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Changes between 0.9.8l and 0.9.8m [25 Feb 2010]
*) Always check bn_wexpend() return values for failure. (CVE-2009-3245)
[Martin Olsson, Neel Mehta]
*) Fix X509_STORE locking: Every 'objs' access requires a lock (to
accommodate for stack sorting, always a write lock!).
[Bodo Moeller]
*) On some versions of WIN32 Heap32Next is very slow. This can cause
excessive delays in the RAND_poll(): over a minute. As a workaround
include a time check in the inner Heap32Next loop too.
[Steve Henson]
*) The code that handled flushing of data in SSL/TLS originally used the
BIO_CTRL_INFO ctrl to see if any data was pending first. This caused
the problem outlined in PR#1949. The fix suggested there however can
trigger problems with buggy BIO_CTRL_WPENDING (e.g. some versions
of Apache). So instead simplify the code to flush unconditionally.
This should be fine since flushing with no data to flush is a no op.
[Steve Henson]
*) Handle TLS versions 2.0 and later properly and correctly use the
highest version of TLS/SSL supported. Although TLS >= 2.0 is some way
off ancient servers have a habit of sticking around for a while...
[Steve Henson]
*) Modify compression code so it frees up structures without using the
ex_data callbacks. This works around a problem where some applications
call CRYPTO_cleanup_all_ex_data() before application exit (e.g. when
restarting) then use compression (e.g. SSL with compression) later.
This results in significant per-connection memory leaks and
has caused some security issues including CVE-2008-1678 and
[Steve Henson]
*) Constify crypto/cast (i.e., <openssl/cast.h>): a CAST_KEY doesn't
change when encrypting or decrypting.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add option SSL_OP_LEGACY_SERVER_CONNECT which will allow clients to
connect and renegotiate with servers which do not support RI.
Until RI is more widely deployed this option is enabled by default.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add "missing" ssl ctrls to clear options and mode.
[Steve Henson]
*) If client attempts to renegotiate and doesn't support RI respond with
a no_renegotiation alert as required by RFC5746. Some renegotiating
TLS clients will continue a connection gracefully when they receive
the alert. Unfortunately OpenSSL mishandled this alert and would hang
waiting for a server hello which it will never receive. Now we treat a
received no_renegotiation alert as a fatal error. This is because
applications requesting a renegotiation might well expect it to succeed
and would have no code in place to handle the server denying it so the
only safe thing to do is to terminate the connection.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add ctrl macro SSL_get_secure_renegotiation_support() which returns 1 if
peer supports secure renegotiation and 0 otherwise. Print out peer
renegotiation support in s_client/s_server.
[Steve Henson]
*) Replace the highly broken and deprecated SPKAC certification method with
the updated NID creation version. This should correctly handle UTF8.
[Steve Henson]
*) Implement RFC5746. Re-enable renegotiation but require the extension
turns out to be a bad idea. It has been replaced by
SSL_CTX_set_options(). This is really not recommended unless you
know what you are doing.
[Eric Rescorla <>, Ben Laurie, Steve Henson]
*) Fixes to stateless session resumption handling. Use initial_ctx when
issuing and attempting to decrypt tickets in case it has changed during
servername handling. Use a non-zero length session ID when attempting
stateless session resumption: this makes it possible to determine if
a resumption has occurred immediately after receiving server hello
(several places in OpenSSL subtly assume this) instead of later in
the handshake.
[Steve Henson]
*) The functions ENGINE_ctrl(), OPENSSL_isservice(),
CMS_get1_RecipientRequest() and RAND_bytes() can return <=0 on error
fixes for a few places where the return code is not checked
[Julia Lawall <>]
*) Add --strict-warnings option to Configure script to include devteam
warnings in other configurations.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add support for --libdir option and LIBDIR variable in makefiles. This
makes it possible to install openssl libraries in locations which
have names other than "lib", for example "/usr/lib64" which some
systems need.
[Steve Henson, based on patch from Jeremy Utley]
*) Don't allow the use of leading 0x80 in OIDs. This is a violation of
X690 8.9.12 and can produce some misleading textual output of OIDs.
[Steve Henson, reported by Dan Kaminsky]
*) Delete MD2 from algorithm tables. This follows the recommendation in
several standards that it is not used in new applications due to
several cryptographic weaknesses. For binary compatibility reasons
the MD2 API is still compiled in by default.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add compression id to {d2i,i2d}_SSL_SESSION so it is correctly saved
and restored.
[Steve Henson]
*) Rename uni2asc and asc2uni functions to OPENSSL_uni2asc and
OPENSSL_asc2uni conditionally on Netware platforms to avoid a name
[Guenter <>]
*) Fix the server certificate chain building code to use X509_verify_cert(),
it used to have an ad-hoc builder which was unable to cope with anything
other than a simple chain.
[David Woodhouse <>, Steve Henson]
*) Don't check self signed certificate signatures in X509_verify_cert()
by default (a flag can override this): it just wastes time without
adding any security. As a useful side effect self signed root CAs
with non-FIPS digests are now usable in FIPS mode.
[Steve Henson]
*) In dtls1_process_out_of_seq_message() the check if the current message
is already buffered was missing. For every new message was memory
allocated, allowing an attacker to perform an denial of service attack
with sending out of seq handshake messages until there is no memory
left. Additionally every future messege was buffered, even if the
sequence number made no sense and would be part of another handshake.
So only messages with sequence numbers less than 10 in advance will be
buffered. (CVE-2009-1378)
[Robin Seggelmann, discovered by Daniel Mentz]
*) Records are buffered if they arrive with a future epoch to be
processed after finishing the corresponding handshake. There is
currently no limitation to this buffer allowing an attacker to perform
a DOS attack with sending records with future epochs until there is no
memory left. This patch adds the pqueue_size() function to detemine
the size of a buffer and limits the record buffer to 100 entries.
[Robin Seggelmann, discovered by Daniel Mentz]
*) Keep a copy of frag->msg_header.frag_len so it can be used after the
parent structure is freed. (CVE-2009-1379)
[Daniel Mentz]
*) Handle non-blocking I/O properly in SSL_shutdown() call.
[Darryl Miles <>]
*) Add 2.5.4.* OIDs
[Ilya O. <>]
Changes between 0.9.8k and 0.9.8l [5 Nov 2009]
*) Disable renegotiation completely - this fixes a severe security
problem (CVE-2009-3555) at the cost of breaking all
renegotiation. Renegotiation can be re-enabled by setting
run-time. This is really not recommended unless you know what
you're doing.
[Ben Laurie]
Changes between 0.9.8j and 0.9.8k [25 Mar 2009]
*) Don't set val to NULL when freeing up structures, it is freed up by
underlying code. If sizeof(void *) > sizeof(long) this can result in
zeroing past the valid field. (CVE-2009-0789)
[Paolo Ganci <Paolo.Ganci@AdNovum.CH>]
*) Fix bug where return value of CMS_SignerInfo_verify_content() was not
checked correctly. This would allow some invalid signed attributes to
appear to verify correctly. (CVE-2009-0591)
[Ivan Nestlerode <>]
*) Reject UniversalString and BMPString types with invalid lengths. This
prevents a crash in ASN1_STRING_print_ex() which assumes the strings have
a legal length. (CVE-2009-0590)
[Steve Henson]
*) Set S/MIME signing as the default purpose rather than setting it
unconditionally. This allows applications to override it at the store
[Steve Henson]
*) Permit restricted recursion of ASN1 strings. This is needed in practice
to handle some structures.
[Steve Henson]
*) Improve efficiency of mem_gets: don't search whole buffer each time
for a '\n'
[Jeremy Shapiro <>]
*) New -hex option for openssl rand.
