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<title>Elvis-2.2_1 User Interfaces</title>
A single Elvis binary can be compiled to support multiple user interfaces.
For example, under UNIX Elvis can be compiled to have a graphical user
interface when run under X-windows, a termcap interface for use on most
text terminals, an "open" interface for use on any terminal, and a "quit"
interface for running scripts. Here's a comprehensive list of the user
interfaces which <em>may</em> be available in your copy of Elvis:
<li><a href="#x11">x11</a> - a graphical interface under Unix and OS/2.
<li><a href="#windows">windows</a> - a graphical interface under Win32.
<li><a href="#termcap">termcap</a> - a full-screen text-based interface.
<li><a href="#vio">vio</a> - OS/2-specific version of the termcap interface.
<li><a href="#open">open</a> - a simpler text-based interface.
<li><a href="#quit">quit</a> - a pseudo-interface for non-interactive editing.
<li><a href="#script">script</a> - a pseudo-interface for running scripts.
<p>The exact list of available user interfaces will vary from one system to
You can make Elvis output a list of available interfaces by running
"<code>elvis -G?</code>".
This will also show you which interface Elvis will use by default.
<p>Elvis chooses the default user interface at run time by testing each
user interface in turn, starting with the most desirable, and working its
way down the list until it finds one that appears to be supported in the
current environment.
For example, if you're using Elvis on a text terminal under UNIX, then
Elvis will bypass the "x11" interface because X-windows doesn't work on
text terminals, and then Elvis will find that the "termcap" interface
would work, so that'll be the default.
<p>If you don't want to use the default user interface,
you can specify which interface to use via the
<strong>-G</strong> <var>gui</var> command-line flag.
<h2>8.1 X11 Interface</h2><a name="x11"></a>
The x11 interface is used under X-Windows on UNIX or OS/2 systems.
(See the <a href="elvisos.html#os2x11">OS/2</a> section of the OS chapter
for a description of what you need to run X11 under OS/2.)
Subsections here are
<a href="#x11.flags">command line flags</a>, the
<a href="#x11.mouse">mouse</a>, the
<a href="#x11.toolbar">toolbar</a>,
<a href="#x11.resources">resources</a>,
<a href="#x11.keys">keys</a>,
<a href="#x11.icons">icons</a>, and
<a href="#x11.bgimage">background images</a>.
<p>The x11 interface provides a scrollbar and mouse support, and allows you to
select which fonts to use.
There is also a configurable toolbar.
Buttons on that toolbar can even be configured to use pop-up dialog windows.
<p>The x11 interface reads app-defaults (as listed below) but those are
only used to provided default values for options and colors. You can
override them with <a href="elvisex.html#set">:set</a> and
<a href="elvisex.html#color">:color</a> commands.
The x11-specific options are described in the
<a href="elvisopt.html#GUI">options</a> chapter.
<h3><a name="x11.flags"></a>8.1.1 X11 Command-line Flags</h3>
To specify a normal font, use <strong>-font</strong> <var>fontname</var> or
<strong>-fn</strong> <var>fontname.</var>
Proportional fonts are not supported.
If you don't specify a normal font, then Elvis will use a font named "fixed"
by default.
<p>To specify a bold font, use <strong>-fb</strong> <var>fontname.</var>
The specified font should have the same character cell size as the normal
font, but Elvis does not verify this.
If you don't specify a bold font, then Elvis will fake it by smearing the
normal font rightward one pixel.
<p>To specify an italic font, use <strong>-fi</strong> <var>fontname.</var>
The specified font should have the same size character cell as the normal
font, but Elvis does not verify this.
If you don't specify an italic font, then Elvis will fake it by sliding the
top half of the normal font rightward one pixel.
<p>The <strong>-fc</strong> <var>fontname</var> flag can be used to specify
the font to be used for controls -- currently just the toolbar and statusbar, but eventually
Elvis will offer a menubar too.
If you don't specify a control font, then Elvis will use a font named
"variable" by default.
<p>If you want to use Courier fonts, there is a shortcut:
<strong>-courier</strong> <var>size</var> will use the normal, bold,
and italic versions of the courier font in the requested size.
<p>You can also specify the foreground and background colors with
<strong>-fg</strong> <var>color</var> and <strong>-bg</strong> <var>color,</var>
All standard X color names are supported.
<p>Elvis has a built-in icon, which is generally a good thing.
Some window managers won't allow you to assign a new icon to a program that
has a built-in one, so Elvis has a <strong>-noicon</strong> flag which
disables the built-in icon.
<p>Elvis also supports the <strong>-geometry</strong> <var>WxH+X+Y</var> flag
for specifying the size and/or position of the first window.
The size is specified in characters, and the default size is 80x34.
There is no default position.
<p>The <strong>-fork</strong> option causes Elvis to fork a new process,
so you get a new shell prompt immediately.
<p>The <strong>-client</strong> option causes Elvis to look for an
already-running Elvis process on the same X server, and if there is one,
send the new arguments to it.
This causes the old Elvis process to create new windows for file arguments.
The new Elvis process then exits, leaving the old one to do the real work.
If there is no Elvis process already running, then <strong>-client</strong>
will act like <strong>-fork</strong> so that either way, you get a new
shell prompt immediately.
<p>You can change Elvis' defaults by editing the
<a href="elvisses.html#elvis.ini">elvis.ini</a> or <code>~/.exrc</code> files.
You can use the <a href="elvisex.html#color">:color</a> command to assign
colors to various fonts, and the cursor and scrollbar/toolbar.
Most other aspects are controlled via <a href="elvisopt.html#GUI">options.</a>
<h3><a name="x11.mouse"></a>8.1.2 X11 Mouse</h3>
I've tried to reach a balance between the mouse behavior of
<strong>xterm(1)</strong> and what makes sense for an editor.
