
for root, _, files in os.walk(datapath):
# Need to explicitly remove cocoa_agg files or py2exe complains
# NOTE I dont know why, but do as previous version
if 'Matplotlib.nib' in files:
files = [os.path.join(root, filename) for filename in files]
root = root.replace(tail, 'mpl-data')
root = root[root.index('mpl-data'):]
d[root] = files
return list(d.items())
def matplotlib_fname():
Get the location of the config file.
The file location is determined in the following order
- `$PWD/matplotlibrc`
- `$MATPLOTLIBRC` if it is a file
- `$MATPLOTLIBRC/matplotlibrc`
- `$MPLCONFIGDIR/matplotlibrc`
- On Linux,
- `$HOME/.matplotlib/matplotlibrc`, if it exists
- or `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/matplotlib/matplotlibrc` (if
$XDG_CONFIG_HOME is defined)
- or `$HOME/.config/matplotlib/matplotlibrc` (if
$XDG_CONFIG_HOME is not defined)
- On other platforms,
- `$HOME/.matplotlib/matplotlibrc` if `$HOME` is defined.
- Lastly, it looks in `$MATPLOTLIBDATA/matplotlibrc` for a
system-defined copy.
if six.PY2:
cwd = os.getcwdu()
cwd = os.getcwd()
fname = os.path.join(cwd, 'matplotlibrc')
if os.path.exists(fname):
return fname
if 'MATPLOTLIBRC' in os.environ:
path = os.environ['MATPLOTLIBRC']
if os.path.exists(path):
if os.path.isfile(path):
return path
fname = os.path.join(path, 'matplotlibrc')
if os.path.exists(fname):
return fname
configdir = _get_configdir()
if configdir is not None:
fname = os.path.join(configdir, 'matplotlibrc')
if os.path.exists(fname):
home = get_home()
if (sys.platform.startswith('linux') and
home is not None and
home, '.matplotlib', 'matplotlibrc'))):
"Found matplotlib configuration in ~/.matplotlib/. "
"To conform with the XDG base directory standard, "
"this configuration location has been deprecated "
"on Linux, and the new location is now %s/matplotlib/. "
"Please move your configuration there to ensure that "
"matplotlib will continue to find it in the future." %
return os.path.join(
home, '.matplotlib', 'matplotlibrc')
return fname
path = get_data_path() # guaranteed to exist or raise
fname = os.path.join(path, 'matplotlibrc')
if not os.path.exists(fname):
warnings.warn('Could not find matplotlibrc; using defaults')
return fname
# names of keys to deprecate
# the values are a tuple of (new_name, f_old_2_new, f_new_2_old)
# the inverse function may be `None`
_deprecated_map = {
'text.fontstyle': ('', lambda x: x, None),
'text.fontangle': ('', lambda x: x, None),
'text.fontvariant': ('font.variant', lambda x: x, None),
'text.fontweight': ('font.weight', lambda x: x, None),
'text.fontsize': ('font.size', lambda x: x, None),
'tick.size': ('tick.major.size', lambda x: x, None),
'svg.embed_char_paths': ('svg.fonttype',
lambda x: "path" if x else "none", None),
'savefig.extension': ('savefig.format', lambda x: x, None),
'axes.color_cycle': ('axes.prop_cycle', lambda x: cycler('color', x),
lambda x: [c.get('color', None) for c in x]),
'svg.image_noscale': ('image.interpolation', None, None),
_deprecated_ignore_map = {
_obsolete_set = set(['tk.pythoninspect', ])
_all_deprecated = set(chain(_deprecated_ignore_map,
_deprecated_map, _obsolete_set))
class RcParams(dict):
A dictionary object including validation
validating functions are defined and associated with rc parameters in
validate = dict((key, converter) for key, (default, converter) in
if key not in _all_deprecated)
msg_depr = "%s is deprecated and replaced with %s; please use the latter."