[Matthieu Herrb]
*) Print out UTF8String and NumericString when parsing ASN1.
[Steve Henson]
*) Support NumericString type for name components.
[Steve Henson]
*) Allow CC in the environment to override the automatically chosen
compiler. Note that nothing is done to ensure flags work with the
chosen compiler.
[Ben Laurie]
Changes between 0.9.8i and 0.9.8j [07 Jan 2009]
*) Properly check EVP_VerifyFinal() and similar return values
[Ben Laurie, Bodo Moeller, Google Security Team]
*) Enable TLS extensions by default.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Allow the CHIL engine to be loaded, whether the application is
multithreaded or not. (This does not release the developer from the
obligation to set up the dynamic locking callbacks.)
[Sander Temme <>]
*) Use correct exit code if there is an error in dgst command.
[Steve Henson; problem pointed out by Roland Dirlewanger]
*) Tweak Configure so that you need to say "experimental-jpake" to enable
JPAKE, and need to use -DOPENSSL_EXPERIMENTAL_JPAKE in applications.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add experimental JPAKE support, including demo authentication in
s_client and s_server.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Set the comparison function in v3_addr_canonize().
[Rob Austein <>]
*) Add support for XMPP STARTTLS in s_client.
[Philip Paeps <>]
*) Change the server-side SSL_OP_NETSCAPE_REUSE_CIPHER_CHANGE_BUG behavior
to ensure that even with this option, only ciphersuites in the
server's preference list will be accepted. (Note that the option
applies only when resuming a session, so the earlier behavior was
just about the algorithm choice for symmetric cryptography.)
[Bodo Moeller]
Changes between 0.9.8h and 0.9.8i [15 Sep 2008]
*) Fix NULL pointer dereference if a DTLS server received
ChangeCipherSpec as first record (CVE-2009-1386).
[PR #1679]
*) Fix a state transitition in s3_srvr.c and d1_srvr.c
(was using SSL3_ST_CW_CLNT_HELLO_B, should be ..._ST_SW_SRVR_...).
[Nagendra Modadugu]
*) The fix in 0.9.8c that supposedly got rid of unsafe
double-checked locking was incomplete for RSA blinding,
addressing just one layer of what turns out to have been
doubly unsafe triple-checked locking.
So now fix this for real by retiring the MONT_HELPER macro
in crypto/rsa/rsa_eay.c.
[Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Marius Schilder]
*) Various precautionary measures:
- Avoid size_t integer overflow in HASH_UPDATE (md32_common.h).
- Avoid a buffer overflow in d2i_SSL_SESSION() (ssl_asn1.c).
(NB: This would require knowledge of the secret session ticket key
to exploit, in which case you'd be SOL either way.)
- Change bn_nist.c so that it will properly handle input BIGNUMs
outside the expected range.
- Enforce the 'num' check in BN_div() (bn_div.c) for non-BN_DEBUG
[Neel Mehta, Bodo Moeller]
*) Allow engines to be "soft loaded" - i.e. optionally don't die if
the load fails. Useful for distros.
[Ben Laurie and the FreeBSD team]
*) Add support for Local Machine Keyset attribute in PKCS#12 files.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix BN_GF2m_mod_arr() top-bit cleanup code.
[Huang Ying]
*) Expand ENGINE to support engine supplied SSL client certificate functions.
This work was sponsored by Logica.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add CryptoAPI ENGINE to support use of RSA and DSA keys held in Windows
keystores. Support for SSL/TLS client authentication too.
Not compiled unless enable-capieng specified to Configure.
This work was sponsored by Logica.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix bug in X509_ATTRIBUTE creation: dont set attribute using
ASN1_TYPE_set1 if MBSTRING flag set. This bug would crash certain
attribute creation routines such as certifcate requests and PKCS#12
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 0.9.8g and 0.9.8h [28 May 2008]
*) Fix flaw if 'Server Key exchange message' is omitted from a TLS
handshake which could lead to a cilent crash as found using the
Codenomicon TLS test suite (CVE-2008-1672)
[Steve Henson, Mark Cox]
*) Fix double free in TLS server name extensions which could lead to
a remote crash found by Codenomicon TLS test suite (CVE-2008-0891)
[Joe Orton]
*) Clear error queue in SSL_CTX_use_certificate_chain_file()
Clear the error queue to ensure that error entries left from
older function calls do not interfere with the correct operation.
[Lutz Jaenicke, Erik de Castro Lopo]
*) Remove root CA certificates of commercial CAs:
The OpenSSL project does not recommend any specific CA and does not
have any policy with respect to including or excluding any CA.
Therefore it does not make any sense to ship an arbitrary selection
of root CA certificates with the OpenSSL software.
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) RSA OAEP patches to fix two separate invalid memory reads.
The first one involves inputs when 'lzero' is greater than
'SHA_DIGEST_LENGTH' (it would read about SHA_DIGEST_LENGTH bytes
before the beginning of from). The second one involves inputs where
the 'db' section contains nothing but zeroes (there is a one-byte
invalid read after the end of 'db').
[Ivan Nestlerode <>]
*) Partial backport from 0.9.9-dev:
Introduce bn_mul_mont (dedicated Montgomery multiplication
procedure) as a candidate for BIGNUM assembler implementation.
While 0.9.9-dev uses assembler for various architectures, only
x86_64 is available by default here in the 0.9.8 branch, and
32-bit x86 is available through a compile-time setting.
To try the 32-bit x86 assembler implementation, use Configure
option "enable-montasm" (which exists only for this backport).
As "enable-montasm" for 32-bit x86 disclaims code stability
anyway, in this constellation we activate additional code
backported from 0.9.9-dev for further performance improvements,
namely BN_from_montgomery_word. (To enable this otherwise,
e.g. x86_64, try "-DMONT_FROM_WORD___NON_DEFAULT_0_9_8_BUILD".)
[Andy Polyakov (backport partially by Bodo Moeller)]
*) Add TLS session ticket callback. This allows an application to set
TLS ticket cipher and HMAC keys rather than relying on hardcoded fixed
values. This is useful for key rollover for example where several key
sets may exist with different names.
[Steve Henson]
*) Reverse ENGINE-internal logic for caching default ENGINE handles.
This was broken until now in 0.9.8 releases, such that the only way
a registered ENGINE could be used (assuming it initialises
successfully on the host) was to explicitly set it as the default
for the relevant algorithms. This is in contradiction with 0.9.7
behaviour and the documentation. With this fix, when an ENGINE is
registered into a given algorithm's table of implementations, the
'uptodate' flag is reset so that auto-discovery will be used next
time a new context for that algorithm attempts to select an
[Ian Lister (tweaked by Geoff Thorpe)]
*) Backport of CMS code to OpenSSL 0.9.8. This differs from the 0.9.9
implemention in the following ways:
Lack of EVP_PKEY_ASN1_METHOD means algorithm parameters have to be
hard coded.
Lack of BER streaming support means one pass streaming processing is
only supported if data is detached: setting the streaming flag is
ignored for embedded content.
CMS support is disabled by default and must be explicitly enabled
with the enable-cms configuration option.
[Steve Henson]
*) Update the GMP engine glue to do direct copies between BIGNUM and
mpz_t when openssl and GMP use the same limb size. Otherwise the
existing "conversion via a text string export" trick is still used.