To do this right, Elvis has to distinguish between clicking and dragging.
<p>Dragging the mouse always selects text.
Dragging with button 1 pressed (usually the left button) selects characters,
dragging with button 2 (the middle button) selects a rectangular area, and
dragging with button 3 (usually the right button) selects whole lines.
These operations correspond to Elvis'
<a href="elvisvi.html#v">v</a>,
<a href="elvisvi.html#^V">^V</a>, and
<a href="elvisvi.html#V">V</a> commands, respectively.
When you release the button at the end of the drag, the selected text is
immediately copied into an X11 cut buffer, so you can paste it into another
application such as xterm.
The text remains selected, so you can apply an operator command to it.
<p>Clicking button 1 cancels any pending selection, and moves the cursor to
the clicked-on character.
Clicking button 3 moves the cursor without canceling the pending selection;
you can use this to extend a pending selection.
<p>Clicking button 2 "pastes" text from the X11 cut butter.
If you're entering an ex command line, the text will be pasted into the
command line as though you had typed it.
If you're in visual command mode or input mode, the text will be pasted into
your edit buffer.
When pasting, it doesn't matter where you click in the window; Elvis always
inserts the text at the position of the text cursor.
<p>Double-clicking button 1 simulates a <a href="elvisvi.html#^cbra">^]</a>
keystroke, causing Elvis to perform tag lookup on the clicked-on word.
If Elvis happens to be displaying an HTML document, then tag lookup
pursues hypertext links so you can double-click on any underlined text
to view the topic that describes that text.
Double-clicking button 3 simulates a <a href="elvisvi.html#^T">^T</a> keystroke,
taking you back to where you did the last tag lookup.
<p>If your mouse has a scroll wheel, Elvis will support it
-- provided it is configured to act like buttons 4 and 5.
(See the "How to" section of this manual instructions to
<a href="howto.html#scrollwheel">configure XFree86 to use wheel mice</a> that way.)
<h3><a name="x11.toolbar"></a>8.1.3 Toolbar</h3>
The X11 interface supports a user-configurable toolbar.
The toolbar is enabled by default; you can disable it in your ~/.exrc file
by adding a "<code>set&nbsp;notoolbar</code>" command.
<p>If enabled, you will find that the default toolbar already has some
buttons defined.
You can use the <a href="elvisex.html#gui">:gui</a> command to reconfigure
the toolbar.
The following commands are supported:
<dd>This displays the <code>:gui</code> commands which were used to set up all
toolbar buttons.
<dt>:gui <var>label</var>
<dd>This displays the <code>:gui</code> commands which were used to set up the
toolbar button that has the given label.
<dt>:gui newtoolbar
<dd>This deletes all buttons from the toolbar.
<dt>:gui ~<var>label</var>
<dd>This deletes a single, specific button from the toolbar.
<dt>:gui gap
<dd>This leaves a small gap between the previous button and the following
<dt>:gui [<var>label</var>] <var>keys</var>
<dd>This creates a button named <var>label</var>.
Whenever you click the button,
elvis will act as though you typed the <var>keys</var>.
The <var>keys</var> can use <a href="elvisex.html#KEYS">symbolic names</a>
for keys, just like the <a href="elvisex.html#map">:map</a> command.
If you define a button without specifying the <var>keys</var>, then
elvis will send the button label enclosed in square brackets.
You can then use the <a href="elvisex.html#map">:map</a> command
to map that to whatever you want.
This can be handy because Elvis allows you to make context-sensitive maps.
:gui [Bold]
:map select mode=html [Bold] c&lt;b&gt;&lt;C-P&gt;&lt;\b&gt;&lt;Esc&gt;
:map select mode=man [Bold] c\fB&lt;C-P&gt;\fP&lt;Esc&gt;</pre>
<dt>:gui <var>label</var> : <var>excommand</var>
<dd>This creates a button named <var>label</var>.
Whenever you click the button, the <var>excommand</var> will be interpreted
as an ex command line.
The <var>label</var> can begin with any non-whitespace character.
The remaining characters can be letters, digits, or another instance of the
initial character.
:gui Help:help</pre>
<p><strong>NOTE:</strong> If you want to have more than one line's worth of
ex commands associated with a toolbar button, then you might consider defining
an <a href="elvistip.html#ALIAS">alias</a>.
<dt>:gui <var>label</var> = <var>condition</var>
<dd>Normally buttons are drawn as though sticking out;
this command gives you a way to make them selectively appear to be stuck in.
The <var>condition</var> is a <a href="elvisexp.html#NORMAL">C-like expression.</a>
When it is true, the button will be drawn "sticking in".
When it is false, the button will be drawn "sticking out".
The button behaves exactly the same either way.
:gui List:set neglist
:gui List=list</pre>
<dt>:gui <var>label</var> ? <var>condition</var>
<dd>This gives you a way to selectively disable the button.
The <var>condition</var> is a <a href="elvisexp.html#NORMAL">C-like expression.</a>
When it is true, the button behaves as normal;
when it is false, the button ignores any mouse clicks.
Also, buttons which are disabled this way are displayed as being "flat",
instead of the normal 3D shading that makes them appear to stick out or in.
:gui Quit:q
:gui Quit?!modified</pre>
The <var>condition</var> expressions are re-evaluated after nearly
every input event.
If you have many complex expressions, this may take a noticeable amount of
With the default toolbar, Elvis seems to slow down by about 20%.
Toolbar buttons which don't use <var>condition</var> expressions have
no such overhead.
<dt>:gui <var>label</var> " <var>description</var>
<dd>Add a one-line description to the button.
The description is shown on the statusbar when the button is pressed.