msg_depr_ignore = "%s is deprecated and ignored. Use %s"
# validate values on the way in
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
for k, v in six.iteritems(dict(*args, **kwargs)):
self[k] = v
def __setitem__(self, key, val):
if key in _deprecated_map:
alt_key, alt_val, inverse_alt = _deprecated_map[key]
warnings.warn(self.msg_depr % (key, alt_key))
key = alt_key
val = alt_val(val)
elif key in _deprecated_ignore_map:
alt = _deprecated_ignore_map[key]
warnings.warn(self.msg_depr_ignore % (key, alt))
cval = self.validate[key](val)
except ValueError as ve:
raise ValueError("Key %s: %s" % (key, str(ve)))
dict.__setitem__(self, key, cval)
except KeyError:
raise KeyError('%s is not a valid rc parameter.\
See rcParams.keys() for a list of valid parameters.' % (key,))
def __getitem__(self, key):
inverse_alt = None
if key in _deprecated_map:
alt_key, alt_val, inverse_alt = _deprecated_map[key]
warnings.warn(self.msg_depr % (key, alt_key))
key = alt_key
elif key in _deprecated_ignore_map:
alt = _deprecated_ignore_map[key]
warnings.warn(self.msg_depr_ignore % (key, alt))
key = alt
val = dict.__getitem__(self, key)
if inverse_alt is not None:
return inverse_alt(val)
return val
# (how-to-properly-subclass-dict-and-override-get-set)
# the default dict `update` does not use __setitem__
# so rcParams.update(...) (such as in seaborn) side-steps
# all of the validation over-ride update to force
# through __setitem__
def update(self, *args, **kwargs):
for k, v in six.iteritems(dict(*args, **kwargs)):
self[k] = v
def __repr__(self):
import pprint
class_name = self.__class__.__name__
indent = len(class_name) + 1
repr_split = pprint.pformat(dict(self), indent=1,
width=80 - indent).split('\n')
repr_indented = ('\n' + ' ' * indent).join(repr_split)
return '{0}({1})'.format(class_name, repr_indented)
def __str__(self):
return '\n'.join('{0}: {1}'.format(k, v)
for k, v in sorted(self.items()))
def keys(self):
Return sorted list of keys.
k = list(dict.keys(self))
return k
def values(self):
Return values in order of sorted keys.
return [self[k] for k in self.keys()]
def find_all(self, pattern):
Return the subset of this RcParams dictionary whose keys match,
using :func:``, the given ``pattern``.
.. note::
Changes to the returned dictionary are *not* propagated to
the parent RcParams dictionary.
import re
pattern_re = re.compile(pattern)
return RcParams((key, value)
for key, value in self.items()
def rc_params(fail_on_error=False):
"""Return a :class:`matplotlib.RcParams` instance from the
default matplotlib rc file.
fname = matplotlib_fname()
if not os.path.exists(fname):
# this should never happen, default in mpl-data should always be found
message = 'could not find rc file; returning defaults'
ret = RcParams([(key, default) for key, (default, _) in
if key not in _all_deprecated])
return ret
return rc_params_from_file(fname, fail_on_error)
URL_REGEX = re.compile(r'http://|https://|ftp://|file://|file:\\')
def is_url(filename):
"""Return True if string is an http, ftp, or file URL path."""
return URL_REGEX.match(filename) is not None
def _url_lines(f):
# Compatibility for urlopen in python 3, which yields bytes.
for line in f:
yield line.decode('utf8')
def _open_file_or_url(fname):
if is_url(fname):
f = urlopen(fname)
yield _url_lines(f)
fname = os.path.expanduser(fname)
encoding = locale.getpreferredencoding(do_setlocale=False)
if encoding is None:
encoding = "utf-8"
with, encoding=encoding) as f:
yield f
_error_details_fmt = 'line #%d\n\t"%s"\n\tin file "%s"'
def _rc_params_in_file(fname, fail_on_error=False):
"""Return :class:`matplotlib.RcParams` from the contents of the given file.