[Paul Sheer <>]
*) Zlib compression BIO. This is a filter BIO which compressed and
uncompresses any data passed through it.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add AES_wrap_key() and AES_unwrap_key() functions to implement
RFC3394 compatible AES key wrapping.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add utility functions to handle ASN1 structures. ASN1_STRING_set0():
sets string data without copying. X509_ALGOR_set0() and
X509_ALGOR_get0(): set and retrieve X509_ALGOR (AlgorithmIdentifier)
data. Attribute function X509at_get0_data_by_OBJ(): retrieves data
from an X509_ATTRIBUTE structure optionally checking it occurs only
once. ASN1_TYPE_set1(): set and ASN1_TYPE structure copying supplied
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix BN flag handling in RSA_eay_mod_exp() and BN_MONT_CTX_set()
to get the expected BN_FLG_CONSTTIME behavior.
[Bodo Moeller (Google)]
*) Netware support:
- fixed wrong usage of ioctlsocket() when build for LIBC BSD sockets
- fixed to run the test suite with CLIB builds too (CLIB_OPT)
- added some more tests to
- fixed RunningProcess usage so that it works with newer LIBC NDKs too
- removed usage of BN_LLONG for CLIB builds to avoid runtime dependency
- added new Configure targets netware-clib-bsdsock, netware-clib-gcc,
netware-clib-bsdsock-gcc, netware-libc-bsdsock-gcc
- various changes to to enable gcc-cross builds on Win32
- changed crypto/bio/b_sock.c to work with macro functions (CLIB BSD)
- various changes to fix missing prototype warnings
- fixed to create correct asm files for NASM COFF output
- added AES, WHIRLPOOL and CPUID assembler code to build files
- added missing AES assembler make rules to
- fixed order of includes in apps/ocsp.c so that e_os.h settings apply
[Guenter Knauf <>]
*) Implement certificate status request TLS extension defined in RFC3546.
A client can set the appropriate parameters and receive the encoded
OCSP response via a callback. A server can query the supplied parameters
and set the encoded OCSP response in the callback. Add simplified examples
to s_client and s_server.
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 0.9.8f and 0.9.8g [19 Oct 2007]
*) Fix various bugs:
+ Binary incompatibility of ssl_ctx_st structure
+ DTLS interoperation with non-compliant servers
+ Don't call get_session_cb() without proposed session
+ Fix ia64 assembler code
[Andy Polyakov, Steve Henson]
Changes between 0.9.8e and 0.9.8f [11 Oct 2007]
*) DTLS Handshake overhaul. There were longstanding issues with
OpenSSL DTLS implementation, which were making it impossible for
RFC 4347 compliant client to communicate with OpenSSL server.
Unfortunately just fixing these incompatibilities would "cut off"
pre-0.9.8f clients. To allow for hassle free upgrade post-0.9.8e
server keeps tolerating non RFC compliant syntax. The opposite is
not true, 0.9.8f client can not communicate with earlier server.
This update even addresses CVE-2007-4995.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Changes to avoid need for function casts in OpenSSL: some compilers
(gcc 4.2 and later) reject their use.
[Kurt Roeckx <>, Peter Hartley <>,
Steve Henson]
*) Add RFC4507 support to OpenSSL. This includes the corrections in
RFC4507bis. The encrypted ticket format is an encrypted encoded
SSL_SESSION structure, that way new session features are automatically
If a client application caches session in an SSL_SESSION structure
support is transparent because tickets are now stored in the encoded
The SSL_CTX structure automatically generates keys for ticket
protection in servers so again support should be possible
with no application modification.
If a client or server wishes to disable RFC4507 support then the option
SSL_OP_NO_TICKET can be set.
Add a TLS extension debugging callback to allow the contents of any client
or server extensions to be examined.
This work was sponsored by Google.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add initial support for TLS extensions, specifically for the server_name
extension so far. The SSL_SESSION, SSL_CTX, and SSL data structures now
have new members for a host name. The SSL data structure has an
additional member SSL_CTX *initial_ctx so that new sessions can be
stored in that context to allow for session resumption, even after the
SSL has been switched to a new SSL_CTX in reaction to a client's
server_name extension.
New functions (subject to change):
New CTRL codes and macros (subject to change):
- SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_servername_callback()
- SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_servername_arg()
SSL_CTRL_SET_TLSEXT_HOSTNAME - SSL_set_tlsext_host_name()
openssl s_client has a new '-servername ...' option.
openssl s_server has new options '-servername_host ...', '-cert2 ...',
'-key2 ...', '-servername_fatal' (subject to change). This allows
testing the HostName extension for a specific single host name ('-cert'
and '-key' remain fallbacks for handshakes without HostName
negotiation). If the unrecogninzed_name alert has to be sent, this by
default is a warning; it becomes fatal with the '-servername_fatal'
[Peter Sylvester, Remy Allais, Christophe Renou, Steve Henson]
*) Add AES and SSE2 assembly language support to VC++ build.
[Steve Henson]
*) Mitigate attack on final subtraction in Montgomery reduction.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Fix crypto/ec/ec_mult.c to work properly with scalars of value 0
(which previously caused an internal error).
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Squeeze another 10% out of IGE mode when in != out.
[Ben Laurie]
*) AES IGE mode speedup.
[Dean Gaudet (Google)]
*) Add the Korean symmetric 128-bit cipher SEED (see and
add SEED ciphersuites from RFC 4162:
To minimize changes between patchlevels in the OpenSSL 0.9.8
series, SEED remains excluded from compilation unless OpenSSL
is configured with 'enable-seed'.
[KISA, Bodo Moeller]
*) Mitigate branch prediction attacks, which can be practical if a
single processor is shared, allowing a spy process to extract
information. For detailed background information, see (O. Aciicmez, S. Gueron,
J.-P. Seifert, "New Branch Prediction Vulnerabilities in OpenSSL
and Necessary Software Countermeasures"). The core of the change
are new versions BN_div_no_branch() and
BN_mod_inverse_no_branch() of BN_div() and BN_mod_inverse(),
respectively, which are slower, but avoid the security-relevant
conditional branches. These are automatically called by BN_div()
and BN_mod_inverse() if the flag BN_FLG_CONSTTIME is set for one
of the input BIGNUMs. Also, BN_is_bit_set() has been changed to
remove a conditional branch.
BN_FLG_CONSTTIME is the new name for the previous
BN_FLG_EXP_CONSTTIME flag, since it now affects more than just
modular exponentiation. (Since OpenSSL 0.9.7h, setting this flag
in the exponent causes BN_mod_exp_mont() to use the alternative
implementation in BN_mod_exp_mont_consttime().) The old name
remains as a deprecated alias.
Similary, RSA_FLAG_NO_EXP_CONSTTIME is replaced by a more general
RSA_FLAG_NO_CONSTTIME flag since the RSA implementation now uses
constant-time implementations for more than just exponentiation.
Here too the old name is kept as a deprecated alias.
BN_BLINDING_new() will now use BN_dup() for the modulus so that
the BN_BLINDING structure gets an independent copy of the
modulus. This means that the previous "BIGNUM *m" argument to
BN_BLINDING_new() and to BN_BLINDING_create_param() now
essentially becomes "const BIGNUM *m", although we can't actually
change this in the header file before 0.9.9. It allows
RSA_setup_blinding() to use BN_with_flags() on the modulus to
[Matthew D Wood (Intel Corp)]
*) In the SSL/TLS server implementation, be strict about session ID
context matching (which matters if an application uses a single
external cache for different purposes). Previously,
out-of-context reuse was forbidden only if SSL_VERIFY_PEER was
set. This did ensure strict client verification, but meant that,
with applications using a single external cache for quite
different requirements, clients could circumvent ciphersuite
restrictions for a given session ID context by starting a session
in a different context.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Include "!eNULL" in SSL_DEFAULT_CIPHER_LIST to make sure that
a ciphersuite string such as "DEFAULT:RSA" cannot enable
authentication-only ciphersuites.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Update the SSL_get_shared_ciphers() fix CVE-2006-3738 which was
not complete and could lead to a possible single byte overflow
(CVE-2007-5135) [Ben Laurie]
Changes between 0.9.8d and 0.9.8e [23 Feb 2007]
*) Since AES128 and AES256 (and similarly Camellia128 and
Camellia256) share a single mask bit in the logic of
ssl/ssl_ciph.c, the code for masking out disabled ciphers needs a
kludge to work properly if AES128 is available and AES256 isn't
(or if Camellia128 is available and Camellia256 isn't).