It is also displayed on pop-up dialogs, as described below.
:gui Quit"Close this window, and maybe exit Elvis</pre>
<dt>:gui <var>label</var> ; ;
<br>:gui <var>label</var> ; <var>option</var> ; <var>...</var>
<br>:gui <var>label</var> ; "<var>prompt</var>" (<var>type</var>) <var>option</var> = <var>value</var> ; <var>...</var>
<dd>This allows you to define a pop-up dialog for a given toolbar button.
When you click on the toolbar button, the dialog appears immediately.
You can then edit some values, and then hit the [Submit] button
to store the edited values into <a href="elvisopt.html">options</a> and
run the toolbar button's keys and/or ex command (if any), or hit the [Cancel] button
to do nothing.
<p>The simplest dialog is specified by giving just a pair of semicolons after
the label. This dialog will have no editable fields, but it still shows the
[Submit] and [Cancel] buttons, so it is a handy way to ask for confirmation
before doing something.
<p>But usually you'll give a semicolon-delimited list of options after the
toolbar button's label. The dialog will then allow you to edit those options.
When you hit the [Submit] button on that dialog window, Elvis will store the
values into the options before running the ex command.
<p>The default prompt for each option is its name. If you precede the option
name with a quoted string, then the string is used for the prompt instead.
<p>You can also override the option's data type. The default type for each
option is the same type used by the <a href="elvisex.html#set">:set</a>
command. You can override that by placing one of the following before the
option name:
<tr><td>(oneof <var>list</var>)</td><td>Allow any single value from the space-delimited <var>list</var></td></tr>
<tr><td>(boolean)</td><td>Same as <code>(oneof true false)</code></td></tr>
<tr><td>(number)</td><td>Allow any number</td></tr>
<tr><td>(number <var>m</var>:<var>n</var>)</td><td>Allow number between <var>m</var> and <var>n</var>, inclusive</td></tr>
<tr><td>(string)</td><td>Allow any string</td></tr>
<tr><td>(file)</td><td>Allow any string, but use the <kbd>Tab</kbd> key for file name completion</td></tr>
<tr><td>(locked)</td><td>Display it, but don't allow any editing</td></tr>
<dd>The default value for each option is the option's actual value at the time
the dialog pops up. You can override that by appending an '=' followed by
an expression for some other value. Note that the option itself isn't changed
unless/until you hit the [Submit] button.
The <a href="elvisopt.html#USER">user options "a" through "z"</a> are useful
for inputting (via the dialog) and storing temporary values.
You'll almost certainly want to override the prompt and type of those options.
Because the edited option values are stored before the toolbar button's ex
command is executed, the ex command can access the options' values via
commands such as <a href="elvisex.html#eval">:eval</a>. Also, since Elvis
always subjects file names to evaluation via the
<a href="elvisexp.html#SIMPLER">simpler expression syntax</a>,
you can don't need to use <code>:eval</code> to expand file names.
The following shows one useful example of this:
:gui Split;"File to load:" (file) f = filename
:gui Split:split (f)</pre>
If you just want to use the dialog for adjusting options, and don't need
to run an ex command afterward, then you can simply omit the ex command
definition for that toolbar button. For example, the following is sufficient
for editing the display options:
:gui Display Options; list; number; wrap; sidescroll</pre>
You can display a non-editable line of text in the dialog by using
<code>="string"</code> without giving any option name. Here's an example:
:gui Save;"Save as:"(file)f=basename(file);="In current directory!"
:gui Save:w (f)</pre>
<h3><a name="x11.resources"></a>8.1.4 Resources</h3>
Elvis uses the following X resources. The resource values can be overridden
by command-line flags, or by explicit <a href="elvisex.html#set">:set</a> or
<a href="elvisex.html#color">:color</a> commands in the initialization scripts.
<pre graphic>
|(name is lowercase of class)| TYPE | VALUE | PARTIAL EX COMMAND |
| Elvis.Toolbar | Boolean | True | set toolbar |
| Elvis.Statusbar | Boolean | True | set statusbar |
| Elvis.Font | Font | fixed | set font= |
| Elvis.Geometry | Geometry| 80x34 | set firstx= xrows= |
| Elvis.Foreground | Color | black | color normal |
| Elvis.Background | Color | gray90 | color normal |
| Elvis.MultiClickTimeout | Timeout | 3 | set dblclicktime= |
| Elvis.XEncoding | String | *-* | set xencoding= |
| Elvis.Control.Font | Font | variable | set controlfont= |
| Elvis.Cursor.Foreground | Color | red | color cursor |
| Elvis.Cursor.Selected | Color | red | color cursor |
| Elvis.Cursor.BlinkTime | Timeout | 3 | set blinktime= |
| Elvis.Tool.Foreground | Color | black | color tool |
| Elvis.Tool.Background | Color | gray75 | color tool |
| Elvis.Toolbar.Foreground | Color | gray75 | color toolbar |
| Elvis.Toolbar.Background | Color | gray60 | color toolbar |
| Elvis.Scrollbar.Width | Number | 11 | set scrollbarwidth=|
| Elvis.Scrollbar.Repeat | Timeout | 4 | set scrollbartime= |
| Elvis.Scrollbar.Enabled | Boolean | True | set scrollbar |
The "Timeout" type gives a time value, in tenths of a second.
<p>For example, if your X resources database contains the line
"elvis.font:&nbsp;10x20" then the default text font would be "10x20".
This value would therefore be used if the
<a href="elvisopt.html#normalfont">font</a> option was unset.
<p>The method for changing a resource may vary from one X server to another.
Typically, you would edit a file named ~/.Xdefaults, and then run
(xrdb is part of the standard X distribution.)
