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/*
This 'C' module may be included prior to the ``main'' programs on VMS in
order to allow 'C' arguments to contain redirection symbols (<,>,>>) and
VMS wild cards (*,% ...], [-). By including this module, two programs
redirect() and expand() are run prior to turning control over to
your main() entry point.
/*
redirect-- Gregg Townsend circa 1983,
expand-- John Campbell circa 1987
This code is public domain, others may use it freely. Credit, however, to
Gregg Townsend (who wrote ``redirect()'') and John Campbell (who followed
with ``expand()'') would be appreciated. If someone writes the next
logical successor ``pipe()'', please email a copy to
...!arizona!naucse!jdc (John Campbell) :-).
*/
#include <rms> /* No easy way to tell if this has already been included. */
#ifndef ERANGE /* Include only if missing. */
/* #include <stdlib> causes lots of warnings. */
#endif
#include <stdio.h> /* Stdio.h won't include itself twice. */
/* Expansion of wild cards is done using RMS. */
typedef struct NAMBLK { struct NAM nam; /* VMS nam block structure */
char es[NAM$C_MAXRSS], /* Extended string */
rs[NAM$C_MAXRSS]; /* Resultant string */
};
#define ErrorExit 2
/* Allow the user to override _N_FARGS or _E_FLAG if they wish. */
#ifndef _N_FARGS
#define _N_FARGS 0
#endif
#ifndef _E_FLAG
#define _E_FLAG 2
#endif
/*
Since the following will possibly be included in a single module, try
hard to avoid name conflicts. (Just being static doesn't cut it if
compiled in the same module.)
*/
#define redirect _r_edirect
#define filearg _f_ilearg
#define expand _e_xpand
#define wild_found _w_ild_found
#define wild_expand _w_ild_expand
main(argc, argv, envp)
int argc;
char *argv[], *envp[];
{
char **expand();
redirect (&argc, argv, _N_FARGS);
argv = expand (&argc, argv, _E_FLAG);
/* Make the user's main entry point this routine's entry point. */
#define main _user_main
_user_main (argc, argv, envp);
}
/*
* redirect(&argc,argv,nfargs) - redirect standard I/O
* int *argc number of command arguments (from call to main)
* char *argv[] command argument list (from call to main)
* int nfargs number of filename arguments to process
*
* argc and argv will be adjusted by redirect.
*
* redirect processes a program's command argument list and handles redirection
* of stdin, and stdout. Any arguments which redirect I/O are removed from the
* argument list, and argc is adjusted accordingly. redirect would typically be
* called as the first statement in the main program.
*
* Files are redirected based on syntax or position of command arguments.
* Arguments of the following forms always redirect a file:
*
* <file redirects standard input to read the given file
* >file redirects standard output to write to the given file
* >>file redirects standard output to append to the given file
*
* It is often useful to allow alternate input and output files as the
* first two command arguments without requiring the <file and >file
* syntax. If the nfargs argument to redirect is 2 or more then the
* first two command arguments, if supplied, will be interpreted in this
* manner: the first argument replaces stdin and the second stdout.
* A filename of "-" may be specified to occupy a position without
* performing any redirection.
*
* If nfargs is 1, only the first argument will be considered and will
* replace standard input if given. Any arguments processed by setting
* nfargs > 0 will be removed from the argument list, and again argc will
* be adjusted. Positional redirection follows syntax-specified
* redirection and therefore overrides it.
*
*/
redirect(argc,argv,nfargs)
int *argc, nfargs;
char *argv[];
{
int i;
i = 1;
while (i < *argc) { /* for every command argument... */
switch (argv[i][0]) { /* check first character */
case '<': /* <file redirects stdin */
filearg(argc,argv,i,1,stdin,"r");
break;
case '>': /* >file or >>file redirects stdout */
if (argv[i][1] == '>')
filearg(argc,argv,i,2,stdout,"a");
else
filearg(argc,argv,i,1,stdout,"w");
break;
default: /* not recognized, go on to next arg */
i++;
}
}
if (nfargs >= 1 && *argc > 1) /* if positional redirection & 1 arg */
filearg(argc,argv,1,0,stdin,"r"); /* then redirect stdin */
if (nfargs >= 2 && *argc > 1) /* likewise for 2nd arg if wanted */
filearg(argc,argv,1,0,stdout,"w");/* redirect stdout */
}
/* filearg(&argc,argv,n,i,fp,mode) - redirect and remove file argument
* int *argc number of command arguments (from call to main)
* char *argv[] command argument list (from call to main)
* int n argv entry to use as file name and then delete
* int i first character of file name to use (skip '<' etc.)