[Victor Duchovni]
*) Fix the BIT STRING encoding generated by crypto/ec/ec_asn1.c
(within i2d_ECPrivateKey, i2d_ECPKParameters, i2d_ECParameters):
When a point or a seed is encoded in a BIT STRING, we need to
prevent the removal of trailing zero bits to get the proper DER
encoding. (By default, crypto/asn1/a_bitstr.c assumes the case
of a NamedBitList, for which trailing 0 bits need to be removed.)
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Have SSL/TLS server implementation tolerate "mismatched" record
protocol version while receiving ClientHello even if the
ClientHello is fragmented. (The server can't insist on the
particular protocol version it has chosen before the ServerHello
message has informed the client about his choice.)
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add RFC 3779 support.
[Rob Austein for ARIN, Ben Laurie]
*) Load error codes if they are not already present instead of using a
static variable. This allows them to be cleanly unloaded and reloaded.
Improve header file function name parsing.
[Steve Henson]
*) extend SMTP and IMAP protocol emulation in s_client to use EHLO
or CAPABILITY handshake as required by RFCs.
[Goetz Babin-Ebell]
Changes between 0.9.8c and 0.9.8d [28 Sep 2006]
*) Introduce limits to prevent malicious keys being able to
cause a denial of service. (CVE-2006-2940)
[Steve Henson, Bodo Moeller]
*) Fix ASN.1 parsing of certain invalid structures that can result
in a denial of service. (CVE-2006-2937) [Steve Henson]
*) Fix buffer overflow in SSL_get_shared_ciphers() function.
(CVE-2006-3738) [Tavis Ormandy and Will Drewry, Google Security Team]
*) Fix SSL client code which could crash if connecting to a
malicious SSLv2 server. (CVE-2006-4343)
[Tavis Ormandy and Will Drewry, Google Security Team]
*) Since 0.9.8b, ciphersuite strings naming explicit ciphersuites
match only those. Before that, "AES256-SHA" would be interpreted
as a pattern and match "AES128-SHA" too (since AES128-SHA got
the same strength classification in 0.9.7h) as we currently only
have a single AES bit in the ciphersuite description bitmap.
That change, however, also applied to ciphersuite strings such as
"RC4-MD5" that intentionally matched multiple ciphersuites --
namely, SSL 2.0 ciphersuites in addition to the more common ones
from SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0.
So we change the selection algorithm again: Naming an explicit
ciphersuite selects this one ciphersuite, and any other similar
ciphersuite (same bitmap) from *other* protocol versions.
Thus, "RC4-MD5" again will properly select both the SSL 2.0
ciphersuite and the SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0 ciphersuite.
Since SSL 2.0 does not have any ciphersuites for which the
128/256 bit distinction would be relevant, this works for now.
The proper fix will be to use different bits for AES128 and
AES256, which would have avoided the problems from the beginning;
however, bits are scarce, so we can only do this in a new release
(not just a patchlevel) when we can change the SSL_CIPHER
definition to split the single 'unsigned long mask' bitmap into
multiple values to extend the available space.
[Bodo Moeller]
Changes between 0.9.8b and 0.9.8c [05 Sep 2006]
*) Avoid PKCS #1 v1.5 signature attack discovered by Daniel Bleichenbacher
(CVE-2006-4339) [Ben Laurie and Google Security Team]
*) Add AES IGE and biIGE modes.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Change the Unix randomness entropy gathering to use poll() when
possible instead of select(), since the latter has some
undesirable limitations.
[Darryl Miles via Richard Levitte and Bodo Moeller]
*) Disable "ECCdraft" ciphersuites more thoroughly. Now special
treatment in ssl/ssl_ciph.s makes sure that these ciphersuites
cannot be implicitly activated as part of, e.g., the "AES" alias.
However, please upgrade to OpenSSL 0.9.9[-dev] for
non-experimental use of the ECC ciphersuites to get TLS extension
support, which is required for curve and point format negotiation
to avoid potential handshake problems.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Disable rogue ciphersuites:
- SSLv2 0x08 0x00 0x80 ("RC4-64-MD5")
- SSLv3/TLSv1 0x00 0x61 ("EXP1024-RC2-CBC-MD5")
- SSLv3/TLSv1 0x00 0x60 ("EXP1024-RC4-MD5")
The latter two were purportedly from
draft-ietf-tls-56-bit-ciphersuites-0[01].txt, but do not really
appear there.
Also deactivate the remaining ciphersuites from
draft-ietf-tls-56-bit-ciphersuites-01.txt. These are just as
unofficial, and the ID has long expired.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Fix RSA blinding Heisenbug (problems sometimes occured on
dual-core machines) and other potential thread-safety issues.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add the symmetric cipher Camellia (128-bit, 192-bit, 256-bit key
versions), which is now available for royalty-free use
Also, add Camellia TLS ciphersuites from RFC 4132.
To minimize changes between patchlevels in the OpenSSL 0.9.8
series, Camellia remains excluded from compilation unless OpenSSL
is configured with 'enable-camellia'.
*) Disable the padding bug check when compression is in use. The padding
bug check assumes the first packet is of even length, this is not
necessarily true if compresssion is enabled and can result in false
positives causing handshake failure. The actual bug test is ancient
code so it is hoped that implementations will either have fixed it by
now or any which still have the bug do not support compression.
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 0.9.8a and 0.9.8b [04 May 2006]
*) When applying a cipher rule check to see if string match is an explicit
cipher suite and only match that one cipher suite if it is.
[Steve Henson]
*) Link in manifests for VC++ if needed.
[Austin Ziegler <>]
*) Update support for ECC-based TLS ciphersuites according to
draft-ietf-tls-ecc-12.txt with proposed changes (but without
TLS extensions, which are supported starting with the 0.9.9
branch, not in the OpenSSL 0.9.8 branch).
[Douglas Stebila]
*) New functions EVP_CIPHER_CTX_new() and EVP_CIPHER_CTX_free() to support
opaque EVP_CIPHER_CTX handling.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fixes and enhancements to zlib compression code. We now only use
"zlib1.dll" and use the default __cdecl calling convention on Win32
to conform with the standards mentioned here:
Static zlib linking now works on Windows and the new --with-zlib-include
--with-zlib-lib options to Configure can be used to supply the location
of the headers and library. Gracefully handle case where zlib library
can't be loaded.
[Steve Henson]
*) Several fixes and enhancements to the OID generation code. The old code
sometimes allowed invalid OIDs (1.X for X >= 40 for example), couldn't
handle numbers larger than ULONG_MAX, truncated printing and had a
non standard OBJ_obj2txt() behaviour.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add support for building of engines under engine/ as shared libraries
under VC++ build system.
[Steve Henson]
*) Corrected the numerous bugs in the Win32 path splitter in DSO.
Hopefully, we will not see any false combination of paths any more.