<h3><a name="x11.keys"></a>8.1.5 X11 Keys</h3>
If there is a standard way to map a Keysym value into a text string, then
Elvis will use it.
This means that when you hit the &lt;m&gt; key, you get an "m" character.
Function keys and cursor keys have no standard translation, so
Elvis converts them to a ^K character followed the Keysym binary value,
expressed as four hex digits.
The shift and control versions of the keys use ^S and ^C as the prefix
character, respectively.
<p>You can use the "^Kxxxx" character sequences as the first argument to a
<a href="elvisex.html#map">:map</a> command.
In the interest of readability and portability, Elvis also allows
you to use the symbolic name of a key in that context, instead of the
raw characters.
These are the same key names that are used by (among other things)
the xmodmap command, except that Elvis adds angle brackets.
Here are some of the more important names:
&lt;Begin&gt;, &lt;End&gt;, &lt;Home&gt;, &lt;Print&gt;, &lt;Menu&gt;,
&lt;Insert&gt;, &lt;Undo&gt;, &lt;Redo&gt;, &lt;Help&gt;, &lt;Break&gt;,
&lt;Multi_key&gt;, &lt;Kanji&gt;, and &lt;Mode_switch&gt;.
<h3><a name="x11.icons"></a>8.1.6 X11 Icons</h3>
Elvis has a 48x32 monochrome icon compiled into it. This icon is stored in
the file <code>guix11/elvis.xbm</code>. It is a standard X11 bitmap file.
<p>There are also a variety of colored icons in that directory,
in standard X11 pixmap files.
These are not compiled into Elvis, but
if Elvis is compiled with the FEATURE_IMAGE defined (i.e.,
if "<code>:calc</code> <a href="elvisexp.html#feature">feature("image")</a>"
returns <code>True</code>)
then you can use the
<a href="elvisopt.html#iconimage">iconimage</a> option to change Elvis' icon.
<p>The following color icons are available:
<pre graphic>
| elvis | 48x32, 4 colors, same as the monochrome icon |
| kde | 32x32, a resized version of elvis.xpm |
| mini | 16x14, 6 colors, for fvwm95 taskbar |
| normal | 56x46, on a shaded button for NextStep-ish WMs |
| small | 21x18, on a shaded button for NextStep-ish WMs |
| elvis1 | 32x32, Spike |
| elvis2 | 32x32, 2 1/2 Years (among others) |
| elvis3 | 32x32, My Aim Is True |
The last three use a lot of colors, and should be avoided if you're
using a Pseudocolor display (8 bits per pixel or less).
The "normal.xpm", "small.xpm", and "kde.xpm" icons use many colors,
but most of those colors are for the shaded button background,
not the icon itself.
Other shaded-button icons use the exact same colors for the shading,
so the overall impact on your color table isn't too bad.
But if you don't normally use icons on shaded buttons,
then you should probably use only the first three icons.
<p>Even without FEATURE_IMAGE, you may still be able to use the icons with
some window managers.
For example, with FVWM2 you could put the following in your ~/.fvwm2rc file...
Style "elvis" Icon /usr/include/X11/pixmaps/elvis2.xpm</pre>
<h3><a name="x11.bgimage"></a>8.1.7 X11 Background Images</h3>
Elvis supports the use of images in some backgrounds.
Specifically, you can use image backgrounds for the "normal" and "idle"
fonts, and the "toolbar", "statusbar", and "scrollbar" controls.
You can adjust all of these using the <a href="elvisex.html#color">:color</a>
<p>When parsing the background color name for any of the above fonts/controls,
Elvis looks for a word containing punctuation.
None of the regular colors have names that contain punctuation, so the
first word with punctuation is assumed to mark the start of an image file name.
If there are no such words, then the whole background color string is
treated as the name of a solid color, which is converted like any other X color name.
<p>But if an image file is named, then Elvis loads the image.
Elvis first tries loading it from the current directory.
If that fails, then it looks in the "themes" subdirectory of each
directory in the <a href="elvisopt.html#elvispath">elvispath</a>.
The image is then used as the new background.
<p>If a color was given with the image name, then that color is used to tint
the image.
For example, "<code>:color normal black on white sand.xpm</code>" will cause
Elvis to load the "sand.xpm" image, blend it with the "white" color to produce
a pale version of the sand image, and use the result as the background for
normal text.
Since most faces inherit their background color from "normal", this will also
cause most other text to use the same background image.
<p>When setting the "normal" background in this way, you might want to
change the <a href="elvisopt.html#textcursor">textcursor</a> option's value
from "xor" to "opaque", because Exclusive-ORing an image can have some weird
effects -- the cursor won't always be the color you want it to be.
<h2>8.2 Windows Interface</h2><a name="windows"></a>
The windows interface works under Microsoft's Windows95, Windows98, or
WindowsNT (version 3.51 or later) operating systems.
It offers a full graphical interface with all the usual bells and whistles.
Subsections here discuss the
<a href="#windows.mouse">mouse</a>,
<a href="#windows.keys">keys</a>,
<a href="#windows.colors">colors</a>,
<a href="#windows.lpr">printing</a>, and
<a href="#windows.fonts">fonts</a>.
<p>Because Microsoft doesn't allow a single .EXE file to contain both a
Windows interface and a text-based interface, the Windows version resides
in a separate file named WinElvis.exe.
(The text-based version is named Elvis.exe, and it uses the
<a href="#termcap">termcap</a> interface.)
<h3><a name="windows.mouse"></a>8.2.1 Windows Mouse</h3>
In addition to all the usual mouse actions in the menubar, toolbar, and
scrollbar, you can use the mouse in Elvis' main text area as follows.
<p>Dragging the mouse with the left button pressed causes Elvis to select
characters, like the lowercase <a href="elvisvi.html#v">v</a> command.