* FILE *fp file pointer for file to reopen (typically stdin etc.)
* char mode[] file access mode (see freopen spec)
*/
filearg(argc,argv,n,i,fp,mode)
int *argc, n, i;
char *argv[], mode[];
FILE *fp;
{
if (strcmp(argv[n]+i,"-")) /* alter file if arg not "-" */
fp = freopen(argv[n]+i,mode,fp);
if (fp == NULL) { /* abort on error */
fprintf(stderr,"%%can't open %s",argv[n]+i);
exit(ErrorExit);
}
for ( ; n < *argc; n++) /* move down following arguments */
argv[n] = argv[n+1];
*argc = *argc - 1; /* decrement argument count */
}
/* EXPAND code. */
/* Global prototype. */
char **expand (int *argc, const char *argv[], const int flag);
/*-
``expand()'' is a routine to expand wild-cards to file specifications.
This routine is often used in conjunction with ``redirect()'' to provide
both wild card expansion and standard file redirection prior to doing
any real work in a 'C' program.
Normal usage is to include the following line prior to using argc or
argv in main():
argv = expand (&argc, argv, 0);
``argc'' will be adjusted by ``expand()'', the return value from expand
will replace ``argv''.
``expand()'' processes a program's command argument list and expands any
wild cards into zero or more argv entries. Only arguments that posses VMS
wild-cards are expanded. Wild cards searched for are ``*'', ``%'',
``...]'', and ``[-''. If the wild-card is found inside a single or double
quote ("*" or '%') then they are not counted as wild-cards. Be aware that
the expansion of a VMS wild card will match all VMS files, including
directory files (".DIR;1").
NOTE: The use of quotes in VMS requires thinking about how the CLI expands
things before handing the argument line over to your program. Do not
expect "*" to avoid expansion, use """*""" instead. Likewise, expression
substitution precludes the use of (') to quote wild cards:
$ A := HELLO
$ ECHO 'a' ! 'C' program that calls ``expand()''
hello
The easiest way to escape a wild-card may be "'*'". The point is that
``expand()'' will only recognize quotes passed into main().
``expand()'' references the VMS runtime routines, you will need to
link with the 'C' RTL whenever expand is used.
Parameters:
argc: Pointer to the number of command arguments (from main),
the contents of this parameter are modified.
argv: Pointer to the initial command argument list (from main),
the contents are copied into a new array which is returned
from this routine.
flag: Flag indicating how to expand wild-cards:
0 - Complete file name expansion
1 - only file name (no directory or version).
2 - directory info and file name (no version).
3 - file name and version info (no directory).
-*/
/* Local prototypes. */
int wild_found (char *string);
char **wild_expand (const char *string, char **argv, int *argc,
int extra, int flag);
/*
General note: removing the prototyping and const keywords should
allow this code to compile with VMS 'C' compilers prior to version
2.3-024.
*/
char **expand (int *argc, char *argv[], int flag)
/*
Routine to expand all the arguments from main(argc,argv). The
return value is a pointer to a new (expanded) argv array.
Parameters:
argc: Pointer to the number of command arguments (from main),
the contents of this parameter are modified.
argv: Pointer to the initial command argument list (from main),
the contents are copied into a new array which is returned
from this routine.
flag: Flag indicating how to expand wild-card:
0 - Complete file name expansion
1 - only file name (no directory or version).
2 - directory info and file name (no version).
3 - file name and version info (no directory).