Unlike `rc_params_from_file`, the configuration class only contains the
parameters specified in the file (i.e. default values are not filled in).
cnt = 0
rc_temp = {}
with _open_file_or_url(fname) as fd:
for line in fd:
cnt += 1
strippedline = line.split('#', 1)[0].strip()
if not strippedline:
tup = strippedline.split(':', 1)
if len(tup) != 2:
error_details = _error_details_fmt % (cnt, line, fname)
warnings.warn('Illegal %s' % error_details)
key, val = tup
key = key.strip()
val = val.strip()
if key in rc_temp:
warnings.warn('Duplicate key in file "%s", line #%d' %
(fname, cnt))
rc_temp[key] = (val, line, cnt)
except UnicodeDecodeError:
('Cannot decode configuration file %s with '
'encoding %s, check LANG and LC_* variables')
% (fname, locale.getpreferredencoding(do_setlocale=False) or
'utf-8 (default)'))
config = RcParams()
for key in ('verbose.level', 'verbose.fileo'):
if key in rc_temp:
val, line, cnt = rc_temp.pop(key)
if fail_on_error:
config[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or raise
config[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or skip
except Exception as msg:
error_details = _error_details_fmt % (cnt, line, fname)
warnings.warn('Bad val "%s" on %s\n\t%s' %
(val, error_details, msg))
for key, (val, line, cnt) in six.iteritems(rc_temp):
if key in defaultParams:
if fail_on_error:
config[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or raise
config[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or skip
except Exception as msg:
error_details = _error_details_fmt % (cnt, line, fname)
warnings.warn('Bad val "%s" on %s\n\t%s' %
(val, error_details, msg))
elif key in _deprecated_ignore_map:
warnings.warn('%s is deprecated. Update your matplotlibrc to use '
'%s instead.' % (key, _deprecated_ignore_map[key]))
Bad key "%s" on line %d in
You probably need to get an updated matplotlibrc file from
or from the matplotlib source distribution""" % (key, cnt, fname),
return config
def rc_params_from_file(fname, fail_on_error=False, use_default_template=True):
"""Return :class:`matplotlib.RcParams` from the contents of the given file.
fname : str
Name of file parsed for matplotlib settings.
fail_on_error : bool
If True, raise an error when the parser fails to convert a parameter.
use_default_template : bool
If True, initialize with default parameters before updating with those
in the given file. If False, the configuration class only contains the
parameters specified in the file. (Useful for updating dicts.)
config_from_file = _rc_params_in_file(fname, fail_on_error)
if not use_default_template:
return config_from_file
iter_params = six.iteritems(defaultParams)
config = RcParams([(key, default) for key, (default, _) in iter_params
if key not in _all_deprecated])
if config['datapath'] is None:
config['datapath'] = get_data_path()
if not config['text.latex.preamble'] == ['']:"""
You have the following UNSUPPORTED LaTeX preamble customizations:
Please do not ask for support with these customizations active.
""" % '\n'.join(config['text.latex.preamble']), 'helpful')'loaded rc file %s' % fname)
return config
# this is the instance used by the matplotlib classes
rcParams = rc_params()
if rcParams['']:
# paths that are intended to be relative to matplotlib_fname()
# are allowed for the parameter.
# However, we will need to fully qualify the path because
# Sphinx requires absolute paths.
if not os.path.isabs(rcParams['']):
_basedir, _fname = os.path.split(matplotlib_fname())
# Sometimes matplotlib_fname() can return relative paths,
# Also, using realpath() guarentees that Sphinx will use
# the same path that matplotlib sees (in case of weird symlinks).
_basedir = os.path.realpath(_basedir)
_fullpath = os.path.join(_basedir, rcParams[''])
rcParams[''] = _fullpath
rcParamsOrig = rcParams.copy()
rcParamsDefault = RcParams([(key, default) for key, (default, converter) in
if key not in _all_deprecated])
rcParams['ps.usedistiller'] = checkdep_ps_distiller(
rcParams['text.usetex'] = checkdep_usetex(rcParams['text.usetex'])
if rcParams['axes.formatter.use_locale']:
locale.setlocale(locale.LC_ALL, '')
def rc(group, **kwargs):
Set the current rc params. Group is the grouping for the rc, e.g.,
for ``lines.linewidth`` the group is ``lines``, for
``axes.facecolor``, the group is ``axes``, and so on. Group may
also be a list or tuple of group names, e.g., (*xtick*, *ytick*).