Dragging with the right button pressed causes it to select a rectangular
area, like the <a href="elvisvi.html#^V">^V</a> command. Dragging in the
left margin (where the mouse cursor changes to up-and-right-arrow) causes
whole lines to be selected.
<p>Clicking with either the left or right mouse button will move the cursor
to the clicked-on character. When you click with the left button, if a
selection is highlighted then Elvis will cancel the selection; clicking
with the right extends the selection to include the clicked-on character.
<p>Double-clicking on a word with the left button causes Elvis to perform
a tag search, like the <a href="elvisvi.html#^cbra">^]</a> command.
Double-clicking with the right button pops back to the previous position
via the tag stack, like the <a href="elvisvi.html#^T">^T</a> command.
<h3><a name="windows.keys"></a>8.2.2 Windows Keys</h3>
In addition to all the ASCII keys,
WinElvis allows you to <a href="elvisex.html#map">:map</a> any cursor keys
or function keys. In fact, the cursor keys all have rather convenient
maps built-in; you can see them by running<br>"<code>:map&nbsp;all</code>".
<p>All of the cursor keys and function keys send multi-character sequences
to WinElvis. WinElvis then uses its standard mapping facilities to convert
those sequences into something that it can recognize and act on. Since the
multi-character sequences aren't standardized, and are usually hard to guess
or remember, WinElvis allows you to refer to them symbolically. The following
symbols are used for referring to the cursor keys:
<pre graphic>
| up arrow | &lt;Up&gt; | k |
| down arrow | &lt;Down&gt; | j |
| left arrow | &lt;Left&gt; | h |
| right arrow | &lt;Right&gt; | l |
| Page Up | &lt;PgUp&gt; | ^B |
| Page Down | &lt;PgDn&gt; | ^F |
| Home | &lt;Home&gt; | ^ |
| End | &lt;End&gt; | $ |
| Ctrl + left arrow | &lt;C-Left&gt; | B |
| Ctrl + right arrow | &lt;C-Right&gt;| W |
| Ctrl + Page Up | &lt;C-PgUp&gt; | 1G |
| Ctrl + Page Down | &lt;C-PgDn&gt; | G |
| Ctrl + Home | &lt;C-Home&gt; | 1G |
| Ctrl + End | &lt;C-End&gt; | G |
| Insert | &lt;Insert&gt; | i |
| Delete | &lt;Delete&gt; | x |
<p>The function keys are a different story. Vi has a traditional way to
access function keys in a terminal-independent manner, so WinElvis starts
with that and extends it just slightly. The benefit of this is that you
can use the same function key maps in other versions of Elvis, or even in
other implementations of vi.
<p>The basic function key symbols are <code>#1</code> for the <kbd>F1</kbd> key,
<code>#2</code> for the <kbd>F2</kbd> key, and so on through <code>#12</code> for the
<kbd>F12</kbd> key. Combinations involving the <code>Shift</code>, <code>Ctrl</code>,
and <code>Alt</code> keys are specified by appending "s", "c", or "a" onto the
symbol. For example, <kbd>Ctrl-F1</kbd> is mapped using the symbol
<h3><a name="windows.colors"></a>8.2.3 Windows colors</h3>
WinElvis allows you use the <a href="elvisex.html#color">:color</a> command
to change the colors used for the different fonts. The color names that it
supports are: black, blue, cyan, green, red, magenta, brown, gray, darkgray,
lightblue, lightcyan, lightgreen, lightred, lightgray, yellow, and white.
<p>If there is a file named "rgb.txt" located in the
<a href="elvisopt.html#elvispath">elvispath</a>,
then Elvis can use it to translate other color names into RGB balues.
The default distribution includes such a file, derived from the
color table distributed with <a href="">XFree86</a>,
so you can use all of the same color names that work with X11.
<p>You can also use color names of the form "#<var>RRGGBB</var>" or
"#<var>RGB</var>" to give hexadecimal color values, as in X11.
For example, #c00060 is a nice maroon color.
<p>If WinElvis has been compiled with FEATURE_IMAGE defined
(i.e., if <a href="elvisex.html#calculate">:calc</a>
<a href="elvisexp.html#feature">feature("image")</a> returns <code>true</code>)
then you can also use images in the background color for the "normal" or "idle"
text faces.
This is done in the same way as in the
<a href="#x11.bgimage">X11 version of Elvis</a>.
Briefly, this means you can give the name of an XPM-format image file, or
a color name followed by an XPM file name for a tinted image.
Unlike X11, WinElvis does <em>not</em> support the use of background
images for the menubar, scrollbar, and statusbar controls.
<h3><a name="windows.lpr"></a>8.2.4 Windows Printing</h3>
The default value of the <a href="elvisopt.html#lptype">lptype</a> option
is "windows". This uses the standard Windows graphical print spooler and
should be able to print on any printer that Windows supports. The
<a href="elvisopt.html#lpout">lpout</a> option is ignored when
<p>However you still have the option of changing
<a href="elvisopt.html#lptype">lptype</a> to one of its other values.
The other values will generally print faster, and may even look slightly
better, but that isn't much of a motivation.
A more common reason for changing lptype would be to print into
a file in a specified format, as a way to convert the file.
<h3><a name="windows.fonts"></a>8.2.5 Windows Fonts</h3>
WinElvis allows you to specify one base font for each window, via the
<a href="elvisopt.html#font">font</a> option. You can set this to the name
of any fixed-pitch font, such as "courier*12".
<p>Elvis derives the other fonts, such as bold or italic, from the base font.
You can use the <a href="elvisex.html#color">:color</a> command to
change the boldness, color, and other attributes of various types of text.
