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maxtaco committed Dec 12, 2011
1 parent 21458a4 commit 6e7b0b85e6f0a16f4a40eb74959f551e0679e91d
Showing with 66 additions and 15 deletions.
  1. +66 −15
@@ -12,8 +12,7 @@ with some new Coffee-style flavoring.
This document first presents a tame tutorial (adapted from the JavaScript
version), and then discusses the specifics of the CoffeeScript implementation.
+# Quick Tutorial and Examples
Here is a simple example that prints "hello" 10 times, with 100ms
delay slots in between:
@@ -94,8 +93,7 @@ do_all = (lst) ->
do_one defer(), h
-Slightly More Advanced Example
+### Slightly More Advanced Example
We've shown parallel and serial work flows, what about something in between?
For instance, we might want to make progress in parallel on our DNS lookups,
@@ -140,8 +138,7 @@ Note that with windowing, the arrival order might not be the same as
the issue order. In this example, a slower DNS lookup might arrive
after faster ones, even if issued before them.
-Composing Serial And Parallel Patterns
+### Composing Serial And Parallel Patterns
In Tame, arbitrary composition of serial and parallel control flows is
possible with just normal functional decomposition. Therefore, we
@@ -162,8 +159,7 @@ f = (n,cb) ->
+### autocb
Most of the time, a tamed function will call its callback and return
at the same time. To get this behavior "for free", you can simply
@@ -210,8 +206,7 @@ rand_wait = (autocb) ->
Implicitly, `return 0;` is mapped by the CoffeeScript compiler to `autocb(0); return`.
-New Keywords
+## Language Design Considerations
In sum, the tame additions to CoffeeScript consist of three new keywords:
@@ -222,12 +217,68 @@ to accommodate argument passing.
default, the runtime is pasted inline, but with `tameRequire(node)`, it is loaded
via node's `require`, and with `tameRequire(none)`, it is skipped altogether.
-Finally, `autocb` isn't a bona-fide keyword, but the compiler searches for it in parameters
-to CoffeeScript functions, and updates the behavior of the `Code` block accordingly.
+Finally, `autocb` isn't a bona-fide keyword, but the compiler searches
+for it in parameters to CoffeeScript functions, and updates the
+behavior of the `Code` block accordingly.
-Translation Technique
+These keywords represent the potential for these tame additions to
+break existing CoffeeScript code --- any preexisting use of these
+keywords as regular function, variable or class names will cause
+### The Lowdown on defer
+The implementation of `defer` is interesting --- it's trying to
+emulate ``call by reference'' in languages like C++ or Java. Here is an
+example that shows off the four different cases required to make this
+cb = defer x, obj.field, arr[i], rest..
+And here is the output from the tamed `coffee` compiler:
+cb = __tame_deferrals.defer({
+ assign_fn: (function(__slot_1, __slot_2, __slot_3) {
+ return function() {
+ x = arguments[0];
+ __slot_1.field = arguments[1];
+ __slot_2[__slot_3] = arguments[2];
+ return rest =, 3);
+ };
+ })(obj, arr, i)
+ });
+The `__tame_deferrals` object is an internal object of type `Deferrals`
+that's collecting all calls to `defer` in the current `await` block.
+The one in question should fulfill with 3 or more values. When it does,
+it will call into the innermost anonymous function to perform the
+appropriate assignments in the original scope. The four cases are:
+1. *Simple assignment* --- seen in `x = arguments[0]`. Here, the
+`x` variable is in the scope of the original `defer` call.
+1. *Object slot assignment* --- seen in `__slot_1.field = arguments[1]`.
+Here, the reference `obj` must be captured at the time of the `defer` call,
+and `obj.field` is filled in later.
+1. *Array cell assignment* --- seen in `__slot_2[__slot_3] = arguments[2]`.
+This of course will work on an array or an object. Here, the reference
+to the array, and the value of the index must be captured when `defer`
+is called, and the cell is assigned later.
+1. *Splat assignment* --- seen in `res =,3)`.
+This is much like a simple assignment, but allows a ``splat'' meaning
+assignment of multiple values at once, accessed as an array.
+These specifics are also detailed in the code in the `Defer` class,
+file ``.
+## Translation Technique
The CoffeeScript tame addition uses a similar continuation-passing translation
to *tamejs*, but it's been refined to generate cleaner code, and to translate

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