*kwargs* is a dictionary attribute name/value pairs, e.g.,::
rc('lines', linewidth=2, color='r')
sets the current rc params and is equivalent to::
rcParams['lines.linewidth'] = 2
rcParams['lines.color'] = 'r'
The following aliases are available to save typing for interactive
===== =================
Alias Property
===== =================
'lw' 'linewidth'
'ls' 'linestyle'
'c' 'color'
'fc' 'facecolor'
'ec' 'edgecolor'
'mew' 'markeredgewidth'
'aa' 'antialiased'
===== =================
Thus you could abbreviate the above rc command as::
rc('lines', lw=2, c='r')
Note you can use python's kwargs dictionary facility to store
dictionaries of default parameters. e.g., you can customize the
font rc as follows::
font = {'family' : 'monospace',
'weight' : 'bold',
'size' : 'larger'}
rc('font', **font) # pass in the font dict as kwargs
This enables you to easily switch between several configurations.
Use :func:`~matplotlib.pyplot.rcdefaults` to restore the default
rc params after changes.
aliases = {
'lw': 'linewidth',
'ls': 'linestyle',
'c': 'color',
'fc': 'facecolor',
'ec': 'edgecolor',
'mew': 'markeredgewidth',
'aa': 'antialiased',
if is_string_like(group):
group = (group,)
for g in group:
for k, v in six.iteritems(kwargs):
name = aliases.get(k) or k
key = '%s.%s' % (g, name)
rcParams[key] = v
except KeyError:
raise KeyError(('Unrecognized key "%s" for group "%s" and '
'name "%s"') % (key, g, name))
def rcdefaults():
Restore the default rc params. These are not the params loaded by
the rc file, but mpl's internal params. See rc_file_defaults for
reloading the default params from the rc file
def rc_file(fname):
Update rc params from file.
class rc_context(object):
Return a context manager for managing rc settings.
This allows one to do::
with mpl.rc_context(fname='screen.rc'):
plt.plot(x, a)
with mpl.rc_context(fname='print.rc'):
plt.plot(x, b)
plt.plot(x, c)
The 'a' vs 'x' and 'c' vs 'x' plots would have settings from
'screen.rc', while the 'b' vs 'x' plot would have settings from
A dictionary can also be passed to the context manager::
with mpl.rc_context(rc={'text.usetex': True}, fname='screen.rc'):
plt.plot(x, a)
The 'rc' dictionary takes precedence over the settings loaded from
'fname'. Passing a dictionary only is also valid. For example a
common usage is::
with mpl.rc_context(rc={'interactive': False}):
fig, ax = plt.subplots()
ax.plot(range(3), range(3))
fig.savefig('A.png', format='png')
def __init__(self, rc=None, fname=None):
self.rcdict = rc
self.fname = fname
self._rcparams = rcParams.copy()
if self.fname:
if self.rcdict:
# if anything goes wrong, revert rc parameters and re-raise
def __enter__(self):
return self
def __exit__(self, type, value, tb):
def rc_file_defaults():
Restore the default rc params from the original matplotlib rc that
was loaded
_use_error_msg = """ This call to matplotlib.use() has no effect
because the backend has already been chosen;
matplotlib.use() must be called *before* pylab, matplotlib.pyplot,
or matplotlib.backends is imported for the first time.
def use(arg, warn=True, force=False):
Set the matplotlib backend to one of the known backends.
The argument is case-insensitive. *warn* specifies whether a
warning should be issued if a backend has already been set up.
*force* is an **experimental** flag that tells matplotlib to
attempt to initialize a new backend by reloading the backend
.. note::
This function must be called *before* importing pyplot for
the first time; or, if you are not using pyplot, it must be called
before importing matplotlib.backends. If warn is True, a warning
is issued if you try and call this after pylab or pyplot have been
loaded. In certain black magic use cases, e.g.
:func:`pyplot.switch_backend`, we are doing the reloading necessary to
make the backend switch work (in some cases, e.g., pure image
backends) so one can set warn=False to suppress the warnings.