[Richard Levitte]
Changes between 0.9.8 and 0.9.8a [11 Oct 2005]
*) Remove the functionality of SSL_OP_MSIE_SSLV2_RSA_PADDING
(part of SSL_OP_ALL). This option used to disable the
countermeasure against man-in-the-middle protocol-version
rollback in the SSL 2.0 server implementation, which is a bad
idea. (CVE-2005-2969)
[Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Yutaka Oiwa (Research Center
for Information Security, National Institute of Advanced Industrial
Science and Technology [AIST], Japan)]
*) Add two function to clear and return the verify parameter flags.
[Steve Henson]
*) Keep cipherlists sorted in the source instead of sorting them at
runtime, thus removing the need for a lock.
[Nils Larsch]
*) Avoid some small subgroup attacks in Diffie-Hellman.
[Nick Mathewson and Ben Laurie]
*) Add functions for well-known primes.
[Nick Mathewson]
*) Extended Windows CE support.
[Satoshi Nakamura and Andy Polyakov]
*) Initialize SSL_METHOD structures at compile time instead of during
runtime, thus removing the need for a lock.
[Steve Henson]
*) Make PKCS7_decrypt() work even if no certificate is supplied by
attempting to decrypt each encrypted key in turn. Add support to
smime utility.
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 0.9.7h and 0.9.8 [05 Jul 2005]
[NB: OpenSSL 0.9.7i and later 0.9.7 patch levels were released after
OpenSSL 0.9.8.]
*) Add libcrypto.pc and libssl.pc for those who feel they need them.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Change and so they don't bundle the CSR and the private
key into the same file any more.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add initial support for Win64, both IA64 and AMD64/x64 flavors.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Add -utf8 command line and config file option to 'ca'.
[Stefan <]
*) Removed the macro des_crypt(), as it seems to conflict with some
libraries. Use DES_crypt().
[Richard Levitte]
*) Correct naming of the 'chil' and '4758cca' ENGINEs. This
involves renaming the source and generated shared-libs for
both. The engines will accept the corrected or legacy ids
('ncipher' and '4758_cca' respectively) when binding. NB,
this only applies when building 'shared'.
[Corinna Vinschen <> and Geoff Thorpe]
*) Add attribute functions to EVP_PKEY structure. Modify
PKCS12_create() to recognize a CSP name attribute and
use it. Make -CSP option work again in pkcs12 utility.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add new functionality to the bn blinding code:
- automatic re-creation of the BN_BLINDING parameters after
a fixed number of uses (currently 32)
- add new function for parameter creation
- introduce flags to control the update behaviour of the
BN_BLINDING parameters
- hide BN_BLINDING structure
Add a second BN_BLINDING slot to the RSA structure to improve
performance when a single RSA object is shared among several
[Nils Larsch]
*) Add support for DTLS.
[Nagendra Modadugu <> and Ben Laurie]
*) Add support for DER encoded private keys (SSL_FILETYPE_ASN1)
to SSL_CTX_use_PrivateKey_file() and SSL_use_PrivateKey_file()
[Walter Goulet]
*) Remove buggy and incompletet DH cert support from
ssl/ssl_rsa.c and ssl/s3_both.c
[Nils Larsch]
*) Use SHA-1 instead of MD5 as the default digest algorithm for
the apps/openssl applications.
[Nils Larsch]
*) Compile clean with "-Wall -Wmissing-prototypes
-Wstrict-prototypes -Wmissing-declarations -Werror". Currently
DEBUG_SAFESTACK must also be set.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Change ./Configure so that certain algorithms can be disabled by default.
The new counterpiece to "no-xxx" is "enable-xxx".
The patented RC5 and MDC2 algorithms will now be disabled unless
"enable-rc5" and "enable-mdc2", respectively, are specified.
(IDEA remains enabled despite being patented. This is because IDEA
is frequently required for interoperability, and there is no license
fee for non-commercial use. As before, "no-idea" can be used to
avoid this algorithm.)
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add processing of proxy certificates (see RFC 3820). This work was
sponsored by KTH (The Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm) and
EGEE (Enabling Grids for E-science in Europe).
[Richard Levitte]
*) RC4 performance overhaul on modern architectures/implementations, such
as Intel P4, IA-64 and AMD64.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) New utility This can be used specify an alternative
section number in a pod file instead of having to treat each file as
a separate case in Makefile. This can be done by adding two lines to the
pod file:
=for comment openssl_section:XXX
The blank line is mandatory.
[Steve Henson]
*) New arguments -certform, -keyform and -pass for s_client and s_server
to allow alternative format key and certificate files and passphrase
[Steve Henson]
*) New structure X509_VERIFY_PARAM which combines current verify parameters,
update associated structures and add various utility functions.
Add new policy related verify parameters, include policy checking in
standard verify code. Enhance 'smime' application with extra parameters
to support policy checking and print out.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add a new engine to support VIA PadLock ACE extensions in the VIA C3
Nehemiah processors. These extensions support AES encryption in hardware
as well as RNG (though RNG support is currently disabled).
[Michal Ludvig <>, with help from Andy Polyakov]
*) Deprecate BN_[get|set]_params() functions (they were ignored internally).
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) New FIPS 180-2 algorithms, SHA-224/-256/-384/-512 are implemented.
[Andy Polyakov and a number of other people]
*) Improved PowerPC platform support. Most notably BIGNUM assembler
implementation contributed by IBM.
[Suresh Chari, Peter Waltenberg, Andy Polyakov]
*) The new 'RSA_generate_key_ex' function now takes a BIGNUM for the public
exponent rather than 'unsigned long'. There is a corresponding change to
the new 'rsa_keygen' element of the RSA_METHOD structure.
[Jelte Jansen, Geoff Thorpe]
*) Functionality for creating the initial serial number file is now
moved from to the 'ca' utility with a new option -create_serial.
(Before OpenSSL 0.9.7e, used to initialize the serial
number file to 1, which is bound to cause problems. To avoid
the problems while respecting compatibility between different 0.9.7
patchlevels, 0.9.7e employed 'openssl x509 -next_serial' in for serial number initialization. With the new release 0.9.8,
we can fix the problem directly in the 'ca' utility.)
[Steve Henson]
*) Reduced header interdepencies by declaring more opaque objects in
ossl_typ.h. As a consequence, including some headers (eg. engine.h) will
give fewer recursive includes, which could break lazy source code - so
this change is covered by the OPENSSL_NO_DEPRECATED symbol. As always,
developers should define this symbol when building and using openssl to
ensure they track the recommended behaviour, interfaces, [etc], but
backwards-compatible behaviour prevails when this isn't defined.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) New function X509_POLICY_NODE_print() which prints out policy nodes.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add new EVP function EVP_CIPHER_CTX_rand_key and associated functionality.
This will generate a random key of the appropriate length based on the
cipher context. The EVP_CIPHER can provide its own random key generation
routine to support keys of a specific form. This is used in the des and
3des routines to generate a key of the correct parity. Update S/MIME
code to use new functions and hence generate correct parity DES keys.
Add EVP_CHECK_DES_KEY #define to return an error if the key is not
valid (weak or incorrect parity).
[Steve Henson]
*) Add a local set of CRLs that can be used by X509_verify_cert() as well
as looking them up. This is useful when the verified structure may contain
CRLs, for example PKCS#7 signedData. Modify PKCS7_verify() to use any CRLs
present unless the new PKCS7_NO_CRL flag is asserted.
[Steve Henson]
*) Extend ASN1 oid configuration module. It now additionally accepts the
shortName = some long name,
[Steve Henson]
*) Reimplemented the BN_CTX implementation. There is now no more static
limitation on the number of variables it can handle nor the depth of the
"stack" handling for BN_CTX_start()/BN_CTX_end() pairs. The stack
information can now expand as required, and rather than having a single
static array of bignums, BN_CTX now uses a linked-list of such arrays
allowing it to expand on demand whilst maintaining the usefulness of
BN_CTX's "bundling".