<h2>8.3 Termcap Interface</h2><a name="termcap"></a>
The termcap interface is the one you'll use most often on non-graphic terminals.
It looks and acts a heck of a lot like the traditional vi.
The biggest addition is the support for multiple windows.
(For more information on how to use multiple windows, start Elvis and give
the command <a href="elvisvi.html#^W">:help ^W</a>.)
Subsections here discuss
<a href="#termcap.db">terminal databases</a>,
<a href="#termcap.common">termcap fields</a>,
<a href="#termcap.keys">keys</a>, and
<a href="#termcap.graphic">graphic characters</a>.
<p>If your terminal supports ANSI color escape sequences, then you can
use the <a href="elvisex.html#color">:color</a> command to assign different
colors to the six basic fonts:
normal, bold, italic, underlined, emphasized, and fixed.
You must assign a normal color first, e.g., ":color normal yellow".
<p>There are three additional options when using the termcap interface:
<a href="elvisopt.html#term">term,</a>
<a href="elvisopt.html#ttyrows">ttyrows,</a>and
<a href="elvisopt.html#ttycolumns">ttycolumns.</a>
The term option contains the name of the termcap entry being used;
it should correspond to the type of terminal you're using.
The ttyrows and ttycolumns options give the size of the screen.
<p>Under Win32, there is also a <a href="elvisopt.html#codepage">codepage</a>
option for detecting or changing the current code page.
Win32's termcap interface also supports the mouse,
using basically the same rules as the x11 interface.
The only differences are that it doesn't cut &amp; paste via the clipboard,
and pressing both buttons of a two-button mouse will simulate pressing
the missing middle button.
<h3><a name="termcap.db"></a>8.3.1 Termcap, Terminfo, and tinytcap</h3>
<em>Termcap</em> is a database of terminal characteristics, and a library
of C functions for accessing that database.
It was created at Berkeley to allow the original vi editor to be
Elvis' termcap user interface was written to use this.
<p>AT&amp;T created the <em>terminfo</em> database and library, adding a few
minor features.
The terminfo database uses different names and syntax than the termcap database.
Most modern UNIX systems use terminfo instead of termcap.
Fortunately, terminfo's library contains functions which emulate the
termcap functions, so the termcap interface can be compiled to work with
the terminfo library.
<p>The <code>tinytcap.c</code> file contains a simple reimplementation of the
termcap library, for those systems (such as MS-DOS) which don't have either
a real termcap or terminfo.
Tinytcap's database is hard-coded into it;
to add or modify a terminal description, you need to edit tinytcap.c and
recompile Elvis.
<h3><a name="termcap.common"></a>8.3.2 Common termcap values</h3>
This section describes most of the termcap values used by Elvis.
The values which deal with cursor keys and graphic characters will be
described in the following sections.
<p>Termcap field names are two characters long.
Some names supply Boolean values, and others supply numeric or string values.
A Boolean value is made true by giving the name; the absence of its name in
a terminal's entry indicates a false value for that field, for that terminal.
For numeric fields, the name is followed by a '#' character and then decimal
digits specifying the value.
For string fields, the name is followed by a '=' character and then a string.
Fields are delimited by ':' characters.
<pre graphic>
| :AL=: | Insert a given number of lines before current line |
| :al=: | Insert one line before the current line |
| :am: | Automargin - cursor wraps at end-of-line |
| :bc=: | Move the cursor back one character |
| :cI=: | Set cursor shape to "insert" shape |
| :cQ=: | Set cursor shape to "quit" shape |
| :cR=: | Set cursor shape to "replace" shape |
| :cV=: | Set cursor shape to "vi command" shape (ELVIS ONLY)|
| :cX=: | Set cursor shape to "ex command" shape (ELVIS ONLY)|
| :ce=: | Clear from cursor to end-of-line |
| :cm=: | Move cursor to a given row/column |
| :co#: | Width of screen, in columns |
| :DC=: | Delete a given number of character at the cursor |
| :dc=: | Delete one character at the cursor position |
| :DL=: | Delete a given number of lines at the cursor |
| :dl=: | Delete one line at the cursor position |
| :IC=: | Insert a given number of characters at the cursor |
| :ic=: | Insert one character at the cursor position |
| :ke=: | Disable the cursor keypad |
| :ks=: | Enable the cursor keypad |
| :li#: | Height of screen, in lines |
| :md=: | Start bold text |
| :me=: | End bold or half-bright text |
| :mh=: | Start half-bright text (used for italic text) |
| :pt: | Terminal supports physical tabs |
| :se=: | End standout text |
| :sg#: | Width of gap required by the :so=:se=: strings |
| :so=: | Start standout text |
| :sr=: | Reverse scroll one line (limited form of :ic=:) |
| :te=: | String that Elvis sends upon exiting |
| :ti=: | String that Elvis sends when starting |
| :us=: | End underlined text |
| :ug#: | Width of gap required by the :us:ue:md:me: strings |
| :up=: | move cursor up one line |
| :us=: | Start underlined text |
| :vb=: | Visible alternative to the bell |
| :ve=: | Set cursor shape to "quit" shape |
| :vs=: | Set cursor shape to "vi command" shape |
| :xn: | Brain-damaged newline; ignore the :am: flag |
<h3><a name="termcap.keys"></a>8.3.3 Cursor Keys and Function Keys</h3>
Cursor keys and function keys generally send escape sequences when struck.
Elvis needs to know what those escape sequences are, so it can recognize
the keystroke and act accordingly.
<p>The names of the fields for the arrows are pretty well standardized in
termcap, but the other cursor keys are still rather unsettled.
Different UNIX variants use different names for the same key.
Elvis supports all common names for each key.
<p>Function keys are even more challenging.
Originally termcap only had strings which described the first 4 function keys.
