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Design ======== After cgroup system has taken shape, its time to have some basic tools in user space which can enable a user to use the resource management functionality effictively. One of the needed functionality is rule based placement of a task. In general, there can be either uid or gid or exec based rules. Admin/root will control/enforce uid/gid based rules and exec based rules can be defined by user in a config file residing in user's home dir and fully controlled by user. uid/gid based rules will be defined in /etc/cgrules.conf config file and this file will be managed by root. Basic idea is that to begin with provide facility to implement rules based on uid and gid. So a hierarchy might look like as follows. /mnt/cgroup | | gid1 gid2 | | uid1 uid2 | | proj1 proj2 Admin will write rules to control the resources among users. Then users can manage their own cgroup at their own (proj1 and proj2) and control the resources as they want. Following are the few methods using which tasks can be placed in right cgroups. - Use pam_cgroup PAM plugin which will make sure users are placed in right cgroup at login time and any tasks launch after login, will continue to run in user's cgroup. - Use command line tool "cgexec" to launch the task in right cgroup. - Modify the program and use libcgroup provided APIs for placing a task in right cgroup before doing exec(). - Use "cgclassify" tool to classify a already running task. - May be, a user space daemon can also be implemented which will listen to kernel events and place the task in right group based on the rules. This method involves few concerns. - Reliability of netlink socket. Messages can be dropped. - Change the netlink with a cgroup controller which exports the events. - Delay incurred since the event took place and task was actually placed in right cgroup. - daemon will interfere with container's tasks which is not desired. HOWTO ===== Section 1: ---------- To use "cgexec" to place the task in right cgroup. - make cgexec - Run a task using cgexec. Following is the cgexec syntax. cgexec [-g <list of controllers>:<relative path to cgroup>] command [arguments] Note: Cgroup controllers and path are optional. If user does not know the right cgroup, cgexec will automatically place the task in right cgroup based on /etc/cgrules.conf Example: cgexec -g *:test1 ls cgexec -g cpu,memory:test1 ls -l cgexec -g cpu,memory:test1 -g swap:test2 ls -l Section 2 --------- To use "cgclassify" to place task in right cgroup. - make cgclassify - Pick a task's pid to be classified, and run cgclassify <list of pids> Example: -------- cgclassify 2140 4325 Note: After classification check out whether tasks 2140 and 4325 are in the right cgroup or not (Based on rules in /etc/cgrules.conf) Section 3: ---------- To use a pam plugin which will automatically place the task in right cgroup upon login. - Build pam_cgroup.so make pam_cgroup.so - Copy pam_cgroup.so to /lib/security/ - Edit /etc/pam.d/su to make use of pam_cgroup.so session module upon execution of su. example: Add following line at the end of /etc/pam.d/su file session optional pam_cgroup.so - Now launch a shell for a user "xyz" using su and the resulting shell should be running in the cgroup designated for the user as specified by cgrules.conf ex. "su test1" Try similar things with other services like sshd. Note: pam_cgroup.so moves the service providing process in the right cgroup and not the process which will be launched later. Due to parent child relationship, yet to be forked/execed process will launch in right group. Ex. Lets say user root does "su test1". In this case process "su" is the one providing service (launching a shell) for user "test1". pam_cgroup.so will move process "su" to the user "test1"'s cgroup (Decided by the uid and gid of "test1"). Now once su forks/execs a shell for user test1, final shell is effectively running in the cgroup it should have been running based on /etc/cgrules.conf for user test1. Section 4: ---------- To use cgrulesengd which will move a task to right cgroup based on rules in /etc/cgrules.conf do following. - build and install latest libcgroup.so - build cgrulesengd make cgrulesengd - specify some uid/gid based rules in /etc/cgrules.conf - Mount some controllers and create an hierarchy of cgroups (matching your rules). - Run cgrulesengd. - ./cgrulesengd - Launch some task or login as a user to the sytem. Daemon should automatically place the task in right cgroup. FAQ === Q. Why admin should not control "exec" based rules. A. Unix file system provides access control only based on uid/gid. So even if admin starts putting tasks based on uid/gid, it can't enforce it. For example, consider following scenario. Lets say an admin creates following cgroup hierarchy. /container | | database browser | | | | user1 user2 user1 user2 Now admin wants to run all the database jobs under /container/database/ and all the firefox jobs under /container/browser/. Based on which user launched it, jobs should go in either user1 or user2 dir. Now assume that database subdir has to more cpu resources as compared to browser subdir. Then a user, say user2, can always move his browser job also to /container/database/user2 dir to get more cpu resources and admin will not be able to control that. [Note: user2 will control what tasks can be added in /container/database/user2 and will contol what further subdirs can be created under user2 dir. Root should not restrict the control to root only for practical purposes. Its something like that till /container/databse, admin controls the resources and below that how resources are further subdivided among various projects should be controlled by respective user]. In the light of above, it seems to make more sense that admin should enforce rules only based on uid and gid. Probably later we can have a per user exec based rules config file (~/.cgrules.conf), which can be parsed by cgrulesd and then jobs launched by user will be placed in right cgroup based on combination of rules in /etc/cgrules.conf and ~/cgrules.conf.