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Add a missing BN_CTX parameter to the 'rsa_mod_exp' callback in RSA_METHOD
to allow all RSA operations to function using a single BN_CTX.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Preliminary support for certificate policy evaluation and checking. This
is initially intended to pass the tests outlined in "Conformance Testing
of Relying Party Client Certificate Path Processing Logic" v1.07.
[Steve Henson]
*) bn_dup_expand() has been deprecated, it was introduced in 0.9.7 and
remained unused and not that useful. A variety of other little bignum
tweaks and fixes have also been made continuing on from the audit (see
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Constify all or almost all d2i, c2i, s2i and r2i functions, along with
associated ASN1, EVP and SSL functions and old ASN1 macros.
[Richard Levitte]
*) BN_zero() only needs to set 'top' and 'neg' to zero for correct results,
and this should never fail. So the return value from the use of
BN_set_word() (which can fail due to needless expansion) is now deprecated;
if OPENSSL_NO_DEPRECATED is defined, BN_zero() is a void macro.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) BN_CTX_get() should return zero-valued bignums, providing the same
initialised value as BN_new().
[Geoff Thorpe, suggested by Ulf Möller]
*) Support for inhibitAnyPolicy certificate extension.
[Steve Henson]
*) An audit of the BIGNUM code is underway, for which debugging code is
enabled when BN_DEBUG is defined. This makes stricter enforcements on what
is considered valid when processing BIGNUMs, and causes execution to
assert() when a problem is discovered. If BN_DEBUG_RAND is defined,
further steps are taken to deliberately pollute unused data in BIGNUM
structures to try and expose faulty code further on. For now, openssl will
(in its default mode of operation) continue to tolerate the inconsistent
forms that it has tolerated in the past, but authors and packagers should
consider trying openssl and their own applications when compiled with
these debugging symbols defined. It will help highlight potential bugs in
their own code, and will improve the test coverage for OpenSSL itself. At
some point, these tighter rules will become openssl's default to improve
maintainability, though the assert()s and other overheads will remain only
in debugging configurations. See bn.h for more details.
[Geoff Thorpe, Nils Larsch, Ulf Möller]
*) BN_CTX_init() has been deprecated, as BN_CTX is an opaque structure
that can only be obtained through BN_CTX_new() (which implicitly
initialises it). The presence of this function only made it possible
to overwrite an existing structure (and cause memory leaks).
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Because of the callback-based approach for implementing LHASH as a
template type, lh_insert() adds opaque objects to hash-tables and
lh_doall() or lh_doall_arg() are typically used with a destructor callback
to clean up those corresponding objects before destroying the hash table
(and losing the object pointers). So some over-zealous constifications in
LHASH have been relaxed so that lh_insert() does not take (nor store) the
objects as "const" and the lh_doall[_arg] callback wrappers are not
prototyped to have "const" restrictions on the object pointers they are
given (and so aren't required to cast them away any more).
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) The tmdiff.h API was so ugly and minimal that our own timing utility
(speed) prefers to use its own implementation. The two implementations
haven't been consolidated as yet (volunteers?) but the tmdiff API has had
its object type properly exposed (MS_TM) instead of casting to/from "char
*". This may still change yet if someone realises MS_TM and "ms_time_***"
aren't necessarily the greatest nomenclatures - but this is what was used
internally to the implementation so I've used that for now.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Ensure that deprecated functions do not get compiled when
OPENSSL_NO_DEPRECATED is defined. Some "openssl" subcommands and a few of
the self-tests were still using deprecated key-generation functions so
these have been updated also.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Reorganise PKCS#7 code to separate the digest location functionality
into PKCS7_find_digest(), digest addtion into PKCS7_bio_add_digest().
New function PKCS7_set_digest() to set the digest type for PKCS#7
digestedData type. Add additional code to correctly generate the
digestedData type and add support for this type in PKCS7 initialization
[Steve Henson]
*) New function PKCS7_set0_type_other() this initializes a PKCS7
structure of type "other".
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix prime generation loop in crypto/bn/ by making
sure the loop does correctly stop and breaking ("division by zero")
modulus operations are not performed. The (pre-generated) prime
table crypto/bn/bn_prime.h was already correct, but it could not be
re-generated on some platforms because of the "division by zero"
situation in the script.
[Ralf S. Engelschall]
*) Update support for ECC-based TLS ciphersuites according to
draft-ietf-tls-ecc-03.txt: the KDF1 key derivation function with
SHA-1 now is only used for "small" curves (where the
representation of a field element takes up to 24 bytes); for
larger curves, the field element resulting from ECDH is directly
used as premaster secret.
[Douglas Stebila (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]
*) Add code for kP+lQ timings to crypto/ec/ectest.c, and add SEC2
curve secp160r1 to the tests.
[Douglas Stebila (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]
*) Add the possibility to load symbols globally with DSO.
[Götz Babin-Ebell <> via Richard Levitte]
*) Add the functions ERR_set_mark() and ERR_pop_to_mark() for better
control of the error stack.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add support for STORE in ENGINE.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add the STORE type. The intention is to provide a common interface
to certificate and key stores, be they simple file-based stores, or
HSM-type store, or LDAP stores, or...
NOTE: The code is currently UNTESTED and isn't really used anywhere.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add a generic structure called OPENSSL_ITEM. This can be used to
pass a list of arguments to any function as well as provide a way
for a function to pass data back to the caller.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add the functions BUF_strndup() and BUF_memdup(). BUF_strndup()
works like BUF_strdup() but can be used to duplicate a portion of
a string. The copy gets NUL-terminated. BUF_memdup() duplicates
a memory area.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add the function sk_find_ex() which works like sk_find(), but will
return an index to an element even if an exact match couldn't be
found. The index is guaranteed to point at the element where the
searched-for key would be inserted to preserve sorting order.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add the function OBJ_bsearch_ex() which works like OBJ_bsearch() but
takes an extra flags argument for optional functionality. Currently,
the following flags are defined:
This one gets OBJ_bsearch_ex() to return a pointer to the first
element where the comparing function returns a negative or zero
This one gets OBJ_bsearch_ex() to return a pointer to the first
element where the comparing function returns zero. This is useful
if there are more than one element where the comparing function
returns zero.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Make it possible to create self-signed certificates with 'openssl ca'
in such a way that the self-signed certificate becomes part of the
CA database and uses the same mechanisms for serial number generation
as all other certificate signing. The new flag '-selfsign' enables
this functionality. Adapt and
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add functionality to check the public key of a certificate request
against a given private. This is useful to check that a certificate
request can be signed by that key (self-signing).
[Richard Levitte]
*) Make it possible to have multiple active certificates with the same
subject in the CA index file. This is done only if the keyword
'unique_subject' is set to 'no' in the main CA section (default
if 'CA_default') of the configuration file. The value is saved
with the database itself in a separate index attribute file,
named like the index file with '.attr' appended to the name.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Generate muti valued AVAs using '+' notation in config files for
req and dirName.
[Steve Henson]
*) Support for nameConstraints certificate extension.
[Steve Henson]
*) Support for policyConstraints certificate extension.
[Steve Henson]
*) Support for policyMappings certificate extension.
[Steve Henson]
*) Make sure the default DSA_METHOD implementation only uses its
dsa_mod_exp() and/or bn_mod_exp() handlers if they are non-NULL,
and change its own handlers to be NULL so as to remove unnecessary
indirection. This lets alternative implementations fallback to the
default implementation more easily.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Support for directoryName in GeneralName related extensions
in config files.