This was easy to extend to 9 keys, but starting with the 10th function key
things get strange because termcap field names must be two characters long.
Also, there was no way to describe shift-function keys, control-function keys,
or alt-function keys, so I invented by own fields for them.
(Note that most Unix variants, including Linux, use &lt;Alt-F<var>n</var>&gt;
to switch console screens, so applications such as Elvis can't use
&lt;Alt-F<var>n</var>&gt; themselves.)
When using terminfo, there are standard termcap names for the terminfo
function key names, and elvis uses them, but terminfo simply supports 46
different &lt;F<var>n</var>&gt; keys, not &lt;Shift-F<var>n</var>&gt; or
&lt;Ctrl-F<var>n</var>&gt; keys; to work around this in the PC world,
terminfo databases are set up with &lt;Shift-F<var>n</var>&gt; configured
as &lt;F13&gt; through &lt;F24&gt;, and &lt;Ctrl-F<var>n</var>&gt; keys
as &lt;F25&gt; through &lt;F36&gt;.
<p>The following table lists all of the key field names, and the keys they
refer to.
For keys which may be described via more than one field name, the preferred
field name is listed first.
It also lists the key's label, as reported by <a href="elvisex.html#map">:map</a>
and what (if anything) that key is normally mapped to.
<pre graphic>
| &lt;Up&gt; | :ku=: | Up arrow, mapped to "k" |
| &lt;Down&gt; | :kd=: | Down arrow, mapped to "j" |
| &lt;Left&gt; | :kl=: | Left arrow, mapped to "h" |
| &lt;Right&gt; | :kr=: | Right arrow, mapped to "l" |
| &lt;PgUp&gt; | :kP=:PU=:K2=: | Previous Page, mapped to "^B" |
| &lt;PgDn&gt; | :kN=:PD=:K5=: | Next Page, mapped to "^F" |
| &lt;Home&gt; | :kh=:HM=:K1=: | Home, mapped to "^" |
| &lt;End&gt; | :kH=:EN=:K4=: | End, mapped to "$" |
| &lt;Insert&gt; | :kI=: | Insert key, mapped to "i" |
| &lt;Delete&gt; | :kD=: | Delete key, mapped to "x" |
| &lt;C-Left&gt; | :#4=:KL=: | Ctrl + Left arrow, mapped to "B" |
| &lt;C-Right&gt;| :%i=:KR=: | Ctrl + Right arrow, mapped to "W" |
| #1 | :k1=: | F1 key |
| #2 | :k2=: | F2 key |
| #3 | :k3=: | F3 key |
| #4 | :k4=: | F4 key |
| #5 | :k5=: | F5 key |
| #6 | :k6=: | F6 key |
| #7 | :k7=: | F7 key |
| #8 | :k8=: | F8 key |
| #9 | :k9=: | F9 key |
| #10 | :k0=:ka=:k;=: | F10 key |
| #11 | :F1=: | F11 key |
| #12 | :F2=: | F12 key |
| #1s | :s1=:F3=: | Shift-F1 key |
| #2s | :s2=:F4=: | Shift-F2 key |
| #3s | :s3=:F5=: | Shift-F3 key |
| #4s | :s4=:F6=: | Shift-F4 key |
| #5s | :s5=:F7=: | Shift-F5 key |
| #6s | :s6=:F8=: | Shift-F6 key |
| #7s | :s7=:F9=: | Shift-F7 key |
| #8s | :s8=:FA=: | Shift-F8 key |
| #9s | :s9=:FB=: | Shift-F9 key |
| #10s | :s0=:FC=: | Shift-F10 key |
| #11s | :FD=: | Shift-F11 key |
| #12s | :FE=: | Shift-F12 key |
| #1c | :c1=:FF=: | Control-F1 key |
| #2c | :c2=:FG=: | Control-F2 key |
| #3c | :c3=:FH=: | Control-F3 key |
| #4c | :c4=:FI=: | Control-F4 key |
| #5c | :c5=:FJ=: | Control-F5 key |
| #6c | :c6=:FK=: | Control-F6 key |
| #7c | :c7=:FL=: | Control-F7 key |
| #8c | :c8=:FM=: | Control-F8 key |
| #9c | :c9=:FN=: | Control-F9 key |
| #10c | :c0=:FO=: | Control-F10 key |
| #11c | :FP=: | Control-F11 key |
| #12c | :FQ=: | Control-F12 key |
| #1a | :a1=: | Alt-F1 key (DOS/WINDOWS ONLY)|
| #2a | :a2=: | Alt-F2 key (DOS/WINDOWS ONLY)|
| #3a | :a3=: | Alt-F3 key (DOS/WINDOWS ONLY)|
| #4a | :a4=: | Alt-F4 key (DOS/WINDOWS ONLY)|
| #5a | :a5=: | Alt-F5 key (DOS/WINDOWS ONLY)|
| #6a | :a6=: | Alt-F6 key (DOS/WINDOWS ONLY)|
| #7a | :a7=: | Alt-F7 key (DOS/WINDOWS ONLY)|
| #8a | :a8=: | Alt-F8 key (DOS/WINDOWS ONLY)|
| #9a | :a9=: | Alt-F9 key (DOS/WINDOWS ONLY)|
| #10a | :a0=: | Alt-F10 key (DOS/WINDOWS ONLY)|
<h3><a name="termcap.graphic"></a>8.3.4 Graphic characters</h3>
Elvis uses graphic characters for HTML mode's
&lt;pre graphic&gt; and &lt;hr&gt; tags.
<p>Originally termcap didn't support a way to access the terminal's
graphic characters.
A standard of sorts was eventually developed under the XENIX variant of UNIX.
Later, the terminfo library adopted a different way to access the graphic
characters, and this was worked back into the termcap standard, displacing
the XENIX standard.
The terminfo method is preferred, these days.
Elvis supports both.
<pre graphic>
Terminfo Strings
| :as=: |Start graphic text |
| :ae=: |End graphic text |
| :ac=: |Maps VT100 graphic chars to this terminal's chars |
The terminfo method uses the :as=:ae=: strings for turning the
graphical character attribute on and off.
While in graphic mode, the value of the :ac=: string is interpreted
as a list of character pairs;
the first character is a VT-100 graphic character,
and the following character is this terminal's corresponding graphic character.
The following table lists the (text versions of) VT-100 graphic characters,
and descriptions of them.
It also includes IBM PC characters.
<pre graphic>
| 'q' | '\304' | horizontal line |
| 'x' | '\263' | vertical line |
| 'm' | '\300' | lower left corner (third quadrant) |
| 'v' | '\301' | horizontal line with up-tick |
| 'j' | '\331' | lower right corner (fourth quadrant) |
| 't' | '\303' | vertical line with right-tick |
| 'n' | '\305' | four-way intersection, like '+' sign |
| 'u' | '\264' | vertical line with left-tick |
| 'l' | '\332' | upper left corner (second quadrant) |
| 'w' | '\302' | horizontal line with down-tick |
| 'k' | '\277' | upper right corner (first quadrant) |
So, for example, an entry describing the IBM PC would contain the following:
<pre graphic>
XENIX Termcap Strings
| :GS=: |Start graphic text |
| :GE=: |End graphic text |
| :GH=: |Horizontal bar |
| :GV=: |Vertical bar |
| :G3=: |Lower-left corner (i.e., third quadrant) |
| :GU=: |Horizontal bar with up-tick |
| :G4=: |Lower-right corner (i.e., fourth quadrant) |
| :GR=: |Vertical bar with right-tick |
| :GC=: |Center crosspiece (i.e., a big '+' sign) |
| :GL=: |Vertical bar with a left-tick |
| :G2=: |Upper-left corner (i.e., second quadrant) |
| :GD=: |Horizontal bar with a down-tick |
| :G1=: |Upper-right corner (i.e., first quadrant) |
In Xenix, a separate string is used for each line-drawing graphic
There are also optional :GS=:GE=: strings for starting and ending graphic mode.
If the :GS=:GE=: strings aren't specified,
then termcap is expected to set the MSB of each character in the graphic
character strings.
<h2>8.4 VIO Interface for OS/2</h2><a name="vio"></a>
The <em>vio</em> interface is an OS/2-specific text-mode interface.
It should behave almost exactly like the <a href="#termcap">termcap</a>
interface in all respects:
same options, same colors, same windowing features, etc.
Unlike the termcap interface, the vio interface must be run locally.
It can't run over a network via telnet, but the termcap interface can.
<h2>8.5 Open Interface</h2><a name="open"></a>
The <em>open</em> interface was created for use on terminals which lack some
necessary capability (such as the :cm=: cursor movement command),
or terminals of an unknown type.
The open interface is ugly;
if you have a choice, you should always use the termcap interface instead.
<p>The open interface works on all text terminals because the only control
codes it uses are backspace, carriage return, and line feed.
<p>It only allows you to edit one line at a time.
When you move to a new line (e.g., by using the <a href="elvisvi.html#j">j</a>
or <a href="elvisvi.html#k">k</a> commands), the screen scrolls up and the
new line is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
This is true even when you're moving the cursor back towards the beginning
of the edit buffer;
the lines of the buffer will appear on the screen in reverse order!
The open interface can be very confusing.
<p>However, practically all of the normal visual commands are available.
The only ones missing are those that specifically affect a whole window.
<h2>8.6 Quit Interface</h2><a name="quit"></a>
The <em>quit</em> interface is intended to be used for executing scripts
of ex commands.
It performs all of the usual initialization, and then quits.
It is normally used in conjunction with the <strong>-c</strong> <var>command</var>
<p>For example, you can have Elvis load a file, print it, and then exit
via the following command line...
elvis -G quit -c lp <var>somefile</var>
Because the usual initialization guesses a file's display mode
automatically, this one command can be used to format and print HTML documents,
man pages, C code, and even hex dumps of binary files.
<h2>8.7 Script Interface</h2><a name="script"></a>
The <em>script</em> interface is similar to the <a href="#quit">quit</a>
interface, except that this interface reads ex commands from stdin and
executes them; when it detects end-of-file on stdin, it exits.
Status messages are disabled while running a script, but error messages
are still output.
<p>Rather than selecting this interface via <code>-Gscript</code>, you will
usually select it via the <code>-s</code> flag
(or the obsolete <code>-</code> flag),
which has the additional side-effect of disabling all initialization scripts.
This is desirable since it causes the script to behave exactly the same way
for different users, regardless of any customization they have done.
<p>Here's an example shell script that uses this feature to swap instances of
the words "left" and "right" in a group of files.
for file
elvis -s $file &lt;&lt;EOF
try %s/\&lt;left\&gt;/:TEMP:/g
try %s/\&lt;right\&gt;/left/g
try %s/:TEMP:/right/g
if modified
then write
Note that the five lines between "<code>&lt;&lt;EOF</code>" and
"<code>EOF</code>" are a series of Elvis commands, and
everything else is handled by the /bin/sh shell.
The <a href="elvisex.html#try">:try</a> commands are used to silence error
messages from any <a href="elvisex.html#substitute">:s</a> commands which
fail to find any matching text.
The <a href="elvisex.html#if">:if/:then</a> commands are used to test the
buffer's <a href="elvisopt.html#modified">modified</a> option, so a file which
contains no instances of "left" or "right" won't be rewritten needlessly.
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