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Datomic Ions

[Time 0:00:00]

Thanks everyone for coming and AppNexus for hosting. Can everybody hear me OK? Great. Well I can see my screen and now I cannot see you, so I guess that is ideal.

I want to start by seeing where everybody is at. One of the challenges as Clojure grows is no longer talking to people who know absolutely nothing about it, or other things. So how many people use Clojure? At work? OK.

How many people have tried Datomic in any form? How many people have used Datomic Cloud? Oh. OK, cool. How many people have never heard of Datomic, or do not really know anything about it? Not too many.

I will not spend too much time on Datomic first principles. I will try to get into the Ions part, which is why I am here.

And how many people are on the cloud? Their apps are on the cloud, hosted on AWS, or Google, or something like that? How many people are not? How many people are opposed to the cloud?


It's a thing. It's all right. OK, good.

[Time 0:01:30]

slide title: Datomic

Databases are a prime source of system complexity

+ DB as a (succession of) value(s)
+ information model
+ Universal relation
+ flexibility
+ Immutability as leverage

Let us talk about Datomic a little bit. And so on each of these things I think I tried to say what the problem was that we are trying to solve.

So with Datomic we are trying to solve the problem of: databases are a source of complexity at the system level. They are the big giant global variable that is in the middle of your system. And it does not matter if you are using functional programming language, or languages, all around it. You have this problem with traditional databases that you cannot reason about them. So Datomic is pointed at that, most generally.

[Time 0:02:07]

+ DB as a (succession of) value(s)
  + vs a place
  + simpler
  + facilitates understanding

And the idea behind Datomic was to give you, as a programmer, a view of the database as a value, or as a succession of values, so that over time you can look at any value of the database at a point in time. And to break away from this database as a place. And this is super important. It is fundamentally simpler in the trademarked simple way.

And it is so because you can start to understand how your database got to be the way it is. When you just have places, you discover some squirrel in your cupboard, and it is like, "Who put that there?" Fifty transactions ago, something happened. So we want simpler systems, so we can think about them.

[Time 0:02:58]

+ information model
  + simple
  + transactional
  + flexible
  + hierarchical
  + indelible
  + chronological
  + queryable
  + SQL? No

There is a lot to the Datomic information model, and I am not going to talk about it at all today, except to run through these "al"s. So it is simple. It is transactional. So we do have transactions. It is flexible, and that goes somewhat to the way we represent information, and I will talk about that in a second.

It also supports hierarchical data well. It is indelible. So we do not forget anything. We keep everything that you ever said, unless you explicitly go out of your way to tell us to remove it. It is chronological, in that it has a notion of the time that things happened in the database. And it supports query. So it has all these "al"s.

I would also say I left out here that an important part of Datomic is that it is programmable. That it uses data structures in the way we tend to do in Clojure, so that you can write a program that writes a query, or write a program that generates a transaction. That kind of programmability is really big.

[Time 0:03:58]

The one "al" it does not have is SQL. And I think if that is driving your choices -- if you you need compatibility with that -- Datomic is just not going to do that for you. It ends up that it is a relational system, but it does not have the SQL language.

[Time 0:04:16]

+ Universal relation
  + EAVT
  + reduces coupling to table/view definitions

So it is a relational system, but it has essentially one relation: EAVT. Entity, Attribute, Value, and Time. If you ever worked with RDF or anything like that, there are triples. So this is like triples plus time. And in this way you can have different versions of facts over time. So today you like pizza, tomorrow you like ice cream. And you can switch between those two, but it does not change the fact that today you liked pizza.

And I think an important aspect of the universal relation, which again is about building loosely coupled systems, is that it makes for loosely coupled systems because you do not marry the definitions of tables. I think that one of the things we have going for us in Clojure, and it is a value proposition that is carried over in Datomic, is that: when you say X, Y, and Z go together, and it is called foo, and the only way to really talk about X, Y, or Z is to go via foo -- and here foo would be maybe the definition of a table in a traditional database -- that mapping, that saying, "well I know where X is. It is in foo" is something that is introducing some brittleness into your system. You have a sense of where things are. Even if it is not an update-in-place database, the idea of tables being a kind of a place introduces a kind of coupling in your system.

So I really do not like coupling. And we are trying to reduce that here. But getting a sensibility around seeing that, I think is important to really appreciate Datomic.

[Time 0:05:57]

+ flexibility
  + hierarchy
  + sparseness
  + cardinality
  + relationships

And then a big value proposition of this universal relation is: it is flexible. If you have sparse data, or hierarchical data. You want to have something that is a member of something else that has many things, these are not complicated. They do not involve the creation of an intersection record, or anything like that. And I think as Clojure people we maybe take all of this for granted now, this kind of stuff, but it is not common.

I would also contrast Datomic with document stores, where they sort of will tell this story about being sparse and hierarchical, and things like that, but they have that same marriage of structure that tables have. If you need to know that this thing is in this document, under this, under that, under that, and that is where we kept it. That is another kind of place. And that introduces brittleness in your system.

In Datomic we can form those trees. You can just pull up on any point in the graph and get a tree that looks like that. But you could pull up on a different point in the graph and get a different tree. You have not married a particular organization. So we want that, and that makes for a flexible system.

[Time 0:07:16]

+ Immutability as leverage
  + replicate data/query while minimizing coordination

And the last part, which is going to carry through the rest of the talk, is one of the things I was trying to accomplish with the design of Datomic was to get more leverage out of immutability. Datomic is a big, very big, persistent data structure that is actually durable. So it is persistent in the way the Clojure data structures are in memory, and it is also persistent in being durable, enduring on storage. And I mean that in the same way that Clojure data structures are, in that it is immutable "for reals". It is not "as if it was immutable".

[Time 0:07:55]

Because it is immutable for real, it means that you can relentlessly copy stuff around. You can take nodes in this big tree -- and it is a persistent data structure like the ones in Clojure in memory -- it is a big tree of nodes, all of which will never ever be changed again. And that means that you can freely make copies of them, and they do not need to be coordinated. They will never be changed. There is no coordination necessary to deal with updates, because updating does not happen. That means that you can move the data around. You can get it to different places. And therefore you can locate things like query in different places with a lot less coordination than is incurred when you try to set up a traditional database with a replication strategy, where you are actually sending the changes around, and trying to stay in sync with changes. That is the gist of Datomic.

[Time 0:08:54]

slide title: Cloud

Computing infrastructure is not a core concern for many orgs

+ IaaS reliability, security
+ Pay for what you use
+ On-demand provisioning
+ Elastic scaling
+ Flexibility
+ Focus

What is the cloud about? I did not write the cloud, so I am speaking for other people. I hate that phrase "the cloud". It sounds like a superhero. Like a not very good superhero. Like "Oh, The Cloud!" Do we need to worry about that?

There are a lot of attributes, but if you are trying to say what problem they are trying to solve, the problem it is trying to solve is: who cares about this stuff? Who wants to run machines and figure out if they are working, and switch out network cards, and deal with hackers, and blah, blah, blah? That is not most people's business. It is some people's business to do that. When I say it is not a core concern, I do not mean that you do not care about it. I mean it is not what you are about. Your organization is not about this thing.

How many people have ever been somewhere where you were dominated by keeping your infrastructure going? That was a big part of your life? Yeah, and it is not what the company is trying to do. Also, I do not want to buy computers any more. I do not want to run data centers. There is a bunch of that. But I think this is the big point. This is not what your company or organization is about. Therefore let us go to somebody who can provide it as a utility.

[Time 0:10:10]

So there is infrastructure as a service. I think it can do better at reliability and security than most people can do for themselves. Obviously there are big shops with a lot of expertise who can do great things. I am not trying to diss your personal expertise, but most people are better off letting somebody else do it. Just like they are better off letting somebody else generate power.

Other characteristics that are useful is that you pay for what you use. You tend to pay for what you use. There are obviously lots of flavors out there. This idea of more utility consumption is a big thing.

Another thing that is a sharp contrast to "do it yourself with actual pieces of hardware" is this notion of on demand provisioning. How many people have ever worked at a big company where if you wanted a new computer, you had to fill out a form and wait months and months and months. This is not like that. This is just: give me more computer. Just ask for it and you get it.

And I think that that works in multiple directions. At least, depending on how auto scaling works in the cloud that you are in, this notion of getting stuff on demand, and getting more of it when you need it, and actually getting rid of it when you do not need it, I would characterize as being elastic. That is also an important characteristic, and a value prop of the cloud you want to pursue.

Overall, the idea here is that you have a lot of flexibility. Before, anything you wanted, you had to commit to. Oh, you want new computers? Great. Decide right now what kind of computer you want to have for the next five years, because I am not getting you another one for five more years. Decide on what kind of network card you want, and decide, decide, decide.

[Time 0:11:57]

Now you can sort of put things together, try them out, resize things, experiment with new technology. As new services come on, you can take them on and try to use them. And that increases your flexibility. But again, the theme of this talk will be: by having this, you are able to focus more on the actual problems of your organization, the business you are trying to run, the things you are trying to do.

