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<html>
<head>
<title>Elvis-2.2_1 How To</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>C. How to...</h1>
This is a collection of "How to" topics, each with short discussion.
The following categories of topics are available:
<ul>
<li><a href="#Initialization">Initialization</a>
- Change the default behavior of Elvis
<li><a href="#WordCompletion">Word Completion</a>
- Alter word completion via the <kbd>Tab</kbd> key
<li><a href="#Whitespace">Whitespace</a>
- The relationship between tabs and spaces
<li><a href="#Buffers">Buffers</a>
- Cut buffers and edit buffers
<li><a href="#X-Windows">X-Windows</a>
- The "x11" user interface
<li><a href="#Windows95/98/NT">Windows95/98/NT</a>
- The "windows" user interface
<li><a href="#Miscellany">Miscellany</a>
- Things that didn't fit anywhere else
<li><a href="#Contacts">Contacts</a>
- How to contact the authors
</ul>
<p>If you're using Elvis to view this file, you can search for a topic
simply by using the <a href="elvisvi.html#slash">/</a> command.
To limit the search to topic lines only, begin the regular expression
with "^&lt;dt&gt;.*".
For example you could search for "spaces" in a topic line via the following:
<pre>
/^&lt;dt&gt;.*spaces</pre>
<p>Sometimes there are multiple topics that use the same word or phrase.
If the first one that it finds isn't the one you want, then you can use
the <a href="elvisvi.html#n">n</a> command to find the next one.
<p>In addition, the <a href="elvisses.html#elvis.ali">lib/elvis.ali</a> script
distributed with Elvis contains a <a href="elvistip.html#howto">:howto</a>
alias which loads this file and searches for a given topic.
The aliases from <a href="elvisses.html#elvis.ali">lib/elvis.ali</a> are
loaded automatically, so you should be able to display any topic in a
a separate window via a command such as this:
<pre>
:howto spaces</pre>
<h2>C.1 <a name="Initialization">Initialization</a></h2>
<dl>
<dt><strong>Initialization <!-- initialization initialize --> for each file</strong>
<dd>The <a href="elvisses.html#elvis.arf">lib/elvis.arf</a> file is executed
after a file has been read;
you can put file initialization commands there.
<p>Alternatively, you could use the <a href="elvisex.html#autocmd">:au</a>
command, with an event such as <a href="elvistip.html#BufRead">BufRead</a>.
<dt><strong><!-- force a file to use store set --> Store an explicit display mode inside a file</strong>
<dd>The simplest way is to enable modelines by setting the
<a href="elvisopt.html#modeline">modeline</a> option, and then
add a modeline to the file which sets the
<a href="elvisopt.html#bufdisplay">bufdisplay</a> option to the desired
display mode.
For example, if you have a <strong>lex</strong>(1) source file with the
extension ".l", and you want it to be highlighted as C code, then you
could add the following line to the end of the file:
<pre>
/* ex:set bufdisplay="syntax c": */</pre>
<p>Alternatively, you could modify the
<a href="elvisses.html#elvis.arf">elvis.arf</a> script to detect
your type of file, and set the <code>bufdisplay</code> option appropriately.
For example, adding the following line into <code>elvis.arf</code> would
cause any file that looks like a patch to be displayed using "syntax cdiff"
<pre>
1s/---\|\*\*\*/set bufdisplay="syntax cdiff"/x</pre>
<p>If you don't want to modify <code>elvis.arf</code>, you could achieve
a similar effect via the <a href="elvistip.html#BufReadPost">BufReadPost</a>
autocmd event.
<dt><strong>Make file initialization be language-sensitive</strong>
<dd>If the filename extension indicates the file's language, and the language
is described in the <a href="elvisdm.html#elvis.syn">lib/elvis.syn</a> file,
then you can use the <code>knownsyntax()</code> function to check the
language, like this:
<pre>
:if knownsyntax(filename) == "perl"
:then set ccprg="perl -c ($1?$1:$2) 2&gt;&amp;1 | perlerr"</pre>
<p>(The <code>perlerr</code> Perl script converts perl's error messages
into a form that Elvis can parse.
It is given in the <a href="elvistip.html#perlerr">Tips</a> chapter.)
<p>You could also use the <code>dirext()</code> function to check the filename
extension directly, instead of <code>knownsyntax()</code>;
it doesn't depend on the <a href="elvisdm.html#elvis.syn">lib/elvis.syn</a> file.
As a last resort, you might consider using the <code>x</code> flag of
the <a href="elvisex.html#substitute">:s</a> command.
<dt><strong>Change <!-- change set --> the default <!-- initial startup --> settings <!-- configuration colors options macros --></strong>
<dd>Before the first buffer is loaded or the first window is created,
any buffer/window options you set will be used as the defaults for
the buffers/windows that are created later.
In other words, although setting a buffer-specific option like
<a href="elvisopt.html#equalprg">equalprg</a> or a window-specific option
like <a href="elvisopt.html#ruler">ruler</a> interactively
will only affect that buffer or window, setting the same option in the
<a href="elvisses.html#elvis.ini">lib/elvis.ini</a> or <code>~/.exrc</code>
file changes the default for all buffers/windows.
<p>However, the <a href="elvisses.html#elvis.brf">lib/elvis.brf</a> and
<a href="elvisses.html#elvis.arf">lib/elvis.arf</a> files typically
change some of those options, so the defaults might not be used very long
before they're changed.