To find out which backend is currently set, see
# Lets determine the proper backend name first
if arg.startswith('module://'):
name = arg
# Lowercase only non-module backend names (modules are case-sensitive)
arg = arg.lower()
name = validate_backend(arg)
# Check if we've already set up a backend
if 'matplotlib.backends' in sys.modules:
# Warn only if called with a different name
if (rcParams['backend'] != name) and warn:
# Unless we've been told to force it, just return
if not force:
need_reload = True
need_reload = False
# Store the backend name
rcParams['backend'] = name
# If needed we reload here because a lot of setup code is triggered on
# module import. See backends/ for more detail.
if need_reload:
def get_backend():
"""Return the name of the current backend."""
return rcParams['backend']
def interactive(b):
Set interactive mode to boolean b.
If b is True, then draw after every plotting command, e.g., after xlabel
rcParams['interactive'] = b
def is_interactive():
'Return true if plot mode is interactive'
return rcParams['interactive']
def tk_window_focus():
"""Return true if focus maintenance under TkAgg on win32 is on.
This currently works only for python.exe and IPython.exe.
Both IDLE and Pythonwin.exe fail badly when tk_window_focus is on."""
if rcParams['backend'] != 'TkAgg':
return False
return rcParams['tk.window_focus']
# Now allow command line to override
# Allow command line access to the backend with -d (MATLAB compatible
# flag)
for s in sys.argv[1:]:
# cast to str because we are using unicode_literals,
# and argv is always str
if s.startswith(str('-d')) and len(s) > 2: # look for a -d flag
warnings.warn("Using the -d command line argument to select a "
"matplotlib backend is deprecated. Please use the "
"MPLBACKEND environment variable instead.",
except (KeyError, ValueError):
# we don't want to assume all -d flags are backends, e.g., -debug
# no backend selected from the command line, so we check the environment
# variable MPLBACKEND
except (KeyError, ValueError):
# Jupyter extension paths
def _jupyter_nbextension_paths():
return [{
'section': 'notebook',
'src': 'backends/web_backend/js',
'dest': 'matplotlib',
'require': 'matplotlib/extension'
default_test_modules = [
def _init_tests():
import faulthandler
except ImportError:
if not os.path.isdir(os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), 'tests')):
raise ImportError("matplotlib test data is not installed")
# The version of FreeType to install locally for running the
# tests. This must match the value in ``
from matplotlib import ft2font
if (ft2font.__freetype_version__ != LOCAL_FREETYPE_VERSION or
ft2font.__freetype_build_type__ != 'local'):
"matplotlib is not built with the correct FreeType version to run "
"tests. Set local_freetype=True in setup.cfg and rebuild. "
"Expect many image comparison failures below.")
import nose
from unittest import mock
import mock
except ImportError:
print("matplotlib.test requires nose and mock to run.")
def _get_extra_test_plugins():
from .testing.noseclasses import KnownFailure
from nose.plugins import attrib
return [KnownFailure, attrib.Plugin]
def _get_nose_env():
env = {'NOSE_COVER_PACKAGE': 'matplotlib',
return env
def test(verbosity=1, coverage=False):
"""run the matplotlib test suite"""
old_backend = rcParams['backend']
import nose
import nose.plugins.builtin
from nose.plugins.manager import PluginManager
from nose.plugins import multiprocess
# store the old values before overriding
plugins = _get_extra_test_plugins()
plugins.extend([plugin for plugin in nose.plugins.builtin.plugins])
manager = PluginManager(plugins=[x() for x in plugins])
config = nose.config.Config(verbosity=verbosity, plugins=manager)
# Nose doesn't automatically instantiate all of the plugins in the
# child processes, so we have to provide the multiprocess plugin with
# a list.
multiprocess._instantiate_plugins = plugins
env = _get_nose_env()
if coverage:
success =
if old_backend.lower() != 'agg':
return success
test.__test__ = False # nose: this function is not a test
def _replacer(data, key):
# if key isn't a string don't bother
if not isinstance(key, six.string_types):
return key
# try to use __getitem__
return data[key]
# key does not exist, silently fall back to key
except KeyError:
return key
In addition to the above described arguments, this function can take a
**data** keyword argument. If such a **data** argument is given, the
following arguments are replaced by **data[<arg>]**:
def unpack_labeled_data(replace_names=None, replace_all_args=False,
label_namer=None, positional_parameter_names=None):
A decorator to add a 'data' kwarg to any a function. The signature
of the input function must include the ax argument at the first position ::
def foo(ax, *args, **kwargs)
so this is suitable for use with Axes methods.