So I am a fan. I do not think it is perfect. But I think this is, again, as inevitable as the transition from creating your own power to having utilities for that. Of course, then, Google and Amazon generate their own power, so it goes around in circles.

[Time 0:12:43]

slide title: Datomic Cloud

Maximize leverage from deep platform integration

+ Datomic on AWS Marketplace
+ Security
+ Datomic manages all AWS networking,
+ AWS AutoScaling for availability
+ Storage hierarchy
+ Per-instance-hour pricing

So we had Datomic. Datomic was something that you could run on your own behalf. It has not gone away. It is now called Datomic On-Prem, for running on your own behalf. It has the traditional kind of licensing model.

With Datomic Cloud, I think we are trying to accomplish some more things, more than we could do by giving you software to run on your own behalf. And if I had to boil it down: what problem are we trying to solve? We are trying to solve the problem of maximizing your leverage. If we could give you deep integration with the platform, could we maximize the amount of leverage you would get from having done that?

So there is a sense in which, when we give you software to run on your own behalf, it is sort of the end of our ability to help you. Now you have to go -- well, maybe you have to go ask for a machine and wait three months so you can run it somewhere. I hope not. But even if you chose to run it on a cloud, it is still a kind of software that does not necessarily know that you are doing that. We always supported cloud storages like DynamoDB, but there is a limit to how much we can help you.

[Time 0:13:58]

And here the idea is: if we made a version of Datomic that was deeply integrated and knew where it was running, how much more leverage could we give you as a user? We will see that that gives you benefits in Datomic itself, and then this new benefit, which is Ions.

[Time 0:14:20]

+ Datomic on AWS Marketplace
  + no leverage from lift and shift of data center software
  + nor much from cloud-neutral strategies

So what is it, exactly? It is Datomic running on AWS. It is not a multi-cloud thing. It is about AWS. It is about deep integration with AWS. It is available on Marketplace. So you go to Marketplace. You know the way you shop for databases. Don't you just go on the web and say "I want a database", and you read some descriptions and you click. Apparently in Marketplace they think that is what you do, but that is where it is.

And it is that simple, if you have decided either from reading our amazing description, or from hearing about it somewhere else that it is something you want, you click a button and fill out a very minimal amount of stuff, and you get a Datomic system running on AWS.

But again, the emphasis here is on leverage. So how many people have run stuff on the cloud that they used to run on their data center? So that phase of cloud adoption is called "lift and shift". It is like somebody tells you, "We are closing the data center. Get all of your software on the cloud by next Tuesday." And you are like, "Oh, my god!" And I think what happens then is, you look at the cloud as a bunch of computers that you do not own, and some networking stuff that you do not own. But essentially you are thinking about it as: it is a virtualization of what you used to run on your own behalf. And that is sort of the first tier of cloud embracing.

And it is unfortunate, because a lot of people do that and end up with a terrible experience. And they end up hating the cloud, and being like, "Well, A, this does not work very well, and B, it is more expensive. If I was running my own computers, it would have cost me less." And a lot of people have that experience with the cloud, and they are still having it.

[Time 0:16:08]

And it is because there is this misfit. You are taking data center software. What does data center software think? It thinks that you have what we call pet computers. You know, a computer that you could name. Anybody have computers and they have little stickers on them that says the name of the computer? "Fred's computer". Or it has an IP address on a little sticker on the label? And when it does not work, you can walk over to it and you can whack it on the side, right? And when the memory is fried, you can pull it out, and you can touch it, and you can put another one in. And you can fix hard drives. You can touch all of these things.

So data center software thinks you actually have hard drives that do not vanish. You have computers that do not go away. You have IP addresses that do not randomly change. They expect this sort of enduring nature and identity to things that do not exist in the cloud. So you get up on the cloud and now it is a struggle, because there is really no such thing as a hard disk that you can trust will be there tomorrow. Or if there is a virtualization of that, it has a lot of intricacies to it. Like EBS [probably Amazon Elastic Block Store]. I'm trying to create bindings to EBS and make sure that they do not get orphaned.

So there is lift and shift. I do not consider that a source of leverage. That is just a source of switching your cost basis around. And there are also sort of cloud neutral approaches. I do not want to buy into, and maybe the flip side is, I do not want to be beholden to a particular provider. Let me go and make something that will work anywhere. And again, I think you have reduced leverage from that.

We are saying we want leverage by embracing AWS as if it was sort of a cloud operating system that provided a rich set of facilities. We do not want to abstract away from that. We want to directly target it.

[Time 0:18:00]

+ Security
  + AWS VPC virtual private cloud
  + AWS IAM to manage access
  + encrypts data at rest with the AWS Key Management Service

So there is a whole bunch of stuff you get by being there. AWS has, I think, unquestionably the richest set of offerings and services around what you need. There is VPC [Amazon Virtual Private Cloud] for security. There is IAM [Amazon Identity and Access Management] to manage access. Encryption at rest with Key Management Services. We utilize all of this stuff in cloud. We set it up automatically. We configure it. It is running. We build a VPC. We use IAM to manage access. Instances are running in roles. All that stuff you want from AWS, we are directly using. We encrypt the data at rest with KMS [Amazon Key Management Services], and you can see the keys and their use, and everything you would expect.

[Time 0:18:38]

+ Datomic manages all AWS networking,
  + routes and security groups for you
  + simple connection endpoint
  + integrates with a Network Load Balancer

The Datomic Cloud install will set up all of the networking for you, and I will show you a picture of this in a second. So all of the routes are set up, and Route 53 [Route 53 is Amazon's DNS (Domain Name System) service] is set up, and the security groups are made. You end up with this simple endpoint that you can connect to that is enduring. We will set up a network load balancer in some of the topologies and get that all running.

[Time 0:19:00]

+ AWS AutoScaling for availability
  + automatic, triggered by load
  + elastic, up/down

And here, I think, is where you really start to diverge from data center software. How many people had data center software that, when the software got busy, a computer magically appeared and helped out? Like in the rack. Boom! There is a new computer. Anybody have that? No. That is not a thing.

And it is a very big thing in the cloud. A couple of years ago, and it is a long time ago now, I was at the big AWS thing in Vegas, and I am not sure if it was the CTO of Pepsi or Coke. Crisis! But she was up on stage, and she was saying, effectively, "I am tired of running data center software. I want software that can auto scale." Because if you have data center software, it was written to run where there was a rack. And you could not just say "give me new computer in the rack". But in the cloud, you can. And so you want software that understands that that is a possible thing, and knows how to scale automatically. And in particular, to scale up and down, triggered by load. So Datomic Cloud does that.

[Time 0:20:19]

+ Storage hierarchy
  + redundancy/latency stratification
  + distributed caching built into nodes

There are a very rich set of storage subsystems available on AWS. And they vary in how much redundancy they provide, how much reliability they provide, what kind of latencies they have, and things like that. And Datomic Cloud uses all of these things. DynamoDB, SSDs, the Elastic File System, and S3, form sort of a hierarchical stratification of caching and long term storage, automatically, as well as building in distributed caching in the nodes.

[Time 0:20:55]

+ Per-instance-hour pricing
  + 24x7 Solo about $1/day

And then the other thing you expect from running in Marketplace is that you have per instance hour pricing, so we just mark up the instance hours, and you pay for it like you pay for EC2 instances. Which means it is a little bit like Clojure. Does anybody remember sneaking in Clojure? Remember how that worked? It is like "It is just a Java library". So this is just like "it is just this line on the AWS bill". And that is how it works. It is just part of your AWS bill.

So the emphasis here is on getting leverage from AWS, by knowing about AWS. And yes, we are marrying all of this tech. And it means that you get the advantages of using all of that, and you do not necessarily have to get involved in that, knowing about it.

[Time 0:21:50]

slide title: Datomic Cloud Topologies

Start small, model scales

+ get started with Solo
+ go to production on Prod

So another principle here is that you can start small and grow with Cloud. So we have something called Solo, which you can run for as little as roughly a dollar a day, and get started there. And then eventually move to a production topology, which allows you to scale in various ways.

[Time 0:22:10]

slide title: Solo Topology

0:22:10 Solo Topology

I am going to just quickly let you see what they look like. So when you go to Marketplace and you say, "I feel like getting a new database today", and you push the button "Give me Datomic", in the Solo configuration we make all of this [referring to figure on current slide]. So you just push a button and say "start it" and you get a VPC made, you get a Dynamo table made, you get an S3 bucket created. You get an Elastic File System created and mounted, and all the mounted nodes available on all of the availability zones of your VPC. You get a single node. That is why it is called Solo. It is running in an auto scaling group, but the auto scaling group's job is to keep it alive, as opposed to scale it out to more than one. It is basically one at a time.

We set up a Route 53 hosted zone, and we point it at this node. We also keep it updated if you do have the node cycle for any reason. And this looks to you like a single CloudFormation stack has started all of this. It ends up being a master template that has two independent stacks: one for the storage, one for the top here, which we call the compute.

In addition, we start a bastion node there, which is designed to provide access from outside the VPC. So we never expose your Datomic cloud nodes outside the VPC, ever. So there is a bastion, and we provide you the tools so that the client that you embed in your Clojure app, and talk to a SOCKS proxy, and get in through SSH, and eventually talk to the system.