*/
{
int i, nargc;
char **nargv, **wild_expand();
char *start, *end;
/* Get an initial amount of memory for the master nargv array. */
if ((nargv = (char **)malloc ((*argc+1) * sizeof (char *))) == NULL) {
fprintf (stderr, "Not enough memory to expand argument list\n");
exit (ErrorExit);
}
/*
Fix the command string so that it only has the name and not the path of
the function (more in line with what unix reports with argv[0]
*/
start = argv[0];
end = argv[0] + strlen (argv[0]);
while (start < end) {
/* Scan from the back for the first '.' and replace it with a '\0' */
if (*end == '.') *end = '\0';
/* And trim off path if it is found. */
if (*end == ']') {
end++;
break;
}
--end;
}
nargv[0] = end;
/* Copy each argument, expanding those that have wild characters. */
for (nargc = i = 1; i < *argc; i++) {
if (wild_found(argv[i]))
nargv = wild_expand(argv[i], nargv, &nargc, *argc-i, flag);
else
nargv[nargc++] = argv[i];
}
*argc = nargc;
nargv[nargc] = NULL; /* realloc always 0 fills, but... */
return nargv;
}
static int wild_found (char *string)
/*
Routine to search the given string for a VMS wild-card pattern.
Returns 1 if "*", "%", "[-", or "...]" is found. (This may not
be all VMS wild-cards but it is enough for now--anyone that wants
to recognize others can change this code.)
Parameter:
string: '\0' terminated character array.
*/
{
int state = 0;
/*
State of 0 is "rest" state. State 1 on our way to [-, states 2-4
on our way to ...], negative states indicate the two quotes (' -10,
" -1).
*/
for ( ;*string; string++) {
switch (*string) {
case '*':
case '%':
if (state >= 0)
return 1; /* Unquoted % or * found. */
break;
case '[':
if (state >= 0)
state = 1;
break;
case ']':
if (state == 4)
return 1; /* Unquoted ...] found. */
else if (state >= 0)
state = 0;
break;
case '-':
if (state == 1)
return 1; /* Unquoted [- found. */
else if (state >= 0)
state = 0;
break;
case '.':
if (state == 1 || state == 0)
state = 2; /* First '.' */
else if (state > 1 && state < 5)
state++; /* ... == states 2, 3, 4 */
else if (state >= 0)
state = 0;
break;
case '\'':
if (state <= -10)
state += 10; /* One ', possibly one " also */
else if (state < 0)
state -= 10; /* 0 ', possibly one " */
else
state = -10; /* No ' or " prior to this ' */
break;
case '"':
if (state == -11)
state = -10; /* Both " and ' prior to this. */
else if (state == -10)
state = -11; /* A ' prior to this. */
else if (state == -1)
state = 0; /* A " prior to this. */
else
state = -1; /* No ' or " prior to this " */
break;
}
}
return 0;
}
static char **wild_expand (const char *wild, char **argv,
int *argc, int extra, int flag)
/*
Routine to expand wild into new arguments appended to the end
of argv[*argc]. This routine must realloc in order to make room
for the individual arguments and malloc for enough space for each
of the arguments. The return value is a new **argv.
Parameters:
wild: '\0' terminated string that needs to be expanded.
argv: initial starting address of the argv array.
argc: pointer to an integer that tells the current end of the
argument list.
extra: The number of extra pointers that the returned argv
must have available for future assignments.
flag: Flag indicating how to expand wild-card:
0 - Complete file name expansion
1 - only file name (no directory or version).
2 - directory info and file name (no version)
3 - file name and version info (no directory).