replace_names : list of strings, optional, default: None
The list of parameter names which arguments should be replaced by
`data[name]`. If None, all arguments are replaced if they are
included in `data`.
replace_all_args : bool, default: False
If True, all arguments in *args get replaced, even if they are not
in replace_names.
label_namer : string, optional, default: None
The name of the parameter which argument should be used as label, if
label is not set. If None, the label keyword argument is not set.
positional_parameter_names : list of strings or callable, optional
The full list of positional parameter names (excluding an explicit
`ax`/'self' argument at the first place and including all possible
positional parameter in `*args`), in the right order. Can also include
all other keyword parameter. Only needed if the wrapped function does
contain `*args` and (replace_names is not None or replace_all_args is
False). If it is a callable, it will be called with the actual
tuple of *args and the data and should return a list like
NOTE: callables should only be used when the names and order of *args
can only be determined at runtime. Please use list of names
when the order and names of *args is clear before runtime!
if replace_names is not None:
replace_names = set(replace_names)
def param(func):
new_sig = None
python_has_signature = major >= 3 and minor1 >= 3
python_has_wrapped = major >= 3 and minor1 >= 2
# if in a legacy version of python and IPython is already imported
# try to use their back-ported signature
if not python_has_signature and 'IPython' in sys.modules:
import IPython.utils.signatures
signature = IPython.utils.signatures.signature
Parameter = IPython.utils.signatures.Parameter
except ImportError:
python_has_signature = True
if python_has_signature:
signature = inspect.signature
Parameter = inspect.Parameter
if not python_has_signature:
arg_spec = inspect.getargspec(func)
_arg_names = arg_spec.args
_has_varargs = arg_spec.varargs is not None
_has_varkwargs = arg_spec.keywords is not None
sig = signature(func)
_has_varargs = False
_has_varkwargs = False
_arg_names = []
params = list(sig.parameters.values())
for p in params:
if p.kind is Parameter.VAR_POSITIONAL:
_has_varargs = True
elif p.kind is Parameter.VAR_KEYWORD:
_has_varkwargs = True
data_param = Parameter('data',
if _has_varkwargs:
params.insert(-1, data_param)
new_sig = sig.replace(parameters=params)
# Import-time check: do we have enough information to replace *args?
arg_names_at_runtime = False
# there can't be any positional arguments behind *args and no
# positional args can end up in **kwargs, so only *varargs make
# problems.
if not _has_varargs:
# all args are "named", so no problem
# remove the first "ax" / self arg
arg_names = _arg_names[1:]
# Here we have "unnamed" variables and we need a way to determine
# whether to replace a arg or not
if replace_names is None:
# all argnames should be replaced
arg_names = None
elif len(replace_names) == 0:
# No argnames should be replaced
arg_names = []
elif len(_arg_names) > 1 and (positional_parameter_names is None):
# we got no manual parameter names but more than an 'ax' ...
if len(replace_names - set(_arg_names[1:])) == 0:
# all to be replaced arguments are in the list
arg_names = _arg_names[1:]
msg = ("Got unknown 'replace_names' and wrapped function "
"'%s' uses '*args', need "
raise AssertionError(msg % func.__name__)
if positional_parameter_names is not None:
if callable(positional_parameter_names):
# determined by the function at runtime
arg_names_at_runtime = True
# so that we don't compute the label_pos at import time
arg_names = []
arg_names = positional_parameter_names
if replace_all_args:
arg_names = []
msg = ("Got 'replace_names' and wrapped function "
"'%s' uses *args, need "
"'positional_parameter_names' or "
raise AssertionError(msg % func.__name__)
# compute the possible label_namer and label position in positional
# arguments
label_pos = 9999 # bigger than all "possible" argument lists
label_namer_pos = 9999 # bigger than all "possible" argument lists
if (label_namer and # we actually want a label here ...
arg_names and # and we can determine a label in *args ...