[Time 0:23:46]

This is the tiniest thing! This is the dollar a day thing! It is a huge amount of stuff you do not have to start or operate. And this gives you a functioning Datomic system with a lot of reliability. It does not have high availability, because it is just one node. But it is a great way to develop, build your ideas, try things out. And it is pay as you go, so if you just want to try it for a couple of hours, you can do that.

[Time 0:24:15]

slide title: Production Topology

0:24:15 Production Topology

When you are ready to try to do things at scale, and have a reliable system that is highly available, you can push the other button, or make the other choice in the dropdown, which is the production topology. That starts the left side of this. The right side of this is optional. It is actually a secondary stack.

And here you get the same storage infrastructure, and in fact if you were running Solo and you transition to Production, you can just use the storage that is already there, and the databases you have created. All of that stuff will just work.

You still have the bastion. There is still a Route 53 thing. I took it off this picture because it just gets crazy. But the important thing here is that now there is a network load balancer in play, and you are going to have more than one node. In addition, these nodes have SSDs on them, which forms the near cache. The way Datomic Cloud works is that your logs and your live transactions are going right into Dynamo, which is the lowest latency system they provide, and it has the CAS [Compare-and-swap] semantics we need.

And then as indexing happens, those big trees of immutable stuff I was talking about, they get put in S3, they redundantly get put in EFS, and that is so that when you get cache failures higher up, you have a lower latency thing to back up to than S3, which is pretty high latency, but very high reliability. And then there is a near cache. So every node has got, eventually, the tree cached again on an SSD on the same box. So most reads do not go over the network at all.

[Time 0:25:52]

This is a great system, and this is really the value prop of immutability. There is nothing to this. There is no fancy coordination required, or anything else. We just build a big -- we call it the sandwich. We build a big sandwich of caches, and they all read repair through and you get data all the way up, all the way nearby. Which means that queries are getting satisfied from data that is on the box.

On the right you see query groups. Again they get started by different stacks. I will talk about them later.

[Time 0:26:24]

0:26:24 Your App Here

So this is sort of what is happening. Those diagrams are nowhere near all of the stuff. There is a ton of stuff. We are also creating IAM roles, auto scaling groups, CloudWatch dashboards, permission sets, hosted zone. We create key management keys. I talked about the Dynamo table, the Internet gateway necessary to talk to other services, and the network load balancer.

So we are doing all of this stuff, and Datomic Cloud is all happy, and you are getting essentially this instant database that is integrated.

[Time 0:27:05]

slide title: Production Topology

0:27:05 Production Topology

But if you look at this prior diagram, I have these hexagons that say "client". What is that? The client is actually the thing that you put in your app, your Clojure code. And that is the API you use to program against Datomic. So this is a remote API. So you get a client, connect to a Datomic instance, and you talk to the instances.

The problem is -- or a problem is -- I say if the client is in the VPC, you can connect here. But the whole client in the VPC, that is a problem.

[Time 0:27:43]

0:27:43 Your App Here

That is your problem, because your Clojure code is not in the cloud yet. Where are you going to run it? How are you going to get it to auto scale? How are you going to secure it? What VPC is it going to run in? What security group is it going to run in? Are you going to access that security group from other security groups? What role is it going to have? What permissions does that role need? And, and, and, and, and, and!

[Time 0:28:05]

And that is just sort of a fact of building for the cloud. And so there was this idea of: you can focus on -- what did I say earlier about the cloud? You can focus on your business problem. How many people on the cloud think that they do not need to think about the cloud, and they are focusing on the business problem? No! You are learning all of these things, right? There is this huge amount of stuff you have to know to do this well.

So the idea behind Ions is: if we could get your app to run on our nodes, you could sort of live in this nice nest that we made inside AWS, and get a free ride, and many other benefits. That is sort of the core idea behind Ions.

[Time 0:28:56]

slide title: Datomic Ions

Focus on your application

+ Run your app on the Datomic Cloud nodes
+ Leverage your Datomic Cloud cluster
+ Extend Datomic transactions and queries with your own logic
+ Connect to the broader AWS cloud via Lambda events
+ Service web consumers with API Gateway
+ Scale Datomic and your app together
+ Deliver on AWS with high quality

So that is a a little bit about cloud. So what are Ions? Well now we are actually going to try to let you focus on your application, because running on the cloud does not let you focus inherently. You do not need to buy computers and deal with wires, but you still have to provision things, get them to scale, get all of those things configured correctly.

But could we let you -- this is the problem again -- could we let you really focus on your application, take advantage of the work we did in building Cloud, and host your application on those nodes that you are not running anything else. If you are running Datomic Cloud, that is all you are running, and your application code runs on it, scales with it, etc. etc.

[Time 0:29:41]

+ Run your app on the Datomic Cloud nodes
  + Web services
  + Event handlers
  + db extension (query and tx fns)

That is the fundamental idea: run your app on the Datomic Cloud nodes. So I think it is important to sort of talk about your app. So Stu has talked about Ions before, and he said one of the problems was people did not really get that when we say run your app, we mean all of your app code. There will not be any clients. Your app code will be on the Datomic Cloud nodes only. He said I should jump up and down when I said that, which I am not going to do.

[Time 0:30:07]

So let us talk about your app. So if you build apps for the cloud, what are they, mostly? How many people build web services? Some way of thinking about what you are doing as some service. You are doing some service. Someone is going to ask you for stuff, you are going to give them some answers.

The other thing I think happens in the cloud, and it is happening a lot more now on AWS with Lambda and some of the other infrastructure for that, is you build event handlers. Something happens in my infrastructure or elsewhere in my bigger system, and I need to respond to that. I do that in a reactive kind of way. I am just going to get an event notification. So how many people do that kind of stuff? Get notifications on queues, SNS [Amazon Simple Notification Service], something appeared in your S3 bucket. Something like that.

And the other flavor of app we have is sort of like, both the supportive code for those kinds of edge jobs. This is the edge of your system answering questions on the web, or responding to events. Internally you have app code both to support those things, and also something Datomic has always allowed is sort of the extension of Datomic itself, by integrating code of your own into queries. You can call Clojure code in queries and in transaction functions. So all of that is what I mean when I say "your app".

[Time 0:31:28]

+ Leverage your Datomic Cloud cluster
  + AWS Setup and topology
  + compute resources
  + data locality

All right. So what do we get in terms of leverage from the cloud cluster? Well that big picture? You do not have to do any of that. That is the biggest thing. The AWS setup and the topology of that. The auto scaling groups and the scaling triggering, the dashboards, and all that, is all wired up. In addition you can generate your own metrics. We have an API for adding your own metrics and logging messages from your app. So you can extend what we have done, and that will appear in your dashboards. You get compute resources, right? So there was this question before, here.

[Time 0:32:03]

0:32:03 Your App Here

Where is your Clojure code going to run? Do you have to have an instance? Do you have to have Elastic Beanstalk, or another thing? And the answer is no. You are going to use the compute resources of the Datomic Cloud cluster.

[Time 0:32:16]

+ Leverage your Datomic Cloud cluster
  + AWS Setup and topology
  + compute resources
  + data locality

And then the other big leverage point here is data locality. How many people use Datomic On-Prem, and had peers? So what is the big feature of peers? The big feature of peers is, if you query, it feels like you are querying right in your app. And there is a sense in which Datomic Ions are sort of an inversion of that. And when I first gave the Datomic talks, I said, "everybody gets a brain". You have your app, and we give you a brain, which is the query engine to run with your code. Now we just sort of invert that, and we say, "the brains are in the cluster. You give us your thoughts. Give us your Clojure code, and we will think about it."

In both cases, you end up with your thoughts and the caching of the database, and the query technology of the database, in the same process. And that is a source of a lot of power and performance, and it lets you do things with databases that you just did not think you could before.

[Time 0:33:20]

slide title: Datomic Ions

Focus on your application

+ Run your app on the Datomic Cloud nodes
+ Leverage your Datomic Cloud cluster
+ Extend Datomic transactions and queries with your own logic
+ Connect to the broader AWS cloud via Lambda events
+ Service web consumers with API Gateway
+ Scale Datomic and your app together
+ Deliver on AWS with high quality

I talked about a bunch of these things. Extending Datomic with your own logic. There is this notion of connecting to the broader AWS cloud -- that idea of events. And we use Lambda for that. How many people have tried AWS Lambda? Yeah. So the way I think about Lambda is twofold. I think there are two aspects to it.

[Time 0:33:45]

One is sort of like this fine grained compute and deployment infrastructure. Make a function, include all of Maven with it, put it somewhere that it can run on demand, and a little bit of computational resource that will be allocated. You do not need to think about it. That does not resonate a lot with me. I think there are definitely use cases for that, especially if you have extremely rarely running programs that respond to events, and things like that. But once you are running all of the time, I am kind of old school about wanting that locality, that caching. That sense of: I am running all of the time. I want the power from doing that.