[Steve Henson]
*) Make it possible to link applications using Makefile.shared.
Make that possible even when linking against static libraries!
[Richard Levitte]
*) Support for single pass processing for S/MIME signing. This now
means that S/MIME signing can be done from a pipe, in addition
cleartext signing (multipart/signed type) is effectively streaming
and the signed data does not need to be all held in memory.
This is done with a new flag PKCS7_STREAM. When this flag is set
PKCS7_sign() only initializes the PKCS7 structure and the actual signing
is done after the data is output (and digests calculated) in
[Steve Henson]
*) Add full support for -rpath/-R, both in shared libraries and
applications, at least on the platforms where it's known how
to do it.
[Richard Levitte]
*) In crypto/ec/ec_mult.c, implement fast point multiplication with
precomputation, based on wNAF splitting: EC_GROUP_precompute_mult()
will now compute a table of multiples of the generator that
makes subsequent invocations of EC_POINTs_mul() or EC_POINT_mul()
faster (notably in the case of a single point multiplication,
scalar * generator).
[Nils Larsch, Bodo Moeller]
*) IPv6 support for certificate extensions. The various extensions
which use the IP:a.b.c.d can now take IPv6 addresses using the
formats of RFC1884 2.2 . IPv6 addresses are now also displayed
[Steve Henson]
*) Added an ENGINE that implements RSA by performing private key
exponentiations with the GMP library. The conversions to and from
GMP's mpz_t format aren't optimised nor are any montgomery forms
cached, and on x86 it appears OpenSSL's own performance has caught up.
However there are likely to be other architectures where GMP could
provide a boost. This ENGINE is not built in by default, but it can be
specified at Configure time and should be accompanied by the necessary
linker additions, eg;
./config -DOPENSSL_USE_GMP -lgmp
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) "openssl engine" will not display ENGINE/DSO load failure errors when
testing availability of engines with "-t" - the old behaviour is
produced by increasing the feature's verbosity with "-tt".
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) ECDSA routines: under certain error conditions uninitialized BN objects
could be freed. Solution: make sure initialization is performed early
enough. (Reported and fix supplied by Nils Larsch <>
via PR#459)
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Key-generation can now be implemented in RSA_METHOD, DSA_METHOD
and DH_METHOD (eg. by ENGINE implementations) to override the normal
software implementations. For DSA and DH, parameter generation can
also be overriden by providing the appropriate method callbacks.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Change the "progress" mechanism used in key-generation and
primality testing to functions that take a new BN_GENCB pointer in
place of callback/argument pairs. The new API functions have "_ex"
postfixes and the older functions are reimplemented as wrappers for
the new ones. The OPENSSL_NO_DEPRECATED symbol can be used to hide
declarations of the old functions to help (graceful) attempts to
migrate to the new functions. Also, the new key-generation API
functions operate on a caller-supplied key-structure and return
success/failure rather than returning a key or NULL - this is to
help make "keygen" another member function of RSA_METHOD etc.
Example for using the new callback interface:
int (*my_callback)(int a, int b, BN_GENCB *cb) = ...;
void *my_arg = ...;
BN_GENCB my_cb;
BN_GENCB_set(&my_cb, my_callback, my_arg);
return BN_is_prime_ex(some_bignum, BN_prime_checks, NULL, &cb);
/* For the meaning of a, b in calls to my_callback(), see the
* documentation of the function that calls the callback.
* cb will point to my_cb; my_arg can be retrieved as cb->arg.
* my_callback should return 1 if it wants BN_is_prime_ex()
* to continue, or 0 to stop.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Change the ZLIB compression method to be stateful, and make it
available to TLS with the number defined in
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add the ASN.1 structures and functions for CertificatePair, which
is defined as follows (according to X.509_4thEditionDraftV6.pdf):
CertificatePair ::= SEQUENCE {
forward [0] Certificate OPTIONAL,
reverse [1] Certificate OPTIONAL,
-- at least one of the pair shall be present -- }
Also implement the PEM functions to read and write certificate
pairs, and defined the PEM tag as "CERTIFICATE PAIR".
This needed to be defined, mostly for the sake of the LDAP
attribute crossCertificatePair, but may prove useful elsewhere as
[Richard Levitte]
*) Make it possible to inhibit symlinking of shared libraries in
Makefile.shared, for Cygwin's sake.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Extend the BIGNUM API by creating a function
void BN_set_negative(BIGNUM *a, int neg);
and a macro that behave like
int BN_is_negative(const BIGNUM *a);
to avoid the need to access 'a->neg' directly in applications.
[Nils Larsch]
*) Implement fast modular reduction for pseudo-Mersenne primes
used in NIST curves (crypto/bn/bn_nist.c, crypto/ec/ecp_nist.c).
EC_GROUP_new_curve_GFp() will now automatically use this
if applicable.
[Nils Larsch <>]
*) Add new lock type (CRYPTO_LOCK_BN).
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Change the ENGINE framework to automatically load engines
dynamically from specific directories unless they could be
found to already be built in or loaded. Move all the
current engines except for the cryptodev one to a new
directory engines/.
The engines in engines/ are built as shared libraries if
the "shared" options was given to ./Configure or ./config.
Otherwise, they are inserted in libcrypto.a.
/usr/local/ssl/engines is the default directory for dynamic
engines, but that can be overriden at configure time through
the usual use of --prefix and/or --openssldir, and at run
time with the environment variable OPENSSL_ENGINES.
[Geoff Thorpe and Richard Levitte]
*) Add Makefile.shared, a helper makefile to build shared
libraries. Addapt
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add version info to Win32 DLLs.
[Peter 'Luna' Runestig" <>]
*) Add new 'medium level' PKCS#12 API. Certificates and keys
can be added using this API to created arbitrary PKCS#12
files while avoiding the low level API.
New options to PKCS12_create(), key or cert can be NULL and
will then be omitted from the output file. The encryption
algorithm NIDs can be set to -1 for no encryption, the mac
iteration count can be set to 0 to omit the mac.
Enhance pkcs12 utility by making the -nokeys and -nocerts
options work when creating a PKCS#12 file. New option -nomac
to omit the mac, NONE can be set for an encryption algorithm.
New code is modified to use the enhanced PKCS12_create()
instead of the low level API.
[Steve Henson]
*) Extend ASN1 encoder to support indefinite length constructed
encoding. This can output sequences tags and octet strings in
this form. Modify pk7_asn1.c to support indefinite length
encoding. This is experimental and needs additional code to
be useful, such as an ASN1 bio and some enhanced streaming
PKCS#7 code.
Extend template encode functionality so that tagging is passed
down to the template encoder.
[Steve Henson]
*) Let 'openssl req' fail if an argument to '-newkey' is not
recognized instead of using RSA as a default.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add support for ECC-based ciphersuites from draft-ietf-tls-ecc-01.txt.
As these are not official, they are not included in "ALL";
the "ECCdraft" ciphersuite group alias can be used to select them.
[Vipul Gupta and Sumit Gupta (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]
*) Add ECDH engine support.
[Nils Gura and Douglas Stebila (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]
*) Add ECDH in new directory crypto/ecdh/.
[Douglas Stebila (Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]
*) Let BN_rand_range() abort with an error after 100 iterations
without success (which indicates a broken PRNG).
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Change BN_mod_sqrt() so that it verifies that the input value
is really the square of the return value. (Previously,
BN_mod_sqrt would show GIGO behaviour.)
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add named elliptic curves over binary fields from X9.62, SECG,
and WAP/WTLS; add OIDs that were still missing.
