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.TH CTAGS 1
.SH NAME
ctags \- Generates "tags" and (optionally) "refs" files
.SH SYNOPSIS
.B ctags
.RB [ \-D
.IR word ]
.RB [ \-FBNgitvshlpdxra ]
.I files...
.SH VERSION
This page describes the
.B Elvis 2.2_1
version of
.BR c\&tags .
See
.BR elvis (1).
.SH DESCRIPTION
.B ctags
generates the
.I tags
and
.I refs
files from a group of C source files.
The
.I tags
file is used by Elvis' ":tag" command,
\fB^]\fR command, and \fB\-t\fR option.
The
.I refs
file is sometimes used by the
.BR ref (1)
program.
.PP
Each C source file is scanned for #define statements and
global function definitions.
The name of the macro or function becomes the name of a tag.
For each tag, a line is added to the
.I tags
file.
.PP
The filenames list will typically be the names of all C source
files in the current directory, like this:
.RS
.nf
$ ctags *.c *.h
.RE
.fi
.SH OPTIONS
If no options are given, then
.B ctags
acts as though the
.B \-l \-i \-t \-v
and
.B \-s
option flags were given.
If you want to omit those options, you can do so by explicitly giving
a harmless option such as
.BR \-F.
.IP \fB\-D\fIword\fR
This causes Elvis to ignore any instance of "\fIword\fR" in your source code.
This is handy if you're using a macro for conditionally declaring the arguments
to functions, in order to make your code be backward-compatible with older K&R
C compilers.
\fIctags\fR always ignores "P_" and "__P";
the \fB\-D\fIword\fR flag allows you to make it ignore a third word.
.IP \fB\-F\fR
Enclose regular expressions in slashes (/regexp/) which will cause
.BR elvis (1)
to search from the top of the file.
This is the default.
.IP \fB\-B\fR
Enclose the regular expressions in question marks (?regexp?) so
.BR elvis (1)
will search backward from the bottom of the file.
The search direction rarely matters; this option exists mostly for
compatibility with earlier versions of ctags.
.IP \fB\-N\fR
This causes
.B ctags
to use line numbers for all tags.
Without this flag, it would use numbers for #define'ed macros,
and regular expressions for anything else.
.IP \fB\-g\fR
For static tags, generate entries that look like global tags.
(I.e., never generate an extra "file:" attribute.)
This implies \-s and \-h.
.IP \fB\-i\fR
Include inline definitions.
A tag will be generated for each function which is declared as being
inline, __inline, or __inline__.
.IP \fB\-t\fR
Include typedefs.
A tag will be generated for each user-defined type.
Also tags will be generated for struct and enum names.
Types are considered to be global if they are defined in a header file,
and static if they are defined in a C source file.
.IP \fB\-v\fR
Include variable declarations.
A tag will be generated for each variable, except for those that are declared
inside the body of a function.
.IP \fB\-s\fR
Include static tags.
.B ctags
will normally put global tags in the
.I tags
file, and silently ignore the static tags.
This flag causes both global and static tags to be added.
.IP \fB\-e\fR
Include extern tags.
.B ctags
will normally ignore extern declarations of functions or variables;
that's handy when generating tags for your own programs.
A tags file for the extern declarations in the system's standard header files
can be a very handy resource, so this \fB\-e\fR flag was created.
.IP \fB\-h\fR
Add hints that may help Elvis handle overloaded tags better.
The resulting tags file may be unreadable by programs other than Elvis, though.
.IP \fB\-l\fR
Add "ln" line number hints.
This implies \fB\-h\fR, since it would be pointless if hints weren't allowed.
The "ln" hints are used by
.BR elvis (1)
to make its "showtag" option work much faster.
.IP \fB\-p\fR
Write parsing information to stdout.
This is intended mainly as an aid to debugging the \fIctags\fR command itself.
If \fIctags\fR doesn't generate all of the tags that you expect it to,
then try studying the \fB\-p\fR output to determine what syntax feature is
tripping it up.
.IP \fB\-d\fR
Warn about duplicates, on stdout.
.B ctags
allows tags with duplicate names, except for typedefs (tags with kind=t)
which must be unique.
When a duplicate tag is detected,
.B ctags
can either add it if neither the new tag nor the existing one has "kind=t",
skip it if the existing one has "kind=t", or
add it and delete the existing one if the new one has "kind=t".
Usually you won't care, but
.B \-d
may help you understand why
.I ctags
fails to add a tag that you expected it to add.
.IP \fB\-x\fR
Generate a human-readable tag list instead of a "tags" file.
The list is written to stdout.
Each line contains a tag name, the line number and file name where
the tag is defined, and the text of that line.
.IP \fB\-r\fP
This causes
.B ctags
to generate both
.I tags
and
.IR refs .
Without \fB\-r\fP, it would only generate
.IR tags .
.IP \fB\-a\fR
Append to
.IR tags ,
and maybe
.IR refs .
Normally,
.B ctags
overwrites these files each time it is invoked.
This flag is useful when you have too many files in the current directory
for you to list them on a single command-line;
it allows you to split the arguments among several invocations.