But there is the other aspect of Lambda, and the way I like to think about it, and the way we use it in Datomic. I am going to show you Lambdas. We never do anything in the Lambdas. There is no code running in the Lambdas. We use it, and this is the other idea behind Lambda, as connective tissue. AWS has said, "Oh, you are interested in doing something when somebody puts something in your S3 bucket? You write a Lambda, and we have the way in S3 to go and say: when somebody puts something here, call this Lambda." And that is a bit of connective tissue. It has actually nothing to do with the Lambda doing the calculation. It has to do with: there is a way to say, "when an event happens, do this thing". A path from an event to something happening. And that is how we use Lambdas: as connective tissue.

But it is present. I mean, there are many, many AWS technologies and services now that can generate Lambda events that your applications can respond to. Let us let you build an application that is loosely coupled that reacts to things without having to have a lot of polling and things like that. There is a lot of power there.

[Time 0:35:50]

The other thing that we already talked about is making web apps and web services, and the way we do that is by connecting through the API Gateway. API Gateway is a great idea. It basically says, "let us take the idea of web serving and break it into two parts: dealing with the Internet, and taking a request and generating a response". We will let AWS deal with the Internet: authentication, denial of service attacks, blah, blah, blah. Who wants to deal with the Internet? Who wants to put their server on the Internet? Not me.

So that is a great decomplecting. Web serving has two jobs: being on the Internet, and taking a request and generating a response. Now what do we know about taking a request and generating a response, where the request and response are data? Clojure is awesome at that. That is what Clojure is for. That is like Clojure's reason to exist. So this is a great separation of concerns.

So API Gateway allows you to set up an endpoint, expose it on the Internet. You can bind it to your DNS stuff and things like that. You can do authentication a gazillion ways. You can do all kinds of transformations related to RESTful stuff, which I do not really believe in, but it can do that. But it is really good. But that is how you are going to expose your service, with Gateway, and you are going to focus on writing a handler.

The other big thing about this is that by sitting in this nest, you are in an auto scaling group, which is automatically scaling depending on triggers you can hook up to various metrics we produce, which include: how busy are you? When Datomic scales, it means your app scales. There will be more resources for both your application and Datomic. So you are already ready to scale elastically.

And the net result of this is that you become much more agile. This is what you want. This is what you imagined the cloud would be until you saw, oh, there are a hundred services, and each one has a hundred pages of documentation.

So in the end when we talk about sort of what is your application.

[Time 0:38:10]

+ Run your app on the Datomic Cloud nodes
  + Web services
  + Event handlers
  + db extension (query and tx fns)

We have web services. What do they look like after you do not have to deal with the Internet any more? You get an HTTP request, you have an HTTP response. Ring, Pedestal, all of the Clojure stuff for doing that. That is how we do it. We already know how to turn it from nasty Java servlets into data and back. That is just a function, right? Web service is just a function.

Event handlers similarly are like that. Now usually maybe they have effects, and so could web services. Let me put something in your S3 thing. Well maybe that is going to cause you to transact something against the database. Process that and make a transaction. But the inputs to the event handlers are straight JSON payloads.

And then we have database extensions. Query functions are functions. They take arguments, they return data. Transaction functions are the same thing. You have to return transaction data, or macros for transactions.

So when you get rid of all of the cloud infrastructure and AWS stuff, the focus part comes down to writing functions. All of these things are functions. If you could just write Clojure code that did these fundamental operations, Ions would take care of the rest. That is the idea.

[Time 0:39:34]

0:39:34 Your App Here

So the idea is: we are trying to get that circle inside here. So how does that manifest itself? How do you do it?

[Time 0:39:42]

slide title: Datomic Ions in practice

+ preamble - tools.deps
+ dev
+ push
+ deploy
+ config
+ invoke

So the first thing to understand is that there is no extra thing here. When you run Datomic Cloud, it is ready to do Datomic Ions. All of the support, all of the things I show you here that have to do with CodeDeploy and all of that, and the target groups and whatnot, that also got set up. I did not put it on this picture, because I would ruin the surprise.

[Time 0:40:06]

0:40:06 Your App Here

But more stuff. Ten more little icons are also being done in support of Ions. And that is ready to go when you start a cloud system. That is ready to run.

[Time 0:40:20]

slide title: Datomic Ions in practice

+ preamble - tools.deps
+ dev
+ push
+ deploy
+ config
+ invoke

So before I get into the steps, which are small and easily understood, I hope, I just want to talk a little bit about tools.deps. So a prerequisite of developing for Ions is that you have got a Clojure app. You are keeping it in git. And you are using tools.deps to do dependencies. This is not because I hate Leiningen or Boot, or anything else. I think that the Clojure community has not completely gotten their heads around tools.deps, but it is actually a simple premise. And the idea is: I want something that only does deps. I do not want two things. I do not want a build system. I do not want two things combined.

And invariably dependency systems -- because the build system needs to know about the dependencies, they all turn into build systems. And I think in doing that, then they say, "well other people might want to know about the dependencies". So therefore, the way to do that is to have plugins. And that whole thing just is too tightly coupled for my taste.

The idea behind tools.deps is: dependencies a la carte. And I think what you are going to see in the way Datomic works, the way Ions work, is an example of the consuming app. They are not special to Datomic. Stu worked on the tools.deps integration for Datomic Ions. And he was a consumer of tools.deps trying to use the tools to get dependency information necessary to do the job we want to do, without having to add it into tools.deps, or make tools.deps pluggable. What we want is something that is composable.

[Time 0:42:07]

Now it ends up tools.deps did not do everything the way we would have liked, and working on Ions has improved tools.deps ability to be used by other people for similar jobs in an a la carte way, by composing processes, as opposed to this sort of nested dolls approach to plugins.

So I think tools.deps are very important, and the ideas behind tools.deps are important. I designed it, and I really believe in it. So if you have any questions about tools.deps as this weird thing, or whatever Alex Miller was off imagining something, it is not. This is a mission critical thing for Clojure to get this right, to get this separate. And I think there are many other benefits, and I am sure we could have talks about that. But you have got to do tools.deps.

[Time 0:42:59]

+ dev
  + deps.edn
  + local deps ok!

So the first thing you have to do is: you have to develop. This is like writing software. We said we want to just write a function that says: if I get this payload as an HTTP request, this is what the response should be. I just want to write that function.

So I am going to have code in git. And I am going to have dependencies. Another problem I wanted to solve, both with tools.deps and with Datomic Ions, is the problem of sibling dependencies. How many people work in a shop that have broken up their giant app into different libraries? Many people have, I hope. This is a -- yes, this is desirable.

But then, what do you run into? You run into: everything in Maven must be an artifact, and you cannot have this half way done, and that half way done, and this depend on that, because you have to deploy a half way thing, and then you have "latest" or whatever the Maven-isms are there.

[Time 0:43:59]

I think that is a disaster. I think that needing to have artifacts runs contrary to being able to be agile about working on more than one thing at a time. And it actually thwarts the idea of: it would be good if we separated these things and reused them as libraries. How many people have heard of the evil beast called mono repo? Yeah. Mono repo. There is a football term for that. It is called "punting".

And I understand why people are driven there, because Maven does not help you with this. But it does not have to be this way. tools.deps is not like this, and Ions are not like that. You can be working on more than one library at a time, and it can all be half way finished, and it can be on your machine only, and you can deploy them. Now you cannot deploy them in a way that is repeatable, and you cannot deploy them with an identity that would confuse anybody else about: oh, I can use this thing. That was just on your machine. But you should be able to deploy that and try it. How else are you supposed to interactively work?

So let us look at this. Pictures.

[Time 0:45:08]

0:45:08 Development

This is what development is like. You are working on your machine. You have a bunch of functions in your git repo, in your application. You have dependencies in a deps.edn file. The dependencies are on your machine. They may be in .m2 as proper artifacts, or they may be local deps. That is OK. The one additional thing we are going to ask you for is a config file, an Ion config.edn file, which describes some things about your Ion deployment. This stuff is not getting jammed into your deps.edn. deps.edn is not like this dumping ground. That is for deps. This is not deps. This is another file. There is nothing wrong with that. I do not now why everything has to go in one file. So there is one extra file. And you do your ordinary stuff: you write, and you commit.

[Time 0:46:05]

0:46:05 Push

Then you are going to push. So here it starts to get interesting. You worked on something locally. You commit to git. That is in your local git, and obviously you can -- when I say push here, I am talking about Ions push. You are going to have a library that will be in your dev time tools.deps alias. That is the Ion tooling. And Ion tooling has an operation called push. This lets you push your application into your Datomic cluster.

So where is that? So you have stuff on your machine. You have dependencies, which are artifacts and/or directories. You have your git stuff, your functions in Clojure files. And you have a config. What push does is it puts that stuff in S3. There is a place in S3 associated with your Datomic Cloud configuration that we use to put your deployments. This is just an application revision. It is not running anywhere. Pushing it just says: put it somewhere, so I could run it somewhere else.