[Sheueling Chang Shantz and Douglas Stebila
(Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]
*) Extend the EC library for elliptic curves over binary fields
(new files ec2_smpl.c, ec2_smpt.c, ec2_mult.c in crypto/ec/).
New API functions:
Point compression for binary fields is disabled by default for
patent reasons (compile with OPENSSL_EC_BIN_PT_COMP defined to
enable it).
As binary polynomials are represented as BIGNUMs, various members
of the EC_GROUP and EC_POINT data structures can be shared
between the implementations for prime fields and binary fields;
the above ..._GF2m functions (except for EX_GROUP_new_curve_GF2m)
are essentially identical to their ..._GFp counterparts.
(For simplicity, the '..._GFp' prefix has been dropped from
various internal method names.)
An internal 'field_div' method (similar to 'field_mul' and
'field_sqr') has been added; this is used only for binary fields.
[Sheueling Chang Shantz and Douglas Stebila
(Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]
*) Optionally dispatch EC_POINT_mul(), EC_POINT_precompute_mult()
through methods ('mul', 'precompute_mult').
The generic implementations (now internally called 'ec_wNAF_mul'
and 'ec_wNAF_precomputed_mult') remain the default if these
methods are undefined.
[Sheueling Chang Shantz and Douglas Stebila
(Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]
*) New function EC_GROUP_get_degree, which is defined through
EC_METHOD. For curves over prime fields, this returns the bit
length of the modulus.
[Sheueling Chang Shantz and Douglas Stebila
(Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]
*) New functions EC_GROUP_dup, EC_POINT_dup.
(These simply call ..._new and ..._copy).
[Sheueling Chang Shantz and Douglas Stebila
(Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]
*) Add binary polynomial arithmetic software in crypto/bn/bn_gf2m.c.
Polynomials are represented as BIGNUMs (where the sign bit is not
used) in the following functions [macros]:
BN_GF2m_sub [= BN_GF2m_add]
BN_GF2m_mod [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_arr]
BN_GF2m_mod_mul [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_mul_arr]
BN_GF2m_mod_sqr [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_sqr_arr]
BN_GF2m_mod_exp [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_exp_arr]
BN_GF2m_mod_sqrt [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_sqrt_arr]
BN_GF2m_mod_solve_quad [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_solve_quad_arr]
BN_GF2m_cmp [= BN_ucmp]
(Note that only the 'mod' functions are actually for fields GF(2^m).
BN_GF2m_add() is misnomer, but this is for the sake of consistency.)
For some functions, an the irreducible polynomial defining a
field can be given as an 'unsigned int[]' with strictly
decreasing elements giving the indices of those bits that are set;
i.e., p[] represents the polynomial
f(t) = t^p[0] + t^p[1] + ... + t^p[k]
p[0] > p[1] > ... > p[k] = 0.
This applies to the following functions:
BN_GF2m_mod_inv_arr [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_inv]
BN_GF2m_mod_div_arr [wrapper for BN_GF2m_mod_div]
Conversion can be performed by the following functions:
bntest.c has additional tests for binary polynomial arithmetic.
Two implementations for BN_GF2m_mod_div() are available.
The default algorithm simply uses BN_GF2m_mod_inv() and
BN_GF2m_mod_mul(). The alternative algorithm is compiled in only
if OPENSSL_SUN_GF2M_DIV is defined (patent pending; read the
copyright notice in crypto/bn/bn_gf2m.c before enabling it).
[Sheueling Chang Shantz and Douglas Stebila
(Sun Microsystems Laboratories)]
*) Add new error code 'ERR_R_DISABLED' that can be used when some
functionality is disabled at compile-time.
[Douglas Stebila <>]
*) Change default behaviour of 'openssl asn1parse' so that more
information is visible when viewing, e.g., a certificate:
Modify asn1_parse2 (crypto/asn1/asn1_par.c) so that in non-'dump'
mode the content of non-printable OCTET STRINGs is output in a
style similar to INTEGERs, but with '[HEX DUMP]' prepended to
avoid the appearance of a printable string.
[Nils Larsch <>]
*) Add 'asn1_flag' and 'asn1_form' member to EC_GROUP with access
These control ASN1 encoding details:
- Curves (i.e., groups) are encoded explicitly unless asn1_flag
has been set to OPENSSL_EC_NAMED_CURVE.
- Points are encoded in uncompressed form by default; options for
asn1_for are as for point2oct, namely
Also add 'seed' and 'seed_len' members to EC_GROUP with access
This is used only for ASN1 purposes (so far).
[Nils Larsch <>]
*) Add 'field_type' member to EC_METHOD, which holds the NID
of the appropriate field type OID. The new function
EC_METHOD_get_field_type() returns this value.
[Nils Larsch <>]
*) Add functions
providing useful interfaces to EC_POINT_point2oct() and
[Nils Larsch <>]
*) Change internals of the EC library so that the functions
are implemented directly in crypto/ec/ec_lib.c and not dispatched
to methods, which would lead to unnecessary code duplication when
adding different types of curves.
[Nils Larsch <> with input by Bodo Moeller]
*) Implement compute_wNAF (crypto/ec/ec_mult.c) without BIGNUM
arithmetic, and such that modified wNAFs are generated
(which avoid length expansion in many cases).
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add a function EC_GROUP_check_discriminant() (defined via
EC_METHOD) that verifies that the curve discriminant is non-zero.
Add a function EC_GROUP_check() that makes some sanity tests
on a EC_GROUP, its generator and order. This includes
[Nils Larsch <>]
*) Add ECDSA in new directory crypto/ecdsa/.
Add applications 'openssl ecparam' and 'openssl ecdsa'
(these are based on 'openssl dsaparam' and 'openssl dsa').
ECDSA support is also included in various other files across the
library. Most notably,
- 'openssl req' now has a '-newkey ecdsa:file' option;
- EVP_PKCS82PKEY (crypto/evp/evp_pkey.c) now can handle ECDSA;
- X509_PUBKEY_get (crypto/asn1/x_pubkey.c) and
d2i_PublicKey (crypto/asn1/d2i_pu.c) have been modified to make
them suitable for ECDSA where domain parameters must be
extracted before the specific public key;
- ECDSA engine support has been added.
[Nils Larsch <>]
*) Include some named elliptic curves, and add OIDs from X9.62,
SECG, and WAP/WTLS. Each curve can be obtained from the new
and the list of available named curves can be obtained with
Also add a 'curve_name' member to EC_GROUP objects, which can be
accessed via
[Nils Larsch <, Bodo Moeller]
*) Remove a few calls to bn_wexpand() in BN_sqr() (the one in there
was actually never needed) and in BN_mul(). The removal in BN_mul()
required a small change in bn_mul_part_recursive() and the addition
of the functions bn_cmp_part_words(), bn_sub_part_words() and
bn_add_part_words(), which do the same thing as bn_cmp_words(),
bn_sub_words() and bn_add_words() except they take arrays with
differing sizes.
[Richard Levitte]
Changes between 0.9.7l and 0.9.7m [23 Feb 2007]
*) Cleanse PEM buffers before freeing them since they may contain
sensitive data.
[Benjamin Bennett <>]
*) Include "!eNULL" in SSL_DEFAULT_CIPHER_LIST to make sure that
a ciphersuite string such as "DEFAULT:RSA" cannot enable
authentication-only ciphersuites.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Since AES128 and AES256 share a single mask bit in the logic of
ssl/ssl_ciph.c, the code for masking out disabled ciphers needs a
kludge to work properly if AES128 is available and AES256 isn't.
[Victor Duchovni]
*) