A powerful modeling library built on the relational algebra, for node and the browser.
CoffeeScript JavaScript
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Monarch is a relational modeling framework for client-centric web applications. It's superficially similar to Backbone.js, but it uses the relational algebra as a declarative, compositional language for querying data and subscribing to events. Monarch is written in CoffeeScript, but can also be used from JavaScript.

Defining Model Classes

Monarch associates model constructors with tables in an in-memory relational database. On the surface, the API resembles ActiveRecord.

To define a record class in CoffeeScript, create a subclass of Monarch.Record.

class Blog extends Monarch.Record

    userId: 'integer'
    title: 'string'
    createdAt: 'datetime'

  @belongsTo 'user'
  @hasMany 'posts'
  @hasMany 'postComments', through: 'posts', className: 'Comment'

Until CoffeeScript offers an automatic @extended hook, you'll need to call @extended manually at the top of the class body. Next, call @columns with a hash of field-name/type pairs, and optionally call @hasMany and @belongsTo association methods. More on those later...

In JavaScript

function() Blog {}

Monarch(Blog, {
  userId: 'integer',
  title: 'string',
  createdAt: 'datetime'
  .hasMany('postComments', { through: 'posts', className: 'Comment' });

To define a record class in JavaScript, first create a constructor, then pass it to the top-level Monarch function along with a hash of column definitions. It will automatically be setup as a subclass of Monarch.Record. The Monarch function returns your constructor, so other class methods can be called in a method-chaining style. Unless otherwise noted, examples will be shown in CoffeeScript from here on out.

Loading Data

Bulk Loading

Once you've defined some record classes, you load data into their associated tables in the repository by calling Monarch.Repository.update with a hash of records.

    1: { userId: 1, title: "Blog I Never Update", createdAt: 1332433460811 }
    2: { userId: 2, title: "Blog That No One Reads", createdAt: 1332433434561 }
    1: { blogId: 1, title: "First Post", body: "More to come!" }
    2: { blogId: 2, title: "I'm Lonely'", body: "Please read my LiveJournal." }
    3: { blogId: 2, title: "Comments", body: "No one commented on my last post." }

As you can see above, the hash can contain records for multiple tables, structured in a (table name, record id, field values) format. If a record for a given (table name, record id) pair already exists, it will be updated with the provide field values. Otherwise a new record will be created with those field values.

Updating With Operations

You can also call Monarch.Repository.update with an array of create, update, and destroy operations. This is useful, for example, when you are handling real-time events delivered via a web socket. Operations are performed in the order in which they appear in the array.

  ['create', 'BlogPost', { id: 3, blog_id: 2, title: "I Love Star Wars!" }],
  ['update', 'BlogPost', 2, { title: "I Can't Decide on a Title'" }],
  ['destroy', 'BlogPost', 2]
  • Create operation arrays start with create, then have a record class name and a hash of field values.

  • Update operation arrays start with update, then have a record class name, a record id, and a hash of field values.

  • Destroy operation arrays start with destroy, then have a record class name and a record id.

jQuery Ajax Data Types

Monarch adds 4 custom jQuery ajax data types that help you load data from your API endpoints. If you use jQuery.ajax to perform a GET request and specify a data type of records, you can return a JSON hash of (table name, id, field values) and Monarch will automatically update the repository with the response's data.

jQuery.ajax(url: '/blog-posts', dataType: 'records')

The following data types are supported:

  • records: Assumes the response is a JSON hash of (table name, record id, field values) and automatically updates the repository with it.

  • data+records: Assumes the response is a JSON hash with a data key and a records key. It updates the repository with the records and passes the data as JSON to your success callback.

  • records!: Just like records, but clears existing data from the repository before updating it.

  • data+records!: Just like data+records, but clears existing data from the repository before updating it.

Working With Queries

Once you've loaded some data into the repository, you can query it with standard relational operators. For example, a query to find all posts of public blogs with more than five comments would be written as follows:

Blog.where(public: true).join(Post.where('commentCount >': 5))

Every Monarch query is defined in terms of objects called relations. You can think of a relation as a composable, object-oriented representation of a SQL query. You can also think of a relation as a set of records. More precisely, it's a declarative recipe for constructing a set of records based on the current contents of the local repository.

Accessing Records in a Relation

To retrieve a relation's records, call its all method. You can also iterate over every record in the relation using each and map. For example:

# iterate over posts in blog 42
Post.where(blogId: 42).each (post) ->

To retrieve a single record in a relation, use the find method.

# Simple case: Call find on a record class with an id
post = Post.find(22)

# Call on a relation
post = Post.where(blogId: 42).find(22)

# Call find with a a predicate
post = Post.find(title: "The Relational Model")

Subscribing to a Relation

One of Monarch's most powerful features is the ability to subscribe to changes on any relation using the onInsert, onUpdate and onRemove methods. Using these methods, you can describe a set of objects declaratively and then be informed whenever some operation on the repository changes the contents of that set.

blogComments = Post.where(blogId: 5).joinThrough(Comment)

blogComments.onInsert (comment) ->
  console.log "There's a new comment on your blog by #{comment.user().fullName()}"
  console.log comment.body()

blogComments.onUpdate (comment, changeset) ->
  if changeset.body
    console.log "A comment by #{comment.user().fullName()} was updated:"
    console.log "Old body: #{changset.body.oldValue}"
    console.log "New body: #{changset.body.newValue}"

blogComments.onRemove (comment) ->
  console.log "A comment by #{comment.user().fullName()} was removed:"
  console.log comment.body()

Insert and remove callbacks are called with the inserted / removed record. Update callbacks are passed an additional changeset hash, which includes a sub-hash for every changed field containing its oldValue and newValue.