Something else happens, in addition to putting this stuff out in S3, is that we create a revision in CodeDeploy. So how many people have tried CodeDeploy? How many people know what CodeDeploy is? I am going to talk a little bit more about CodeDeploy, because it is cool. There are lots of different ways to get stuff running in AWS. How many people, for instance, make AMIs [Amazon Machine Images] and restart EC2 [Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud] instances? You burn AMIs some way. Not too many any more.

How many people make Docker images, and then use something that puts Docker images on new EC2 instances? How many people in general start new instances of EC2 that have new application code running? It is pretty common, but it is expensive, right? The EC2 instance cycle time can be minutes to get new instances up.

[Time 0:48:03]

CodeDeploy is a way to get code running on EC2 instances that are already running. So the idea behind CodeDeploy is: you set up an auto scaling group. There are a bunch of EC2 instances. And they are all running the CodeDeploy daemon on the boxes. What CodeDeploy does is it lets the target group, which would be a particular auto scaling group, that is the target of a deployment, to know that there is a new revision that it should be running. And they will go and grab it.

Before we get to that, and I will show you that in detail later, the fundamental idea is that a CodeDeploy application is a thing in AWS. You are going to have an application. It is going to have a name. So imagine you have your Datomic system you set up. You are going to have an application called My Web App. My Web Service. When you make your Datomic Cloud instance, we will make a CodeDeploy application called My Web Service. It is not running anywhere. It is just a place where you can put revisions. So when you push, we will make a new revision in CodeDeploy.

If you go to the Console, and look at CodeDeploy and your application will say, "Oh, there is this revision". And if it is a repeatable revision it will have the git commit SHA. You can run this. It is based upon [tbd?] this version of the code. That is the first thing we will talk about that is connected to git. The revisions are connected to git commits. That is the identity. I hate human made up "version 2". What does that mean? Version 2.3. Oh, that is better. Or is it better? These things mean nothing, right?

[Time 0:49:50]

And I think that one of the problems with the artifact system, that I have with it, is detachment from source truth. And it is old. I am not saying that people got it wrong. But Maven I think predates git, and artifacts certainly do, and the idea of 1.2 and 1.3, absolutely do. But now we are -- who is not using git for version control? We are using git. Git has a bunch of great properties, and as Clojure programmers we do not have to have them explained. So we connect application revisions to git identity. If you ever were wondering "what version of the code is this, actually that is running?" There is no question. It is the name of the version.

But what if you have local deps? What if you were in the middle of two different things? We are going to force you to create a human readable name. It is going to go in a different place with a prefix that says "unreproducible". So it will say "unreproducible Rich's latest brainstorm", will be the name of that revision. And hopefully no one will look at that and say, "That should go in production".

So we make that -- the important thing about pushes -- we are not running the code anywhere. We have given it an identity. We have made the bits available in sort of a neutral territory, this S3 bucket. That is what is happening during push.

[Time 0:51:17]

+ deploy
  + code deploy - fast, rolling

Now you are going to deploy. And here things get very interesting, because the idea behind deploy is that you are going to take a revision and say: "I would like to see this revision running in this place, on this target group". And it ends up that you can have the same application, at different revision points, running on different target groups. We will see diagrams later about the scenarios in which you would do that.

[Time 0:51:48]

So here you are saying, "I actually want to make that happen". So where could you deploy it? It ends up when you start a Datomic Cloud system, you say what application it is supposed to support. You can run more than one Datomic system, or compute group, and say they all support the same application, or each one has its own application. And by default, every new Datomic group will have its own application associated with it. You can go many to one, and one to many that way.

So actually deploying means: issuing a command to CodeDeploy to say, "I would like to see this revision running in this place". And the choice of places will be known to you. And what is neat about CodeDeploy is that it does not cycle the instance. It informs the agent on the machine, on the EC2 instance, that there is a new revision. There is a whole life cycle script that happens there, which in our case will cause us to shut down Datomic on the EC2 instance, go grab that code, pull it locally, and munge the classpath to include the stuff from your application, and restart Datomic with your app in the classpath.

[Time 0:53:08]

0:53:08 Deploy

Let us look at that. That looks like this. You say "I want to deploy". And it takes two arguments: which revision, and where. And the where has to match, so you cannot mismatch this thing. If you do not know where you could deploy, you just issue the command and it will tell you, "here are the possible target groups that are ready to be deployment targets of that application".

And that goes into CodeDeploy, and it makes something called a deployment, which is a record that you asked for this to happen. You asked for this revision to run in this place. That also causes the agent to be notified. What actually happens in CodeDeploy is just a pull. So the agent is told, "You have got a new revision". The code in the agent goes and issues the commands to get the new revision of the application.

[Time 0:53:57]

We go and we pull the stuff from S3: the functions, the code, the dependencies, and the configuration. Now it ends up that you might expect to have seen in the S3 bucket some sort of a monolith, like an uberjar. And it is actually the design of CodeDeploy that that is what you would be doing. They think that that is probably what you would be doing. I do not like doing that, because a lot of that is redundant, right? These dependencies, they are not different. How many times when you make a new revision of your app do you change all of your dependencies? Almost never. Should you have to have put them all in a JAR and sent them all around the Internet, up to S3, and down, and back again? No. So this system actually knows what is in the .m2 on the target instances, and only gets from S3 the stuff it does not know about. And everything about this is repeatable. All of the identities are consistent and reproducible identities.

So we end up with the new functions and dependencies and config on the Datomic node. We munge the classpath and we restart Datomic. This is a process that you measure in seconds, not minutes, to do this kind of thing.

So that sort of is the getting the code inside Datomic, but I talked about connecting to the AWS ecosystem, and it ends up that right now in the current version of cloud, both to support web services from API Gateway, and any of those eventing things, you are going to need Lambdas. So I said you need this config file. One of the things that is in the config file is a declaration that some of your functions -- you wrote many functions, right? Some of the functions are supposed to run in transactions. Some are query functions. Some are just supporting your other functions.

[Time 0:55:51]

But a couple of your functions end up at the edge. They end up being: this is the function you should call when somebody calls this Lambda. That is in your Ion config.edn. And for every Lambda you designate there. So it basically says: I want to have this function exposed as a Lambda called that. We will make a Lambda, and we will wire that up so that when that Lambda is called, that code is called. And I will show you how that works in a second.

So deployment is not just a CodeDeploy deploy. It actually also creates Lambdas. We use AWS Step Functions and stuff like that. There is a lot of machinery behind this, and what you need to know about it is: you do not want to know all of this stuff.

So now your stuff is out there. The Lambdas exist. But you are not actually connected to the world yet. If somebody knew about your Lambdas, they could invoke them directly.

[Time 0:56:52]

0:56:52 Config

But there is a step left that is outside of this, outside of the scope of what we can do for you, where you have to go and say, "OK, let me go to my S3 configuration and say: hey, when someone puts something in the bucket, call this Lambda". The one that we made for you.

Similarly you may go to API Gateway and say: stand up a new API Gateway endpoint, and when requests are made, call this Lambda. So there is configuration associated with doing that. Right now we do not have any automation around that configuration, but we walk you through how to do it in Console. And obviously you can do the same things from the command line, or other automation tooling. So this configuration allows you to sort of make that final connection. We have made the Lambdas for you. Now you are going to connect them to either event sources, or to API Gateway, so stuff can get in.

[Time 0:57:48]

0:57:48 Invoke

And then you are ready to rock. You can be invoked. And so we will just walk through some of the ways that your application can be invoked.

[Time 0:57:55]

I will start over here, all the way inside. If you have written code, and you have designated it in the config as being callable -- because not everything is callable. There is actually an accepted function list. Those are the only entry points that we support. The rest of the functions would have to be dependencies. They are supportive code.

The first thing is: queries and transactions can call your functions. Just use them directly in your query or in your transaction, and you can call it. The new syntax we have for that means that we will auto-require and everything else. There is nothing you need to do except make a fully qualified function call.

The next thing you could do is you can actually directly invoke the Lambda. Some people architect systems with processes calling Lambdas directly. They do not use web services. They just invoke Lambdas. So you can do that. You call the Lambda, and it proxies through.

I showed one line of proxying, but essentially all of these Lambdas end up hitting your code. They all work the same way. We wrote a single Lambda, once and for all. We call it "The Ultimate Lambda". We called it "Lambda, The Ultimate". [smiles and pauses] No, it is the Ultimate Lambda. We just call it ultimate. It is a proxy. It has no code. It just knows it is configured so that when it gets a request, it knows which group to talk to, and which function to invoke. And it just forwards it, gets the response, returns the response. No logic in the Lambda. They all proxy through.

The other thing that can happen is: stuff can happen in these AWS services, and they generate events. That calls your Lambda. That calls your function.

Finally, people use your web service over the web. It hits the API Gateway. That hits a Lambda. And that hits your function.

That is it! That is all your functions.

[Time 0:59:55]

0:59:55 You Do and Ions Do

So this is the big picture, which I do not like to show all at once, because -- it's obvious -- it is big. But the important thing is to look at the left side. This is what you do. You do ordinary development of functions, in git, using tools.deps. You call a function called push. I mean, it really just says push what I have got. And we may force you to make a name, but if you have a reproducible thing, we will name it on the checked out commit. And that is it, if you say push. If you say deploy, you say deploy this revision name to this place. The configuration, like I said you can do either manually or with automation. And the invocation is just like: stuff happens in the world. People use your web service.

So there is very minimal that you do that is anything other than write functions in Clojure and try them in your REPL, the way you always did. While you are developing, you do not need to deploy anything. You can work against your code locally. You can run the client, as I showed on the very earliest diagrams, and directly talk to the databases. You can work in your REPL. You do not need to deploy in order to test. Hopefully that will be clear on the pictures later.

So and then of course there is this huge amount of stuff that we do. And this sort of keys you into the other things we have created. We have created this code bucket. We have created these CodeDeploy applications. We have made a relationship between the CodeDeploy applications and the query group, so that they are available targets of a CodeDeploy. All that is done automatically.

All right. Does anybody have any questions about that? I do not think I should move forward.

[audience member question not audible]

[Time 1:01:59]

They are consistent. It is a function of the name of the target group, and the name of the function. So they will be stable. And in fact, we will not make new Lambdas unless there is something novel about it.

Oh, I should have repeated the question. It is: do you have repeatable names for the Lambdas? And the answer is yes. The Lambda names are a function of the designated name and the target group. This is not the strongest part of Lambda. I said it is connective tissue. But this namespace, I think it is 64 characters. It is not great. And I think AWS knows this is an area to improve. But it is stable.

The other thing I would sort of say overall: this entire architecture is designed to minimize unnecessary work. There is no change, no work. No change in your deps, we do not shovel them around again. We do not make uberjars. We do not make new Lambdas unless something about the Lambda configuration has changed. We do not do anything unless there is actual novelty required.

So you have high stability. In fact, if you add a new Lambda, you get no down time on the other ones. Oh, that is the other critical thing about CodeDeploy deployments. They roll. So it will do this process one machine at a time, so you will get a continuous availability through that deployment. So as long as you are not doing something really crazy, like updating in place your functions and things like that.

This is why I talk about this stuff all of the time. It is just the one area that is still left to you. The sensibilities about accretion in systems are important. If you stick to them, this thing works like a charm. If you say: "well, I want this thing to have the same name, and do something totally different, and take different inputs and return different outputs", you have just said: "I want to break my system. Let me go do that". Don't do that.

[Time 1:04:02]

Other quick questions, then we will talk about query groups.

[audience member question not audible]

The question is: we have shown here responding to things happening in the outside world. How do you affect the outside world? Well, you could call web services yourself. I mean it is quite common to make a hierarchy of services calling services.

[audience member question not audible]

Inside a transaction. No, you can do it inside a query. And you can have an endpoint that is associated with an action. It depends on how you want to sense it, I guess. But no, you can do it anywhere you are running code. So you are running code as a result of a service call through API Gateway. You are running code as a result of another event. Unless you have to poll for these things. If you think something interesting happened, say during a query, you can do any number of things.

It is probably best not to try to synchronously do everything. You could, though. You could call another Lambda. You could call another service. You could put something on a queue. All the normal systems topology stuff is available. But you have access to the AWS API inside your Ions. You are situated in a node. It is running in a role. You can give that role any permissions you want to do AWS stuff, in addition to the things we have given it permission to do in order for Datomic to work.

But I think the rest of that question is sort of outside of the scope. That is more architectural guidance.

One other question on this, and then I will move on.

[Time 1:06:00]

[audience member question not audible]

There is nothing multi-region about this at the moment. I think AWS is sort of straddling the multi-region thing. They do not fundamentally believe in that. They believe that their regions are units of reliability. But of course, from the very beginning, every customer has asked them for belt and suspenders. I think that that idea will become more first class in AWS, and you are starting to see it sort of an ad hoc basis in some of their services. When it becomes fully first class, we would certainly look at it.

But it ends up wherever you look in AWS, it is missing the things you need to do that reliably, because they do not consider it to be reliable. Essentially, if you want independence between these things, then you do not necessarily know that that is going to be ready to take over when you want to switch.

I think in general, that kind of multi-region thing will always be outside the scope of what a service can fully provide, because the semantics of transitioning, and transitioning back, always involve business rules, and these sort of operational and business integrity concerns. You cannot answer for everyone. We do not have any multi-region support built in.

Earlier, I showed you a picture with query groups on it. And I did not really explain what they were. And I am showing you here a bunch of compute groups that could be targets of deployment. We never really talked about having more than one compute group, though.

[Time 1:07:56]

1:07:56 Datomic Ions

But it ends up that in the production topology -- oh, so here is what you get after you finish this. Your Clojure code is on the nodes. We have added some Lambdas for you. They can be wired to services. You have API Gateway. SLT [tbd?] is one future feature, because we have been asked for this for a while. And that is, it is possible for API Gateway to directly invoke Ions if there is a network load balancer available, which there is in the production topology. And in that case we would not need to go through Lambdas from API Gateway. So that is something that is on our agenda to do. So it will be faster and easier to configure, and take a hop out of it.

[Time 1:08:41]

slide title: Query Groups

Use leverage to enable growth

+ Independent compute groups in prod topologies
+ scenarios - apps, scaling and stages
+ Immutability leverage

So I am going to walk you through a couple of use cases for query groups. This is something we just released last week. But if you are familiar with Datomic On-Prem, or have been running Datomic before, this is sort of the moral equivalent of peers. I talked early in the talk about the leverage of immutability, and being able to replicate things and get independent querying, and independence of applications. Query groups are the way that really becomes real in Datomic Cloud.

The basic problem we are trying to solve is: use the leverage that we have in being able to replicate data to enable the growth of the system. To have system support for users, to have different applications use the system. Isolation between those applications, and how much computational resources they use. And we give them locality for queries. Data locality, and working set locality, and things like that.

So there are sort of a couple of scenarios, but the basic idea is that once you have a production topology, you can start one or more additional compute groups. And it will look like the very top part of those initial diagram. You get another auto scaling group with instances in it, and a network load balancer associated with it. It can be its own target for CodeDeploy deployments, and therefore for Ion applications. And it can have its own scaling.

[Time 1:10:08]

So there are three categories of reasons why you might want to look at this.

One is to support multiple applications. I have a web service, and I also have an analytics thing. And the analytics thing queries relentlessly, crunches the computer. I do not want that to be running on the same instances as my transactional system at all. So I have different applications. I want to keep them separate.

The other reason you might want to do it is for scaling purposes. When you first start with Datomic Cloud, that first compute group, whether it is the Solo one or N, is doing everything. It is handling transactions and it is doing indexing. It is handling queries and hosting your Ions. At a certain point, you probably want to get the queries and Ions out of the way of the transactions.

In addition, we do not advocate elastically scaling that transactional group, because of the way it does caching and the way it has to handle things. That is more of the kind of thing where you are going to say: "let us have a meeting and go from three to four". On the other hand, your web app should be able to scale up and down all day long elastically, so getting it into a separate query group means you can now set up the scaling on that to be elastic.

And the other reason why you might want independent query groups is for different stages of your application. So you want to simultaneously run different revisions of your application. One is in production, one is being tested, one is in staging. Maybe the developers are also doing something.

[Time 1:11:50]

1:11:50 Query groups Solo

I will show you some pictures. Start small. The developer is doing stuff. There is a web app. It is getting deployed to the Solo. They are also developing against the Solo. There may be more databases in there than this says. And they are all sharing the same instance. There are no query groups here.

[Time 1:12:08]

1:12:08 Query groups Prod 1

When you move to the production topology, you have a primary group. And then you may add one or more query groups. So this shows the primary group all the way on the right, and it is still running the application for reals. And then a separate group was set up for CI, and a separate one for staging.

So we see the developer is working on the most recently committed revision 55. That is in the set of revisions of the application. This is the CodeDeploy application here. 54 is running in staging. 55 is in CI. And the primary group is running 53.

And you have a bunch of choices. I mean, this has some instance sizes on it, but there are a variety of instances available for the different query groups in production. And there are a bunch of databases and storage. This is one storage. This is one system, but there are a bunch of different databases.

The developers, you might set up a query group for them. It is only handling queries. It is not actually hosting their code, because their code is live on their machines. So this does not have a deployed revision on it. It is just answering queries and servicing the databases, where you might give every developer a different database so they do not step on each other.

So again you are seeing shared infrastructure in the storage tier, seeing independent groups here. In this case, the groups are only being used for developmental stages. Staging, CI, production, dev. That kind of thing. This is how you would do that.

[Time 1:13:49]

1:13:49 Query groups Prod 2

The next thing you might want to do is, as I just said, you might want to get the actual query and Ion load off of your transacting and indexing group. Put it on a group that was more elastic. This is a group that will have a minimum of two, but could go up to 10 during the middle of the day, or whenever it is that you are busy. And now the app is running there, and the primary group is not running an app. It is still serving the transactions. So an important thing to know, and I have not drawn the arrows on all of these diagrams, because it gets to be kind of a rat's nest, is: transactions always get forwarded to the transacting group.

So you may have your app talking to a query group, or your Lambdas are wired to a query group, or the query group is serving your web. Transactions that hit that group still get forwarded to the transacting group, which does the transacting. If you are familiar with the On-Prem architecture, we have replaced the transactor with a cluster. It is better from a high availability standpoint. It is easier to configure. There is no heartbeating or failover. It is sort of like a live dynamic system for taking over mastership.

So this is the app, with just the main Ions and queries moved off of the primary group. We do this for scaling now, not for staging.

[Time 1:15:14]

1:15:14 Query groups Prod 3

So one of the things that is kind of subtle about this is that all of the apps talk to one transacting group. It handles all of the transactions. That means that when you have transaction functions, they are not actually in your app. I mean, you deployed code over here to be your app, but the transaction functions are not in your web app, because they are not run on those boxes. They are not deployed there. They run over here. You have to start treating your transaction functions as a shared library to support all of your apps. It actually becomes its own application. It is its own repo. You maintain it. You deploy it independently. That is the first example of another app you might have. Once you get more sophisticated with this, you are probably going to have an independent app for transaction functions.

[Time 1:16:07]

1:16:07 Query groups Prod 4

And finally, you may have another app that is for an unrelated purpose. This is what I was talking about earlier. You have an analytics app that runs on one big box. Maybe it does not run all of the time. Maybe you just run it for an hour a week, or something like that. And that is possible in all of these cases. Just set up a CI saying once a day to do that, or however often you want to do it. You can set up the dev query group to run during working hours, and not the rest of the time, unless somebody asks. And you may run analysis periodically, but not keep that group running.

So the important thing here is this sense of independence. These things have independent life cycles, right? Run it sometimes. Run it all of the time. They have independent scaling characteristics. They have independent sizes. One of the things that you can have in these query groups is, you can have SSDs, or not. So they have that same kind of local durable caching. They have independence in terms of compute intention. The analytics app is not contending for the same compute resources as the web app.

[Time 1:17:21] [tbd Audio cut out for a short sentence here.]

Life cycles. Compute. Resources. Oh yeah, and then working sets. So you have these long running applications, but maybe the web app uses the catalog all of the time, and the analytics uses the personal data, or something like that. Or maybe you have an inventory app that deals with the shipping stuff, which the front end app never deals with. They will all start having their own working sets. They will all have in their hottest caches in memory the stuff that is relevant to what they are doing. Ditto their enduring caches, and etc. etc.

That is query groups.

[Time 1:18:16]

+ Immutability leverage
  + isolation
  + localized working sets
    + code running in db context
  + SSD caching per group

And I think this is an example of the leverage that we get from immutability. Being able to replicate all of the way to the edges here, to get this independent localization, get caching wherever we want it, including this new SSD caching, which really lets you have a huge local cache. Much bigger than you could do with like a local memcache.

[Time 1:18:39]

slide title: Summary

Maximizing power and focus

+ Power
  + Clojure is 'hosted'
  + Datomic Cloud is 'hosted'
    + and so are your Ions
+ Focus
+ And

So to wrap, the point with Clojure, and with Datomic, and with Datomic Cloud, and Ions, is to maximize your power and your focus. Power is the ability to get work done, the engineering definition. And it really is the meaning of it.

So I think there is a way to think about this, and it is written out here. Clojure is hosted. Clojure ran on the JVM. And people would be like: oh, Java, blah, blah, blah. But how many people think it is a source of power that Clojure is on the JVM? Or that ClojureScript is on the JavaScript ecosystem? Yeah. That means that when you need to do something, you can do it, because the libraries exist. Obviously you can make different libraries, but when you need to accomplish something, when you need to do work, you have the power to do it.

And I think a way to think about Ions is: Datomic being hosted, and therefore your Ions being hosted. What is the leverage of having your application be hosted on AWS? Be intimate with AWS. Be connected to all of the services. Be subject to securing the way AWS things are. Being managed the same way, with roles. Being monitored the same way with CloudWatch, and the Dashboard. Things like that. This is another source of power. It is on a different plane, right? It is a different dimension than sort of like in the app.

[Time 1:20:18]

But it is the same idea. And I think it matters as much, or more, when you get to the cloud. This is a new execution environment. And just like you need libraries to accomplish things, in process, you need services to accomplish things in the cloud. You cannot be running data center software up there and expect to get leverage. That is why AWS has all of these services. This is how you assemble this power. So this means your code is hosted in the cloud, as well as being hosted on the JVM.

[Time 1:20:54]

+ Focus
  + domain, not infrastructure
  + Write and test fns of data->data

I do think this really finally helps deliver even on the cloud, which is a very complex place, with a lot of details. It helps you focus on your domain. You really can write Clojure functions that deal with Clojure data on the way in, and Clojure data on the way out, and not have to think about the rest of this. And I think this makes this kind of categorically different from the many many things -- there are many services that are kind of just like: this makes it easy to do deploys. And it is not really about that. It does not let you focus like this.

And we do what we already know how to do: write functions of data to data, and we test them, and we reason about them, and we use our REPLs and things like that.

[Time 1:21:43]

+ And
  + it's easy too!

But it is also easy. We did really work hard to make this easy. So this is simple and easy.

That is it. Thanks.

[Time 1:21:54]

[audience applause]

Other questions?

[audience member question not audible]

The question is: are there plans to develop similar integration with other cloud platforms? And the answer is: not at present. I do think that there is a pretty big difference between the sophistication level of AWS and the others, at the moment, but it is a competitive environment. We certainly are hearing requests, so we are receptive to the input there, but we do not have plans at the moment.

[audience member question not audible]

If something goes wrong inside an Ion, how can I debug it? So the first thing is, you really do want to test your Ions a lot, before you deploy them. This is not an environment where you want to: let me type it in, and then deploy it, and then let us see. So hopefully, being functions of data to data, you can do a lot. Like, for instance, use spec and things like that to make sure that it is correct.

Now of course your Ion may do interesting things like call another web service, or make an AWS call, or things like that. At that point, you are going to want the kinds of things that we needed to make Datomic. In particular, you want to be able to have logging, metrics, and alerts.

[Time 1:23:43]

And one of the things that is included in the Ions API is an API for that. That is called [Ion] Cast. Essentially it is a semantic logging thing. It is not like: do this text [trails off]. But it has semantics that distinguish those characteristics. That you say I have an ordinary communication I want to make. I have a metric that I want to do. And this routes all the way through to Cloudwatch metrics. This has become Cloudwatch logs. Alerts will beep somebody. They become alerts.

And then finally there is dev spew, which is a thing. And when you are running locally, that will appear in your local log, or in your face. And when you are running for reals, it will disappear at the moment.

So those things are all distinguished, and so you have that. So you can catch exceptions, and you can both log and generate alerts and things like that. And you can also do ordinary messages. It does not just do alerts [tbd?]. We sort of have informational messages, which you can do -- ordinary life cycle things just to see your happy path. And then you have metrics. And then the whole ecosystem around metrics in AWS is pretty rich.

You get a very nice dashboard with cloud, and you are ready to go on that. But for your own code you have those same facilities.


[audience member question not audible]

So the question is: is it your whole application, or just your database layer? Right now the only host for Ions would be a Datomic thing. So the rest of your app does not talk to a database ever? And what does it do, the other parts of your app?

[audience member question not audible]

[Time 1:25:56]

Well, it is hosted on the same machines. It could never call Datomic, I guess. So it is not like it is in Datomic, as opposed to running on the same instances. You could just write something that just returns web pages, and never calls Datomic in this. Fine. The Datomic part would sort of just be gravy that you are not eating at the moment.

But actually, a question for the room. How many people would be interested in Clojure Ions that were independent of Datomic? Because I understand sometimes you use different databases. So that is an idea that we have had. That is all I will say about it right at the moment, which would more directly address that. In other words, all of this infrastructure, the same kind of thing on Marketplace. You push a button, you get the whole architecture for using CodeDeploy and driving it with tools.deps and all of that. Obviously that makes sense in other contexts. It is not something we have productized yet.


[audience member question not audible]

Updates to Datomic Cloud. The question is how are they managed? They are managed via CloudFormation. So depending on what we have changed, you will do CloudFormation, and rolling of CloudFormation. That does mean instance rolling, when we change the code of Datomic Cloud.

It is the case, however, that the entire infrastructure around Ions loads via Maven through the Ion deploy path. So that is CodeDeploy. When we change the Ions stuff, we do not roll instances. If we change database stuff, we do.

[Time 1:27:58]

There are a bunch of setting you can make in CloudFormation when you first start a Datomic process. Some of those you could change later, and they only change as much of the stack as is necessary to reflect the change you made. The change sort of rolls, or something like that.

[audience member question not audible]

Another question is: do we have plans to implement something like the entity API? So the entity API is lazy, and it is a misfit for remoting. That is why the client API is different. The client API has pull. It is quite powerful. It is not the same. But I like it quite a bit. But we do have legacy customers who would like things to be similar.

The trick there is: that is always going to be an anti-pattern over a wire, to use something like the entity API. I am reluctant to put it in the client API. The fact of it is, though, when you write for Datomic. So I talked about, you are working locally using the client. You are remotely talking to a database to have your queries done, but your Ion code is still on your laptop. When you are in that mode, you are using the client. The way you configure the client, so you do not have a code change when you [tbd] to production, is you say that the client is in Ion mode. And Ion mode knows I am on my laptop, or I am in EC2. When that same code runs in EC2, it runs a completely different set of code that is intimate with the database, because it is co-residing. It is a lot more like the old peer code.

[Time 1:29:48]

I have heard the requests around this. I have not made a decision yet about doing that, because I am very reluctant that people start using it over the wire and getting themselves into trouble. I do not believe in pretending that remote things are local. The entity API existed because I knew that it was local. Now, you could be either. But that is the challenge there.

But obviously if you said, well I know in dev it is going to be a poor performer, and into production it will be good, that is one thing. I am concerned about people putting that into -- using clients, which are still available. You may not do everything in Ions, although there are not a lot of cases where you would not. But if you did start having clients that used the entity API over wires, that is bad.

[audience member question not audible]

We are leveraging tbd. Well we are hosted. We are hosted.

[audience member question not audible]

No. I doubt that it would be anything we would ever do. I mean, I think if we were to do this in Azure or Google, we would probably do it for reals. Because that is where the leverage comes. Like I did not put anything in front of Java, right? The same idea. It is actually the same idea. I only have one idea, right?

[audience laughter]

Just keep doing the same thing, call it different things, give different talks. But it is because the principles, hopefully they are not changing. That is the idea there. I do not want anything in between. If you are going to be hosted, you want that to be direct, I believe. I have worked with too many portable things that I just do not believe in it.

[Time 1:32:05]

[audience member question not audible]

The question is: is it possible with one application to have multiple query groups? You can have the same application be deployed to more than one query group. Yes, you can. The question is: why? I mean, I showed that happening on a couple of these diagrams. In fact, all of these show this green application deployed to more than one group. The reason there was staging, different stages. But my question to you would be: do you have another reason besides that kind of prod versus staging versus CI, that you had in mind?

[audience member question not audible]

Sharding. Yeah. So yeah, you could. And you could do it so that -- the idea is would you do this for sharding. If you had a way to shard like your user space, or something else, that you knew you would get locality out of, that would be a big win. That goes to that benefit of isolation, because those independent groups would have their own working sets. And especially the in memory cache would be highly optimized for the working set. If you could effectively shard, that would be big.

[audience member question not audible]

Well, that was the first part of that sentence I said, which was: if you had a way to partition your work. That has always been true of Datomic, right? With peers it was the same thing. And my sentence also began with: if you had a way to partition your work, that made sense. You would then get locality differences.

[Time 1:33:54]

There is nothing here that is really doing that. I called that sort of a "shard above". And there are systems that shard below, where it is the system's responsibility to shard. That is always mechanical, and the system does not understand what you are doing, mostly.

Sharding above becomes an application problem. On the other hand you have a lot of flexibility. So if there is something you can key on there. You can just say evens go here, and odds go there, and that still works. That is not consistent hashing or anything. So yeah.

[audience member question not audible]

For transactions, that is right.

[audience member question not audible]

So it could, and I did not put those diagrams on here. So this keeps going. So the question is: if I had something about testing that was going to crush, from a transaction standpoint, the transacting group, could I get that off of it? Could I split that? And it ends up that you can. I mean, you can go through another system, and there you will now have an independent primary group.

So that is where these diagrams end up. If you look at this on the web, on the documentation, you will see the last diagrams actually have two independent production groups, and production is completely isolated from dev, CI, staging. All of that is somewhere else. And that is sort of like the full grown up thing splits that off.

[Time 1:35:55]

But the beautiful thing is that your applications are accessible account-wide, not just in a system. So that independent system can still be the target of the same applications, at different revisions. And that is how you would accomplish that, get the full isolation of prod.

Other questions?

[audience member question not audible]

No, we are not. It is not really useful to us, because we do not really query it. We pretty much just dump stuff into it, and then later we index that. But we are not going back against it the way that the accelerator would be useful to us.

[audience member question not audible]

I cannot hear you. I am sorry. Could you speak up?

[audience member question not audible]

I do not catch the data structure part. I caught: can you configure it so that your application would have an IAM role for accessing S3?

[audience member question not audible]

Yeah. So obviously Datomic ships with a role for these cluster nodes, and they have all of the permissions they need to do all of the stuff I have talked about. But now your Ions may want to do a new thing. Maybe there is another bucket you want to talk to, or you want to talk to another service that Datomic does not use, but you want to use. Or whatever.

There is a permissions policy that you can extend, and you can put additional permissions in that policy, and that will be included in the role that the nodes run under. And therefore you can allow your Ions to do more things. It is very cleanly separated, and we tell you where you go to add your own policies. So yes, that is how you do that.

[Time 1:38:04]

Did that answer the question? OK, good.

[audience member question not audible]

So the question is: when you deploy, deploy is asynchronous. So you deploy and it returns. And things happen. A couple of things happen. The CodeDeploy has to succeed. And the other part -- and the question was: what is the other part? The other part is the Lambda creation. That is the two things.

So what actually happens when you deploy, there is not just a CodeDeploy. What we do is we actually create a Step Function, and that has the state machine that does a CodeDeploy, and then deploys each Lambda. That entire thing then becomes atomic. But when we are giving you the status, we are giving you independent status of those two phases.

Yeah, all of the way in the back.

[audience member question not audible]

Which app owns your Datomic schema? No, so there can be many databases. This does not actually show an application with an independent database, but you certainly could have completely independent applications and databases, and each application manages its own schema and database. One of the reasons why you see at the bottom here: CI, staging, and prod, because they are all running the same code, but they are running it at different revisions, which means they could be installing different schemas. So they are separate databases.

[Time 1:39:51]

We do allow interaction with AWS Parameter Store [AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store]. And so we have the ability to go and configure things like database identity based upon a multi-dimensional set of properties of your groups and your code. We take those, and we form a path. The way Parameter Store works is, it is like a hierarchical path. And that lets you figure out: what database should I be using? That can be independently managed. It is quite nice. So that is how that works.

So that each of these things you see using different databases got to those databases by actually reading the same parts of their config, finding different path segments, forming [tbd] the same path to: what database should green app use? One gets the answer: the CI DB. One gets the answer: the staging DB. That is how that works.

If it is not evident, there is a ton of stuff of in here. Like a ton of things that you do not have to do. A ton! A lot.

[audience member question not audible]

All right. So an hour and 47 minutes before I got this question. I am pretty happy.

So the question sort of boils down to: what about Lambda cold start? And I think that there is a lot of FUD around Lambda cold start, and the people who have experienced it. And the people who experience Lambda cold start the most often are developers who are sitting around, and they have a brand new thing. And they are like: I want to try this. [mimes someone falling asleep waiting]

[Time 1:42:00]

But in practice, you can divide up the real cases. So the case is, have something that is running all of the time, that is being used all of the time. That thing is warm.

Then there is: I have something that responds to events. That thing probably does not care.

Then there is: I have a human facing thing, a proxy API Gateway. It is warm, but I have requests come in that causes me to need to scale. In other words, all of my Lambdas are busy, and it is going to cold start another one for me. That request is the unlucky request. Is that partially what you are talking about here? That scenario?

In that scenario, I think it is important to look at the fact that you have two things. It is, I think, not a great part of Lambda that there is one timeout. Timeout governs both: how much time does the code have to cold start? And, how much time can the consuming code wait to get an answer? That is not great, because those are semantically two different things.

However, once you put API Gateway over a Lambda, you now have two timeouts. API Gateway has its own timeout for responsiveness. Now that is the timeout of the consumer. Lambda's timeout always has to be set high enough to cover your cold start times, unfortunately.

So now what happens when you get the bad request that causes the scaling? Well it causes a scaling event here, but you should have your API Gateway set short. And it should respond, therefore, with "I timed out". Datomic pushes back all the way through your Ions, through the Ultimate Lambda, through API Gateway. If you are going to write a distributed app with elastic resources, you have to deal with backpressure. You have to have something that says: I will retry with exponential backoff when I am given a timeout.

[Time 1:44:17]

And then what happens? Well that unlucky person, they had an extra five, fifteen millisecond delay. Whatever it was. They did not wait N seconds for the cold start. They exponentially backed off and retried. They are going to get their response in tens of milliseconds in the end, because they hit a different instance. They cannot keep getting unlucky like that. So that is the strategy there.

That being said, AWS hears this about Lambda all of the time. I am sure it is a high priority agenda item for them. We are going to do everything we can to optimize Ultimate over time as we get more experience with it. Again, it does not do any computation, but it still starts. It has to start like everybody else.

And then I think that this direct route from API Gateway through the network load balancer, directly to your Ions, is going to trounce everything and make all of this go away. And that is why it is likely going to be the next thing we work on. Because that is gangbusters. And it does require the production topology, because that is where you have the network load balancer.

So that is that.

All right. So I think we should probably call it? Yeah. Great. Thank you very much.

[audience applause]

[Time 1:45:35]

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