.B "This may result in an unsorted tags file."
.SH "FORMAT OF THE TAGS FILE"
The
.I tags
file is a text file.
Each line stores the attributes of a single tag.
The basic format of a line is:
.IP
\(bu the name of the tag
.br
\(bu a tab character
.br
\(bu the name of the file containing the tag
.br
\(bu a tab character
.br
\(bu the tag's address within that file
.PP
The tag address may be given as either line number (a string of digits),
or a regular expression using ex/vi's "nomagic" syntax, delimited by either
slashes or question marks.
Regular expressions are allowed to contain tab characters.
.PP
The authors of Elvis, Vim, and "Exuberant" Ctags have agreed on a
standard format for adding additional attributes to tags.
In this format, the first three fields of all tags are identical to the
traditional format, except that a semicolon-doublequote character pair
is appended to the tag address field, with the extra attributes appearing
after that.
.PP
The semicolon-doublequote character pair is present because it has the
surprising side-effect of making the original ex/vi ignore the remainder
of the line, thus allowing the original ex/vi to read new-format tags files.
The original ex/vi will simply ignore the extra attributes.
.PP
Any additional attributes are appended to the tag's line.
They may be appended in any order.
Each attribute will use the following format:
.IP
\(bu a tab character
.br
\(bu the name of the attribute
.br
\(bu a colon character, ':'
.br
\(bu the value of the attribute.
.PP
Note that each additional attribute has an explicit name.
Different tags files may use totally different names for additional attributes,
and even within a single file, most tags will use only a subset of the
possible attributes.
This version of ctags uses the following names:
.IP file
This attribute is used to mark static tags -- i.e., tags for C/C++ functions
or variables whose scope is limited to the function in which they are
defined.
The value is the name of the file where it is defined,
except that if the file is the same as field 2
(and it nearly always is)
then the value may be given as a zero-length string.
.IP class
This is used to mark member functions of C++ classes.
The value is the class name.
However, currently ctags doesn't do a very good job of detecting whether a
function is a member function or not.
.IP kind
This attribute's value is a single letter, indicating the lexical type
of the tagged identifier:
\fBf\fR for a function,
\fBt\fR for a typedef,
\fBs\fR for a struct tag,
\fBu\fR for a union tag,
\fBv\fR for a variable,
\fBd\fR for a macro definition, or
\fBx\fR for an extern declaration.
.IP
Note that in the tags file, the "kind:" label is omitted, for the sake of compactness.
.IP ln
This gives the line number where the tag was defined.
It is redundant, but it is still somewhat useful because it allows
.BR elvis (1)'s
"showtag" option to work faster.
.PP
The values can only contain tabs if those tabs are converted to the '\\t'
(backslash-t) notation.
Similarly, a newline, carriage return, or literal backslash can be given
as '\\n', '\\r', or '\\\\' respectively.
For MS-DOS file names, this means the names must use double backslashes.
Space characters don't require any special encoding.
(This doesn't apply to file names in the
.I tagfile
field, where names can be given without any special encoding.
It only applies to file names in extra fields.)
.PP
As a special case, if an extra attribute contains no ':' to delimit the
name from the value, then the attribute string is assumed to be the value
of an attribute named "kind".
Usually this will be a single letter indicating what type of token the
tag represents -- 'f' for function, 'v' for variable, and so on.
.PP
Here's an example of a new-format tag:
.RS
.nf
bar foo.c /^void Foo::bar(int zot)$/;" class:Foo
.fi
.RE
The tagname is "bar", to match its function's name.
The tagfile is "foo.c".
The tagaddress is a regular expression containing the whole definition line.
Note that a semicolon-doublequote character pair has been appended to the
tagaddress.
There is only one additional attribute, with the name "class" and the value
"Foo".
.SH FILES
.IP tags
A cross-reference that lists each tag name, the name of the source file that
contains it, and a way to locate a particular line in the source file.
.IP refs
The
.I refs
file contains the definitions for each tag in the
.I tags
file, and very little else.
This file can be useful, for example, when licensing restrictions prevent
you from making the source code to the standard C library readable by everybody,
but you still want everybody to know what arguments the library functions need.
.SH BUGS
.B ctags
is sensitive to indenting and line breaks.
Consequently, it might not discover all of the tags in a file that
is formatted in an unusual way.
.PP
The
.B \-a
flag causes tag files to be appended, but not necessarily sorted.
Some programs expect tags files to be sorted, and will misbehave if they
aren't.
Also, the new format allows a "!_TAG_FILE_SORTED" marker near the top of the
file to indicate whether the file is sorted, but that might not be accurate
after new tags are appended to the file.
Consequently, you should avoid the use of
.BR \-a .
.PP
The new standard doesn't specify how overloaded operators are to be labelled.
If your C++ source contains a definition of operator+=(), then this version of
.B ctags
will store a tag named "operator+=".
Other versions of ctags could simply use the name "+=".
.SH "SEE ALSO"
.BR elvis (1),
.BR ref (1)
.SH AUTHOR
Steve Kirkendall
.br
kirkenda@cs.pdx.edu
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