<dt><strong>Have a separate ~/.exrc <!-- elvis.rc --> and ~/.elvisrc file under Unix</strong>
<dd>This is easy.
The <a href="elvisses.html#elvis.ini">lib/elvis.ini</a> file controls this,
and the default version does it in a very convenient way:
It looks first for <code>.elvisrc</code> and runs it if it exists;
else it looks for <code>.exrc</code> and runs that.
<p>If you want Elvis to run both of them, then add the following line
to your <code>.elvisrc</code> file:
<pre>
:source ~/.exrc</pre>
<dt><strong>Display <!--display show see use start syntax mode for disable --> HTML <!--html source--> files in "syntax" mode by default <!-- initially --></strong>
<dd>In previous versions of Elvis, this was tricky
because Elvis' online manual is written in HTML
and you certainly want it to be formatted normally.
Also, if you download an HTML file from the web (using Elvis as a browser)
then you probably want it to be formatted via the "html" display mode.
So you only want to change the behavior of local, non-Elvis HTML files.
<p>Now Elvis has a <a href="elvisopt.html#prefersyntax">prefersyntax</a>
option, which makes this pretty easy.
Just run "<code>:set prefersyntax=writable</code>".
<dt><strong>Save <!--save store use configure --> the current settings <!--options configuration source--> as the <!--permanent initial load time--> defaults <!--default value values settings--></strong>
<dd>Run <a href="elvisex.html#mkexrc">:mkexrc</a>.
<dt><strong>Mix <!-- mix blend combine save use both custom hand made --> hand-coded settings <!-- options macros aliases configuration --> with the <!-- automatic generated --> :mkexrc-generated commands</strong>
<dd> You can use <a href="elvisex.html#mkexrc">:mkexrc</a> to save settings
and also have a separate file containing hand-coded commands.
Hand-coded settings could be useful, for example, if you want to use
<a href="elvisex.html#if">:if</a> to define aliases or options differently,
depending on which user interface you're using.
<p>
The <a href="elvisex.html#mkexrc">:mkexrc</a> command always completely
overwrites whatever file it writes to.
Because of this, you must save your hand-coded initialization commands
in a separate file.
In the following example, we'll store the hand-coded commands in ~/.elvisrc
and allow :mkexrc to store the automatically generated commands in ~/.elvismkexrc.
<ol>
<li>Run "<code>elvis ~/.elvisrc</code>". This starts Elvis, loads your
settings, and then starts editing the ~/.elvisrc file.
<li>Give Elvis the command "<code>:mkexrc ~/.elvismkexrc</code>".
This will change the <a href="elvisopt.html#mkexrcfile">mkexrcfile</a>
option to ~/.elvismkexrc, and then write your current settings out
to that file.
The settings will include "<code>set mkexrcfile=~/.elvismkexrc</code>",
so when you load those settings again later, ~/.elvismkexrc will become
the default file used by the <a href="elvisex.html#mkexrc">:mkexrc</a>
command.
<li>Delete all of the settings from ~/.elvisrc, and replace them with a
single "<code>source ~/.elvismkexrc</code>" command line.
This way, when Elvis runs the ~/.elvisrc script during startup, it'll
automatically run the commands in ~/.elvismkexrc too.
<li>Append any other hand-coded initialization steps after the above
<a href="elvisex.html#source">:source</a> command.
</ol>
</dl>
<h2>C.2 <a name="WordCompletion">Word Completion</a></h2>
<dl>
<dt><strong>Disable <!-- complete --> word <!-- name --> completion on the ex command line</strong>
<dd>You need to set the <a href="elvisopt.html#inputtab">inputtab</a> option
for the <code>(Elvis&nbsp;ex&nbsp;history)</code> buffer to "tab".
You can do that via the following command:
<pre>
:(Elvis ex history)set inputtab=tab</pre>
<dt><strong>Disable <!-- complete --> identifier <!-- name --> completion on the regular expression prompt line</strong>
<dd>This is similar to word completion on the ex command line.
To disable it, you need to set the <a href="elvisopt.html#inputtab">inputtab</a>
option for the <code>(Elvis&nbsp;regexp&nbsp;history)</code> buffer, like this:
<pre>
:(Elvis regexp history)set inputtab=tab</pre>
<dt><strong>Enable <!-- complete --> identifier <!-- tag name --> completion in normal edit buffers</strong>
<dd>Set the buffer's <a href="elvisopt.html#inputtab">inputtab</a> option
to "identifier".
To make this the default, set it in the <code>.exrc</code> file
(or <code>elvis.rc</code> for non-Unix systems).
The command is:
<pre>
:set inputtab=identifier</pre>
<p>After that, each time you hit the &lt;<kbd>Tab</kbd>&gt; key Elvis will
search through the tags file for any matching tags,
and add as many characters as possible.
If it completes the entire tag name, it does <em>not</em> append a space or
other character, which is a little different from other types of name
completion.
Also, in the <a href="elvisdm.html#syntax">syntax</a> display mode it will
not attempt completion if the partial word happens to be a complete
<a href="elvisdm.html#keyword">keyword</a>
or "<a href="elvisdm.html#other">other</a>" word.
</dl>
<h2>C.3 <a name="Whitespace">Whitespace</a></h2>
<dl>
<dt><strong>Use <!--space tab tabs--> spaces instead of tabs<!--tab--></strong>
<dd>In the traditional vi, the only way to use spaces instead of
tabs was to set the <a href="elvisopt.html#tabstop">tabstop</a> option to
the largest possible value, and then <a href="elvisex.html#map">:map</a> ^I
to ^T.
