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Overall design

We should deploy all of our applications to Kubernetes via Helm charts. However, we do not want to install Tiller on our cluster, both for security and complexity reasons. As a result, we run helm template APPLICATION | kubectl apply -f -, which allow us to use a simple kubectl apply based deployment process, while retaining the expressiveness of helm templates.

Deployment process

From the root of directory of our personal-k8s, we issue a derivation of the following command to deploy:

helm template applications/APPLICATION -f applications/_helm-environments/(development.yaml|production.yaml) [-f applications/APPLICATION/secret-values.yaml] | kubectl apply -f -

All deployments should specify a file in applications/_helm-environments, but a deployment does not to specify -f applications/APPLICATION/secret-values.yaml if the application does not contain any secret values.

Writing helm charts

We conform to the following guidelines when using helm to deploy an application.

  • All charts should include a values.yaml. Charts may optionally include a secret-values.yaml.
    • If you include a secret-values.yaml, conform to the following:
      • Ensure secret-values.yaml is in .helmignore. It is already included in applications/.gitignore.
      • Create a secret-values.yaml.sample with an environment variable placeholder for the actual value.
        • Use envsubst to generate the actual secret-values.yaml.
        • In the secret.yaml template file, be sure to use `{{ .Values.secret | nospace | b64enc | quote }}"
          • If we are creating a secret from an entire file, we may first base64 encode it before placing it in secret-values.yaml. Ensure it does not have any newlines in the base64 encoding.
  • Remove all unnecessary files from templates. For now, this includes NOTES.txt.
  • Our Chart.yaml should not specify an appVersion.
  • Our Chart.yaml should specify a version. It should start as 0.0.1, and increment according to semver whenever we make changes.
  • All Kubernetes entities should specify the following labels at minimum:
    • {{ include "" . }}
    • {{ .Values.environment }}
    • {{ include "APPLICATION.chart" . }}
  • All Kubernetes entities should specify name: {{ include "" . }}" and namespace: {{ .Values.namespace }}
  • If a file or directory is prefixed with _, we are not actually deploying it. Its just a helpful state store.
  • In general, any values which could change should be templated and stored in values.yaml.