Event callbacks are also passed indices indicating the record's location in the relation. See the order by operation for details.

Building Relations (i.e. Writing Queries)

Tables are the most primitive relations. You compose them into more complex relations by applying relational operators, which are available as methods on every relation.

Selection (Where)

As you've seen in earlier examples, you filter the contents of any relation by calling the where method with a hash of key-value pairs representing predicates.

popularAuthors = User.where(privacy: 'public', 'reputation >=': 500)

# Equivalent SQL:
# select * from users where privacy = 'public' and reputation >= 500;

You can express standard inequality operations by following the column name with the operator in the hash key, per the above example. If the hash contains multiple key-value pairs, the predicates they represent are implicitly anded together.

Inner Joins

Join one relation to another by calling the join method with the target relation and a hash representing the predicate on which to join.

# Note: Composing with the popularAuthors relation, defined above
popularAuthorsAndBlogs = popularAuthors.join(Blog, ownerId: 'Blog.id')

# Equivalent SQL:
# select *
# from users
#   inner join blogs on blogs.owner_id = users.id
# where users.privacy = 'public' and users.reputation >= 500

If one table references the other by name in its foreign-key, Monarch will infer the join predicate. For example, if the Post table has a blogId column, then you could write Blog.join(Post) without supplying postId: 'Blog.id' as a second argument.

Joins return CompositeTuples instead of individual records in their results, which combine two or more records into a single object. You can pull individual field values or entire records out of composite tuples using the getFieldValue or getRecord methods.

popularAuthorsAndBlogs.each (tuple) ->
  name = tuple.getFieldValue('User.fullName')
  blogRecord = tuple.getRecord('Blog')
  console.log "#{blogRecord.title()} by {name} is a popular choice."

More often, you'll want to work with records from a single table of the join, by applying the project operator, which we discuss next...


When you join tables in SQL, you often include only a subset of the columns available in the join by modifying your select clause. For example, if you were selecting all a users blog posts, you would write:

select posts.* from blogs, posts where posts.blog_id = blogs.id...

In relational algebra, the select posts.* portion of this query is an operation called projection. In Monarch, you perform projection by calling the project method on any relation. Whereas raw joins return composite tuples as their result type, projected joins return return individual records, making them easier to work with in many cases.

# Note: Composing with the popularAuthorsAndBlogs relation, defined above
popularPosts = popularAuthorsAndBlogs.join(Post).project(Post)

# Equivalent SQL:
# select posts.*
# from users
#   inner join blogs on blogs.owner_id = users.id
#   inner join posts on posts.blog_id = blogs.id
# where users.privacy = 'public' and users.reputation >= 500

console.log "Read this: " + popularPosts.first().body()


Because join operations are so often composed with project operations, Monarch offers the joinThrough method as a convenient shorthand. Using this method, the query from the projection example above could be shortened to:

popularPosts = popularAuthorsAndBlogs.joinThrough(Post)

If the join predicate can't be inferred, you can still pass it as a second argument:

popularBlogs = popularAuthors.joinThrough(Blog, ownerId: 'User.id')

Order By

You can order a relation by one or more columns with the orderBy operator.

# Note: Composing with the popularAuthors relation, defined above
rankedAuthors = popularAuthors.orderBy('popularity desc', 'fullName')

Now iterations over your relation with each, map, etcetera respect your specified ordering. In addition, events that are triggered on your relation include indices telling you where the event's record presides in your ordering.

rankedAuthors.onInsert (user, index) ->
  console.log "#{user.fullName()} entered the ranking at position #{index}"

rankedAuthors.onUpdate (user, changeset, newIndex, oldIndex) ->
  console.log "#{user.fullName()} moved to ranking #{newIndex} from #{oldIndex}"

By default, all relations are ordered ascending by the id column. You can change the default ordering of an entire table by calling the defaultOrderBy class method on a record class.

# order users by popularity in every relation
User.defaultOrderBy 'popularity desc'

Monarch uses a probalistic, ordered data-structure called an indexed skip-list under the covers to keep efficient track of record indices.

Limit and Offset

If you want to limit the size of a relation, use the limit method:

top5Authors = rankedAuthors.limit(5)

If you want to change the relation's starting point, use the offset method:

runnersUp = rankedAuthors.offset(5).limit(10)

You can also call limit with an optional second offset argument:

runnersUp = rankedAuthors.limit(10, 5) # limit 10, offset 5


Use union to combine the contents of two relations.

authorsOfInterest = top5Authors.union(followedAuthors)


Use difference to subtract one relation from another.

suggestToFollow = rankedAuthors.difference(followedAuthors)

Working with Records

Reading / Writing Field Values

Field accessor methods are available on your records for every column defined on their class.

blog = Blog.find(11)
console.log "#{blog.title()} by #{blog.user().fullName()}

# just like in jQuery, call field accessors with an argument to assign values
blog.title("New Title")
blog.save() # more on saving later

Observing Record Updates

In addition to observing collections of objects via relations, you can also observe individual records with onUpdate.

blog.onUpdate (changeset) ->
  if changeset.title
    oldTitle = changeset.title.oldValue
    newTitle = changeset.title.newValue
    console.log "The blog title changed from #{oldValue} to #{newValue}"

onUpdate returns a subscription object. Call destroy on it when you are no longer interested in updates.

subscription = blog.onUpdate -> ...

# I don't care about updates any more

Synthetic Columns


CRUD Operations