This made existing tabbed files look bad, and it didn't work well for tabs
embedded in a line (instead of just in the line's indentation whitespace).
Elvis has a better way.
<p>In Elvis, you can set the <a href="elvisopt.html#inputtab">inputtab</a>
option to "spaces" to make the <kbd>&lt;Tab&gt;</kbd> key insert the
appropriate number of spaces into a line.
This works even if the cursor isn't in the line's indentation whitespace.
<p>In addition, the <a href="elvisopt.html#autotab">autotab</a> option
controls the shifting commands (the <a href="elvisex.html#LT">:&lt;</a> and
<a href="elvisex.html#GT">:&gt;</a> commands in ex, and the
<a href="elvisvi.html#lt">&lt;</a> and <a href="elvisvi.html#gt">&gt;</a>
operators in visual mode).
To make those commands use only spaces, <em>autotab</em> should be off.
<pre>
:set inputtab=spaces noautotab</pre>
<p>To convert existing files to use only spaces, you should use an external
program such as "<code>col&nbsp;-bx</code>" under Unix.
Alternatively, you can use Elvis to change the indentation
(but not tabs elsewhere in a line)
to use only spaces by shifting the entire file right, and then left again
while the <a href="elvisopt.html#autotab">noautotab</a> setting is in effect.
<dt><strong>Change <!-- change reduce --> the tabstops<!--tabstop tab stop indentation shiftwidth shiftwidth--></strong>
<dd>Many people don't like the fact that the <kbd>&lt;Tab&gt;</kbd> key
indents text by 8 columns.
That's so wide that it quickly pushes the writer's source code off the
right edge of the screen.
<p>However, you almost certainly do <em>not</em> want to change the
<a href="elvisopt.html#tabstop">tabstop</a> option because most other
software, and most printers and terminals, also assume that tabs are 8
characters wide.
If you edit files with <code>tabstop</code> set to 4 or 5, then your
files will look very strange when viewed with anything other than Elvis,
or by anyone other than you.
So leave <code>tabstop=8</code>.
<p>Instead, set the <a href="elvisex.html#shiftwidth">shiftwidth</a>
option to the desired indentation amount, and either get in the habit
of typing ^T to increase indentation, or <a href="elvisex.html#map">:map!</a>
the <kbd>&lt;Tab&gt;</kbd> key to ^T in input mode.
<pre>
:set shiftwidth=5
:map! ^V^I ^V^T</pre>
<p>Note that when you're typing in the above <code>:map</code> command,
you'll need to type an extra <kbd>^V</kbd> before each <kbd>^V</kbd>
or <kbd>^T</kbd>.
<p>Also, this map has the unfortunate side-effect of making the
<kbd>&lt;Tab&gt;</kbd> increase indentation even if the cursor is somewhere
later in the line (unless you type ^V before it).
This is one good reason to skip the map, and get in the habit of using
<kbd>^T</kbd> to increase indentation.
The <a href="elvisopt.html#autotab">autotab</a> option helps here, too.
<dt>Erase <!-- erase clear wipe out --> text immediately when backspacing <!-- backspace back space arrow change -->
<dd>The <a href="elvisopt.html#cleantext">cleantext</a> option tells Elvis
when to delete text that you've backspaced over.
Try "<code>:set cleantext=long,bs,ex</code>".
</dl>
<h2>C.4 <a name="Buffers">Buffers</a></h2>
<dl>
<dt><strong>Switch <!-- switch goto --> to a different buffer in the same window</strong>
<dd>This is easier than you might think.
On an ex command line, if you give an address but no command then Elvis
will move the cursor to there.
So to switch buffers all you need to do is give an address that's in
a different buffer.
In Elvis, you do this by giving the buffer's name (or number) in parentheses
(and the closing parenthesis is optional).
For example, to switch to buffer #1 all you need to do is...
<pre>
:(#1</pre>
<p>Or you can switch to "main.c" like this:
<pre>
:(main.c</pre>
<p>Of course, the buffer must exist before you can switch to it.
Another thing to keep in mind is, switching buffers doesn't necessarily
force you to save the old buffer first.
Any changes you made to the old buffer are <em>not</em> lost -- you can
switch back to the original buffer again if you wish.
<dt><strong>Display <!-- show --> an edit buffer (or cut buffer) in a separate window</strong>
<dd>This is similar to switching edit buffers (the previous topic).
The main difference is that instead of giving no command, you should give
the <a href="elvisex.html#split">:split</a> command.
In this context, the closing parenthesis is <em>required</em>.
<pre>
:(#1)split</pre>
<p>Or, create a window showing the "main.c" buffer:
<pre>
:(main.c)split</pre>
<dt><strong>Edit a cut buffer</strong>
<dd>Editing a cut buffer can be handy when you're trying to fix a
defective macro.
This is possible in Elvis, because Elvis uses an ordinary edit buffer to
store the contents of a cut buffer.
The names of the cut buffers are of the form
<code>(Elvis cut buffer <var>X</var>)</code>, where <var>X</var> is the name
of the cut buffer (a single letter or digit).
Consequently, you could create a window showing cut buffer <code>"a</code>
like this:
<pre>
:(Elvis cut buffer a)split</pre>
<p>Of course, the <code>"a</code> cut buffer must exist for this to work.
<p>Since the name is so long, Elvis supports a special short-hand notation
for cut buffer names.
In parentheses, if the first character is " and the remainder of the buffer
name is a single letter, then Elvis uses the buffer which contains that
cut buffer's contents.
The following command also creates a window showing the <code>"a</code>
cut buffer:
<pre>
:("a)sp</pre>
<p>Elvis doesn't store "undo" versions for cut buffers, and
you can't yank a buffer into itself.
Other than that, editing should be pretty normal.
The type of data in the buffer (characters, lines, or rectangle) is
stored in an option named <a href="elvisopt.html#putstyle">putstyle</a>.
<dt><strong>Free <!-- free delete discard --> an edit buffer</strong>
<dd>Elvis has no command for discarding old edit buffers.
Under some circumstances it will free them automatically, if they aren't
being used.
It rarely matters, though.
</dl>
<h2>C.5 <a name="X-Windows">X-Windows</a></h2>
<dl>
<dt><strong>Run <!--run elvis--> Elvis in an xterm instead of creating a new window</strong>
<dd>You can force Elvis to use the termcap interface by adding a
<code>-Gtermcap</code> flag.
If you do this often, you may wish to create a shell script, alias, or shell
function which runs Elvis with <code>-Gtermcap</code>.
Here's an example of shell script:
<pre>
#!/bin/sh
exec elvis -Gtermcap "$@"</pre>
<p>A more elegant solution uses the $ELVISGUI environment variable:
<pre>
#!/bin/sh
ELVISGUI=termcap exec elvis "$@"</pre>
<p>If you <em>never</em> want to use the "x11" user interface, then you should
probably reconfigure Elvis to leave it out.
This will make Elvis considerably smaller.
To do this, go into the directory where Elvis' source code resides and
execute the following shell commands:
<pre>
make clean
./configure --with-x=no
make</pre>
<dt><strong>Run <!--start run invoke put add--> Elvis <!--elvis in on to--> from a [Start]<!--start kde KDE gnome wm root window manager--> menu <!--button icon--></strong>
<dd>The only tricky thing about this is, Elvis implements both the
text &amp; graphic interfaces in the same executable.
When Elvis is invoked from something other than an xterm (or equivalent)
it runs in text mode be default.
(This was done because most Linux distributions set the DISPLAY environment
variable even if you're logged in on a text console.
Elvis used to start in graphic mode on some other virtual console, which
was very confusing.
By checking whether it was started from an xterm, Elvis can avoid that problem.)
<p>The solution is to add an explicit <code>-Gx11</code> command line flag
when it is invoked from a window manager's menu.
<dt><strong>Make the text <!--turn off non-blinking--> cursor more visible under X11<!-- x11 --></strong>
<dd>For a notebook computer, the normal blinking cursor may be hard to see.
You can make it stop blinking by adding the following command to your
<code>.exrc</code> file:
<pre>
:set blinktime=0</pre>
<dt><strong>Indicate when Elvis<!--elvis--> owns <!-- has posesses --> the current X11<!-- x11 --> selection</strong>
<dd>The cursor can be configured to have a special color whenever Elvis
owns the current selection.
To do this, use the <a href="elvisex.html#color">:color</a> command to
set both the foreground and background color of the cursor.
The "background" color will be used when Elvis owns the selection, and
the "foreground" color will be used otherwise.
Here's an example which turns the cursor green when Elvis owns the
selection:
<pre>
:color cursor red on green</pre>
<dt><strong>Change <!-- change reduce smaller different --> the default font size <!-- X11 x11 --></strong>
<dd>In your <code>.exrc</code> file, you can set the
<a href="elvisopt.html#font">font</a>,
<a href="elvisopt.html#boldfont">boldfont</a>, and
<a href="elvisopt.html#italicfont">italicfont</a> options to anything you want.
(Fixed-pitch only!)
These settings will override the defaults.
If you set only the <code>font</code> and leave the others unset,
then Elvis will derive the others from the normal font.
<pre>
:set font=7x14</pre>
<p>If you just want to use a smaller size of the Courier font, you can use
the <a href="elvistip.html#courier">:courier</a> alias.
It takes a single parameter: the point size of the font to use.
The default font is 18-point Courier, and most systems also have 12-, 14-, and
24-point Courier fonts which work well.
<pre>
:courier 14</pre>
<dt><strong>Set<!--set change define use--> a <!--variable-->font for the toolbar buttons.</strong>
<dd>By default, the X11 toolbar uses a font named "variable" which is usually
an alias to a small, readable, variable-pitch font.
If your X server has no font named "variable" then you must configure Elvis
to use a different font.
You may also simply prefer a different font.
<p>The simplest way to change the font is to pass Elvis a
<code>-fc</code>&nbsp;<var>fontname</var> parameter.
I suggest you use that to experiment with the available fonts, to find
one you like.
(You can use the standard <code>xlsfonts</code> program to list the available
fonts.)
<p>To make the change permanent, you can either set the
<a href="elvisopt.html#controlfont">controlfont</a> option in your ~/.exrc file,
or you can set the <a href="elvisgui.html#x11.resources">elvis.control.font</a>
resource in your ~/.Xdefaults file.
<dt><strong>Run<!--run execute fork spawn--> a program<!--process--> from within Elvis,<!--elvis--> in parallel, under X11</strong>
<dd>The tricky part here is that Elvis tries to read the program's stdout
and stderr, so the output can be displayed in Elvis' window.
To do that, Elvis would have to wait until after all text has been read
from stdout/stderr... but you don't want Elvis to wait!
So to run in parallel, you must redirect the program's stdout/stderr to
/dev/null, like this:
<pre>
:!xeyes &gt;/dev/null 2&gt;&amp;1 &amp;</pre>
<p>If you want to write data out to the program (<code>:w !program</code>)
then it becomes even more complex.
This is because pipes can only contain a finite amount of data, so when
Elvis is redirecting stdin as well as stdout/stderr, it uses a temporary
file for stdin.
Elvis deletes that file as soon as the program returns -- which, for a program
run in parallel, happens immediately even though the program hasn't had a chance
to read the data from that file yet.
The solution is to write the data into a temporary file sequentially, and
then start a parallel command line which runs the program and then deletes
the temporary file, like this:
<pre>
:w !cat &gt;$$; (xv $$; rm $$) &gt;/dev/null 2&gt;&amp;1 &amp;</pre>
<p>Yes, that's nasty.
I plan to clean that up some day, by making Elvis smart enough to avoid
reading stdout/stderr when the command line ends with a '&amp;' character.
<dt><strong>Run<!--run fork execute spawn--> an interactive program in an Elvis window under X11</strong>
<dd>Sadly, this can't be done with Elvis' "x11" user interface
because Elvis' windows don't have a built-in terminal emulator.
This is expected to be added for Elvis 2.3, but that doesn't help you
<em>now</em>.
<p>However, by using the "termcap" interface inside an xterm,
you should be able to run interactive programs such as "crypt" or "pgp"
exactly as you can under vi.
In an xterm (or any other terminal emulator), just run
"<code>elvis&nbsp;-Gtermcap</code>" instead of plain "<code>elvis</code>".
<dt><strong><a name="scrollwheel">Configure<!--configure set up make--> XFree86 to use a mouse's scroll <!--mouse--> wheel</a></strong>
<dd>Elvis expects the scroll wheel to act like mouse buttons 4 and 5.
To make XFree86 present scroll wheel events this way, your XF86Config file's "Pointer" section
should contain `<code>Buttons&nbsp;5</code>' and `<code>ZAxisMapping&nbsp;4&nbsp;5</code>'.
Also, for serial mice you may need to specify
`<code>Protocol&nbsp;"Intellimouse"</code>';
for PS/2 mice, try<br>`<code>Protocol&nbsp;"IMPS/2"</code>'.
<p>The Rxvt terminal emulator and most Gtk/Gnome programs will also support
the scroll wheel when it is configured this way.
In addition, many other programs can be configured to support it by specifying
the appropriate translations in their app-defaults.
For example, Netscape can be configured to respond to the scroll wheel by
inserting the following lines into the
<code>Netscape*drawingArea.translations</code> resource string:
<pre>
&lt;Btn4Down&gt;: LineUp() \
LineUp() \
LineUp() \
LineUp() \
LineUp() \n\
&lt;Btn5Down&gt;: LineDown() \
LineDown() \
LineDown() \
LineDown() \
LineDown() \n\</pre>
<p>There is also a program named "imwheel" which can be configured to translate
wheel motions into <kbd>&lt;PgUP&gt;</kbd> and <kbd>&lt;PgDn&gt;</kbd>
keystrokes (or other keys) for specific applications.
</dl>
<h2>C.6 <a name="Windows95/98/NT">Windows95/98/NT</a></h2>
<dl>
<dt><strong>Set<!--set change define--> the initial<!--current--> working directory</strong>
<dd>Create a shortcut to WinElvis, and then edit the shortcut's properties.
The "Start in" property gives the program's initial working directory.
<dt><strong>Change<!--set change define--> the <!--current--> working directory each time a file is loaded</strong>
<dd>First, let me say that I don't recommend this because the real vi doesn't
behave like this, so it is likely to confuse some people.
<p>But it you really want to do this, then you should add the following line
to the end of your <a href="elvisses.html#elvis.arf">lib/elvis.arf</a> file:
<pre>
try cd (dirdir(filename))</pre>
<dt><strong>Select<!--select mark highlight--> whole lines in WinElvis<!--windows winelvis elvis Elvis--></strong>
<dd>To select whole lines in WinElvis, move the mouse pointer to the window's
left margin.
The mouse pointer should change shape when you're in the margin.
Click the left mouse button there to begin marking lines;
hold the button as you move the mouse to the other end of the range of lines
and then release it.
<dt><strong>Select<!--select mark highlight--> a rectangular <!--rectangle block column--> area <!--region--> in WinElvis<!--windows winelvis elvis Elvis--></strong>
<dd>There are two ways to do this.
The first is by using the <kbd>right</kbd> mouse button;
the other is by holding down the <kbd>&lt;Alt&gt;</kbd> key as you use the
<kbd>left</kbd> mouse button.
<dt><strong><a name="prn"></a>Assign <!--assign associate change use set up configure--> a <!--parallel--> printer port <!--prn: lpt0: lpt1: lpt9:--> to <!--with--> a Windows print queue</strong>
<dd>Windows98 has no PRN: device for sending raw printer data to a printer;
all printing must go through the normal Windows print queue.
That's fine if you're using the "windows" <a href="elvisopt.html#lptype">lptype</a>,
but if you want to use one of the other printer types such as "ps", "ps2",
or "hp", then you need to jump through a few hoops.
<p>Although there is no PRN: device, Windows98 does allow you to associate
an LPT<var>n</var>: device with a print queue, via mechanism called
"capturing a printer port".
I suggest you configure your computer's default print queue to capture LPT9:,
and the set Elvis' <a href="elvisopt.html#lpout">lpout</a> option to "LPT9".
The steps for capturing the printer port are:
<ol>
<li>From Windows' "Start" button, select "Settings"-&gt;"Printers".
<li>Right-click on your default printer, and select "Properties".
<li>In the properties dialog, go to the "Details" tab.
<li>Click "Capture Printer Port...".
<li>In the capture dialog, set the "Device" to "LPT9". Leave the "Path"
field empty. The "Reconnect at logon" checkbox should have a checkmark
so you don't need to repeat this every time you start Windows.
<li>Click "OK" to exit the capture dialog.
<li>Click "OK" to exit the properties dialog.
</ol>
<p>After that, you just need to set up Elvis. Give Elvis the command
"<code>:set lpout=lpt9</code>", and then "<code>:mkexrc</code>".
You're done!
<dt><strong>Associate<!-- associate make windows Windows win32 use --> file types <!-- of files --> with WinElvis<!--winelvis elvis Elvis under windows win32 to open files by clicking from in a directory window--></strong>
<dd>To make Windows use WinElvis as the default editor of a given type file,
you must associate the Elvis action with the file type.
(The file type is determined by the filename's extension.)
To create this association, perform the following steps:
<ol>
<li>Open a directory window. Any directory will work; it doesn't necessarily
have to be the one containing the new type of file.
<li>Select the "View-&gt;Folder Options..." menu item. This should bring up
a dialog window.
<li>In the dialog window, select the "File types" tab.
<li>Hopefully the file type already exists in the "Registered file types" list.
The list is sorted by extension, which is a little unfortunate since the
extensions are normally hidden. If you can't find the file type in the list,
then use the "New Type..." button to add it; but if you can find it, then
highlight it and click the "Edit..." button. Either way, this should bring
up a dialog which contains a (possibly empty) list if "Actions" for that file
type.
<li>Click the "New..." button, below the "Actions" list. This will bring
up yet another dialog.
<li>In the "New Action" dialog's "Action" field, put the text "Open with Elvis".
<li>In the "Application used to perform action" field, you need to put the
full pathname of WinElvis in double-quotes (use the "Browse..." button for this), with a
space and a double-quoted "%1" appended to indicate how the filename is
passed into Elvis.
For example, if WinElvis is located in C:\usr\bin, then this field should
look like this:
<pre>
"C:\usr\bin\WinElvis.exe" "%1"</pre>
<li>The "Use DDE" box should be unchecked.
<li>Press the "New Action" dialog's "OK" button. This should return you to
the "New File Type" or "Edit File Type" dialog.
<li>The "Open with Elvis" action should now appear in the "Actions" list.
Highlight it, and then click "Set Default" to make it be the default action.
The default action is displayed in boldface in that list.
<li>Click the "OK" button to close the "New File Type" or "Edit File Type"
dialog.
<li>If you want to add any more file types, then go back to step 4.
Otherwise, click the "OK" button to close the "Folder Options" dialog.
</ol>
<p>That should be all that is required.
Double-clicking on files of that type will now cause WinElvis to open that file,
and if you right-click on the file you'll see "Open with Elvis" as one of
the options.
</dl>
<h2>C.7 <a name="Miscellany">Miscellany</a></h2>
<dl>
<dt><strong>Test <!-- test check look --> for certain text within a file</strong>
<dd>This is sometimes handy in scripts and aliases.
For example, the <a href="elvisses.html#elvis.arf">elvis.arf</a> script
uses this to detect mode lines and the "hash pling" header on other
types of scripts, such as shell scripts which start with
"<code>#!/bin/sh</code>".
<p>One nice trick is to use the <code>x</code> flag of Elvis'
<a href="elvisex.html#substitute">:s</a> command.
It not only detects text, but can incorporate that text into the commands.
For example, to compute the total of all numbers in all lines, you could...
<pre>
:set t=0
:%s/\&lt;[[:digit:]]\+\&gt;/let t = t + &amp;/gx
:set t?</pre>
<p>Note that this series of commands does not affect the edit buffer.
The <code>x</code> flag prevents the substitution from taking place;
the replacement text is executed instead.
<p>You can also use the <a href="elvisex.html#try">:try</a> command
to run a search command, and then use <a href="elvisex.html#then">:then</a>
and <a href="elvisex.html#else">:else</a> to act differently depending on
whether the search succeeded or not.
<pre>
:try /Yow!
:then echo Zippy was here
:else echo Where in the world is Zippy the Pinhead?</pre>
<p>You can also use the <code>current("word")</code> and <code>line()</code>
<a href="elvisexp.html#FUNCTIONS">functions</a> to fetch the word at the cursor
location, or a whole line, respectively.
<pre>
:let w=current("word")
:let l=line(1)</pre>
<dt><strong>Find the <!-- option's --> short name (or group name) of an option</strong>
<dd>Finding the long name of an option is easy, thanks to
<a href="elvisex.html#Tab">name completion</a>.
To find the short name of an option, or the name of its group, run the
<a href="elvisex.html#set">:set!</a> command (with a <code>!</code>) and
the long option name, followed by a <code>?</code> character.
(For non-Boolean options, the <code>?</code> is optional.)
<pre>
:set! wrapmargin?</pre>
<p>This will produce output like "win.wm=0", indicating that the short name
is "wm", the group name is "win" (so each window has its own margin), and
the value is 0.
<dt><strong>Recover <!--recover--> files <!--edit buffers changes--> after a crash</strong>
<dd>This is described in the <a href="elvisses.html#RECOVER">Sessions</a>
chapter of the manual.
Briefly, run "<code>elvis -r</code>" to start a new Elvis process on the
old session file, and then use the <a href="elvisex.html#buffer">:buffer</a>
command to list the buffers.
You can then use other commands to save those buffers; for example, to
save a buffer named "main.c" into a file named "main.c.recovered", you
would give this command:
<pre>
:(main.c)w&nbsp;main.c.recovered</pre>
<dt><strong>Recognize <!--recognize parse handle understand read perl--> error messages <!--errors-->with an unusual<!--perl weird other different--> format <!--style--></strong>
<dd>Elvis' <a href="elvisex.html#make">:make</a> and
<a href="elvisex.html#cc">:cc</a> commands assume that all error messages have
a format that resembles that of <strong>gcc</strong>:
A file name and line number appear at the beginning of the line (possibly with
some punctuation or the word "line" mixed in), an optional "error" or "warning"
code, and then the description of the error to finish the line. Elvis is
very good at parsing messages that use formats which resemble this, but
there is no explicit way to make Elvis parse any other format.
<p>However, it is usually possible to construct a little "filter" program to
convert other error message formats into one that Elvis can recognize.
The <a href="elvistip.html">Tips chapter</a> has an example of how to make
Elvis handle <a href="elvistip.html#perlerr">PERL's error messages</a>.
<dt><strong>Input<!--input type enter key--> non-ASCII<!--non-ascii accented foreign international--> characters<!--letters--></strong>
<dd>Elvis supports several ways to enter non-ASCII characters:
<ul>
<li>If your keyboard driver supports entry of non-ASCII characters, then that
method should work in Elvis.
However, "dead keys" have been reported to cause trouble.
<li>Digraphs combine two ASCII characters to form a single non-ASCII character.
See the <a href="elvisex.html#digraph">:digraph</a> command,
<a href="elvisopt.html#digraph">digraph</a> option, and the discussion in
the <a href="elvisinp.html#DIG">Input Mode</a> chapter.
Briefly, the secret is to type <kbd>&lt;Ctrl-K&gt;</kbd> and then the two
ASCII characters that you want to combine,
such as <kbd>&lt;Ctrl-K&gt;&lt;n&gt;&lt;~&gt;</kbd> for "&ntilde;".
<li>You can type <kbd>&lt;Ctrl-X&gt;</kbd> followed by two hex characters to
enter any byte into the edit buffer... provided you know the hex code for
the character you want, of course.
</ul>
<p>If you're having trouble displaying non-ASCII characters, then you may want
to look into the <a href="elvisopt.html#nonascii">nonascii</a> option.
Also, on Unix systems you should verify that your terminal is configured
correctly (8 bits, not 7 -- and the Latin-1 character set is installed).
<dt><strong>Change <!--change use a different--> the default address range for a command</strong>
<dd>This is sometimes desirable in an <a href="elvistip.html#ALIAS">alias</a>.
For example the <a href="elvisex.html#write">:w</a> command writes all lines
by default, but <a href="elvisex.html#substitute">:s</a> alters only one line
by default.
You may want to write a macro that uses both of them with the same default,
or just one of them with a different default.
<p>The most straightforward way to do this is to use the
<strong>!(</strong><var>default</var><strong>)%</strong> notation.
Specifically, <strong>!(.)%</strong> will make any command in an alias default
to using just the current line, and <strong>!(%)%</strong> will make any
command default to using all lines.
<p>Here's a simple word-counting alias which uses this technique to count
the words in all lines by default...
<pre>
alias wcw {
local w=0
!(%)% s/\w\+/let w=w+1/gx
calc w
}
</pre>
<dt><strong>Execute <!--execute iterate loop--> a particular command separately for each line in a <!--an address--> range <!-- loop looping--></strong>
<dd>The <a href="elvisex.html#global">:g</a> command does this, but only for
the lines which contain a given regular expression.
You can trick it into executing the command for every line by making it look
for something that every line has.
Since every line has a beginning, you can use <strong>:g/^/</strong><var>command</var> to execute the command for every line.
<p>Note that the <a href="elvisex.html#global">:g</a> command can be used with
an address range.
This is often convenient.
<p>Here's an alias which uses this technique to search for the longest line
(assuming all characters are of equal width -- no tabs or control characters)...
<pre>
alias widest {
local w=0 l
!%g/^/ {
if strlen(line()) &gt; w
then let w = strlen(line())
then let l = current("line")
}
calc "Line" l "is the longest, at" w "characters."
}
</pre>
<dt><strong>Execute <!--execute iterate loop--> a command for each line in a <!--an address--> particular type of region <!-- loop looping--></strong>
<dd>This is similar to the above "Execute a command for each line in a range"
topic.
The only difference is, we want to add a test to see if the current line is
part of the desired <a href="elvisex.html#REGION">region</a>.
Here's an alias named "inregion" which does this:
<pre>
alias inregion {
normal mz
!%g/^/ {
if current("region") == "!1"
then !2*
}
normal `z
}</pre>
<p>And here's an example of how to use it.
This example converts any lines in a "mixed" region to uppercase.
<pre>
:inregion mixed s/.*/\U&amp;/</pre>
<dt><strong>Convert <!--convert generate produce derive-->plain text to HTML <!--html--> source <!--input tagged text with tags--></strong>
<dd>Other than the obvious (a long series of manual edit commands),
there are two ways that you can convert text to HTML in Elvis.
<p>The most straightforward method is to build an alias which performs a series
of substitutions.
The problem with this method is that it must be rewritten for each type of
input text.
Here's an example of a fairly simple alias that converts plain text to HTML.
(There is a more powerful version of
<a href="elvistip.html#makehtml">:makehtml</a> in the standard distribution's
<a href="elvisses.html#elvis.ali">elvis.ali</a> file.)
<pre>
alias makehtml {
"Convert plain text to HTML
local report=0
"
"Protect characters which are special to HTML
try !(%)%s/&amp;/\&amp;amp;/g
try !(%)%s/&lt;/\&amp;lt;/g
try !(%)%s/&gt;/\&amp;gt;/g
"
"Convert blank lines to &lt;p&gt; tags
try !(%)s/^$/&lt;p&gt;/
"
"If converting the whole file, then add &lt;html&gt;...&lt;/html&gt;
if "!%" == ""
then {
$a &lt;/body&gt;&lt;/html&gt;
1i &lt;html&gt;&lt;body&gt;
}
}
</pre>
<p>The other way is simpler and more versatile,
though it does require the use of an external file.
It uses the <a href="elvisex.html#lpr">:lpr</a> command with
<a href="elvisopt.html#lptype">lptype=html</a>.
Since Elvis' print mechanism supports all of Elvis' display modes,
you can use this technique to convert any type of text (or even a hex dump
of a binary file) into HTML.
The main disadvantage of this method is, the resulting HTML is rendered
exactly as it looks on the screen -- so plain text basically just has
&lt;pre&gt; and &lt;/pre&gt; wrapped around it, nothing else.
<pre>
:set lptype=html lplines=0 nolpheader
:lp foo.html
</pre>
<dt><strong>Add <!--add insert--> new text around highlighted text, via a macro.</strong>
<dd>The main trick is to use the visual <a href="elvisvi.html#c">c</a> command
to change the highlighted text, and then use <kbd>^P</kbd> as part of the
replacement text.
While typing the replacement text, <kbd>^P</kbd> causes a copy of the original
text to be inserted.
So, for example, the following macro could be used to add HTML <strong>&lt;strong&gt;</strong>
and <strong>&lt;/strong&gt; </strong>tags around the highlighted text.
<pre>
:map select B c&lt;strong&gt;^P&lt;/strong&gt;^[
</pre>
(Note: When typing that :map command into Elvis, you'll need to type
&lt;Ctrl-V&gt;&lt;Ctrl-P&gt; to get the <kbd>^P</kbd>, and
&lt;Ctrl-V&gt;&lt;Esc&gt; to get the <kbd>^[</kbd> character.)
<dd>
<dt><strong>Display <!--display show--> the size <!--number of lines columns--> of a <!--resized-->window when it is resized<!--size changes resize--></strong>
<dd>You can use the <a href="elvisex.html#autocmd">:au</a>
<a href="elvistip.html#OptChanged">OptChanged</a> command to detect when the
lines or columns options change, and display a message showing the new values.
<pre>
:au OptChanged lines,columns message (columns)x(lines)</pre>
</dl>
<h2>C.8 <a name="Contacts">Contacts</a></h2>
<dl>
<dt><strong>Request <!--request get obtain receive-->technical support <!--help questions answers--></strong>
<dd>The best way to get technical support is by posting a question on the
<a href="news:comp.editors">comp.editors</a> newsgroup.
Be sure to mention "Elvis" in the subject line, and try to include a succinct
description of the problem there, too.
In the body of the message, be sure to mention the version of Elvis you're
using (as reported by "<code>elvis --version</code>"), and your operating system.
<dt><strong>Inform <!--report tell complain inform--> the authors about <!--of--> a bug <!--bugs problems--></strong>
<dd>Bugs should be reported via e-mail.
You may not always receive prompt confirmation, but your bug reports are
appreciated, and acted-upon.
For OS-specific bugs, you should contact the person who ported Elvis to your
operating system; the author's names and e-mail addresses are listed in the
<a href="elvisos.html">Operating Systems</a> chapter.
<p>For general bug reports, you should contact the primary author,
Steve Kirkendall,
at <a href="mailto:kirkenda@cs.pdx.edu">kirkenda@cs.pdx.edu</a>.
<p>Either way, be sure to mention the version of Elvis you're using
(as reported by "elvis --version"), and your operating system.
<dt><strong>Suggest <!--suggest recommend request ask for add offer give--> a new feature</strong>
<dd>Contact the authors as though you were reporting a bug.
See above.
<dt><strong>Get <!--get obtain find--> the latest <!--new newer newest most recent--> version <!--release--> of Elvis<!--elvis--></strong>
<dd>See the "Information via the Web" section of the
<a href="elvistip.html#URLS">Tips</a> chapter.
It has links to various Elvis-related sites.
</dl>
</body>
</html>
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