*/
{
int more_to_go = 1, err, length, status, len_wild;
char *namptr; /* , *strncpy(); Picky, but bothers other main programs */
struct FAB fab_blk;
struct NAMBLK nam_blk;
len_wild = strlen(wild);
/* Initialize all the fab and nam fields needed for parse and search */
fab_blk = cc$rms_fab; /* Initialize FAB structure */
nam_blk.nam = cc$rms_nam; /* Initialize NAM structure */
fab_blk.fab$l_dna = ".*"; /* Default file specif. */
fab_blk.fab$b_dns = 2; /* Length of default spec. */
fab_blk.fab$l_nam = &nam_blk.nam; /* Set address of NAM in FAB*/
nam_blk.nam.nam$b_ess = NAM$C_MAXRSS; /* Set extended string size*/
nam_blk.nam.nam$l_esa = &nam_blk.es; /* and address */
nam_blk.nam.nam$b_rss = NAM$C_MAXRSS; /* Set resultant string size*/
nam_blk.nam.nam$l_rsa = &nam_blk.rs; /* and address */
nam_blk.nam.nam$l_rlf = NULL; /* No related file address */
fab_blk.fab$l_fna = wild; /* Address of file name string */
fab_blk.fab$b_fns = len_wild; /* Length of file name string */
/* Prepare to enter the search loop, parse fab. */
err = SYS$PARSE (&fab_blk);
/* Catch the directory not found error and return no files found. */
if (err != RMS$_NORMAL)
exit(err);
while (more_to_go) {
err = SYS$SEARCH (&fab_blk);
if (err == RMS$_NMF || err == RMS$_FNF)
more_to_go = 0; /* Done, no more files found */
else if (err != RMS$_NORMAL)
exit (err);
else {
/* Count that we now have this many arguments. */
(*argc)++;
/* Make sure there is room for a new pointer. */
if ((argv = realloc (argv, (*argc + extra)*sizeof(char *))) == NULL) {
fprintf (stderr, "Not enough memory to expand argument list\n");
exit(ErrorExit);
}
/* Move the right name into the list. */
switch (flag) {
case 0: /* Complete file name */
length = nam_blk.nam.nam$b_rsl;
namptr = &nam_blk.rs;
break;
case 1: /* File name only (no directory or version). */
length = nam_blk.nam.nam$b_name + nam_blk.nam.nam$b_type;
namptr = nam_blk.nam.nam$l_name;
break;
case 2: /* directory and file name (no version) */
length = nam_blk.nam.nam$b_rsl - nam_blk.nam.nam$b_ver;
namptr = &nam_blk.rs;
break;
case 3: /* File name and version (no directory). */
length = nam_blk.nam.nam$b_name +
nam_blk.nam.nam$b_type +
nam_blk.nam.nam$b_ver;
namptr = nam_blk.nam.nam$l_name;
break;
default:
fprintf (stderr, "illegal flag used in VMS expand call\n");
exit (ErrorExit);
}
/* Copy the requested string into the argument array. */
if ((argv[*argc-1] = malloc (length+1)) == NULL) {
fprintf (stderr, "Not enough memory to expand argument list\n");
exit (ErrorExit);
}
(void )strncpy (argv[*argc-1], namptr, length);
argv[*argc-1][length] = '\0';
}
}
return (argv);
}
/* Remove all the defines that might affect the user's code. */
#undef redirect
#undef filearg
#undef expand
#undef wild_found
#undef wild_expand
#ifdef __TST_ECHO /* Example code using expand(). */
# ifndef __FILE
#include stdio
#endif
main(argc, argv)
int argc;
char *argv[];
/*
This main program allows you to run experiments with ``expand()''.
Try $ echo *.*, $ echo -f1 [-...]*.*, $ echo -f[0-3] *.*.
Questions about using "%", "\", etc. may be answered by testing
with this version of echo.
To use this, of course, you need to link directly with expand--
avoiding the substitution of main with _user_main above.
*/
{
int i, flag=0;
char **expand();
for(i=1; i<argc; i++)
printf("%s %c", argv[i], (i<argc-1) ? ' ':'\n');
if (argc > 1 && argv[1][0] == '-' && argv[1][1] == 'f')
flag = atoi (&argv[1][2]);
argv = expand (&argc, argv, flag);
printf ("\n\n");
for(i=1; i<argc; i++)
printf("%s %c", argv[i], flag%2 == 0 ? '\n' : i%4 == 0 ? '\n':'\t');
}
#endif /* __TST_ECHO */
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