(label_namer in arg_names)): # and it is in *args
label_namer_pos = arg_names.index(label_namer)
if "label" in arg_names:
label_pos = arg_names.index("label")
# Check the case we know a label_namer but we can't find it the
# arg_names... Unfortunately the label_namer can be in **kwargs,
# which we can't detect here and which results in a non-set label
# which might surprise the user :-(
if label_namer and not arg_names_at_runtime and not _has_varkwargs:
if not arg_names:
msg = ("label_namer '%s' can't be found as the parameter "
"without 'positional_parameter_names'.")
raise AssertionError(msg % label_namer)
elif label_namer not in arg_names:
msg = ("label_namer '%s' can't be found in the parameter "
"names (known argnames: %s).")
raise AssertionError(msg % (label_namer, arg_names))
# this is the case when the name is in arg_names
def inner(ax, *args, **kwargs):
# this is needed because we want to change these values if
# arg_names_at_runtime==True, but python does not allow assigning
# to a variable in a outer scope. So use some new local ones and
# set them to the already computed values.
_label_pos = label_pos
_label_namer_pos = label_namer_pos
_arg_names = arg_names
label = None
data = kwargs.pop('data', None)
if data is not None:
if arg_names_at_runtime:
# update the information about replace names and
# label position
_arg_names = positional_parameter_names(args, data)
if (label_namer and # we actually want a label here ...
_arg_names and # and we can find a label in *args
(label_namer in _arg_names)): # and it is in *args
_label_namer_pos = _arg_names.index(label_namer)
if "label" in _arg_names:
_label_pos = arg_names.index("label")
# save the current label_namer value so that it can be used as
# a label
if _label_namer_pos < len(args):
label = args[_label_namer_pos]
label = kwargs.get(label_namer, None)
# ensure a string, as label can't be anything else
if not isinstance(label, six.string_types):
label = None
if (replace_names is None) or (replace_all_args is True):
# all should be replaced
args = tuple(_replacer(data, a) for
j, a in enumerate(args))
# An arg is replaced if the arg_name of that position is
# in replace_names ...
if len(_arg_names) < len(args):
raise RuntimeError(
"Got more args than function expects")
args = tuple(_replacer(data, a)
if _arg_names[j] in replace_names else a
for j, a in enumerate(args))
if replace_names is None:
# replace all kwargs ...
kwargs = dict((k, _replacer(data, v))
for k, v in six.iteritems(kwargs))
# ... or only if a kwarg of that name is in replace_names
kwargs = dict((k, _replacer(data, v)
if k in replace_names else v)
for k, v in six.iteritems(kwargs))
# replace the label if this func "wants" a label arg and the user
# didn't set one. Note: if the user puts in "label=None", it does
# *NOT* get replaced!
user_supplied_label = (
(len(args) >= _label_pos) or # label is included in args
('label' in kwargs) # ... or in kwargs
if (label_namer and not user_supplied_label):
if _label_namer_pos < len(args):
kwargs['label'] = get_label(args[_label_namer_pos], label)
elif label_namer in kwargs:
kwargs['label'] = get_label(kwargs[label_namer], label)
import warnings
msg = ("Tried to set a label via parameter '%s' in "
"func '%s' but couldn't find such an argument. \n"
"(This is a programming error, please report to "
"the matplotlib list!)")
warnings.warn(msg % (label_namer, func.__name__),
RuntimeWarning, stacklevel=2)
return func(ax, *args, **kwargs)
pre_doc = inner.__doc__
if pre_doc is None:
pre_doc = ''
pre_doc = dedent(pre_doc)
_repl = ""
if replace_names is None:
_repl = "* All positional and all keyword arguments."
if len(replace_names) != 0:
_repl = "* All arguments with the following names: '{names}'."
if replace_all_args:
_repl += "\n* All positional arguments."
_repl = _repl.format(names="', '".join(sorted(replace_names)))
inner.__doc__ = (pre_doc +
if not python_has_wrapped:
inner.__wrapped__ = func
if new_sig is not None:
inner.__signature__ = new_sig
return inner
return param'matplotlib version %s' % __version__)'verbose.level %s' % verbose.level)'interactive is %s' % is_interactive())'platform is %s' % sys.platform)'loaded modules: %s' % six.iterkeys(sys.modules), 'debug')
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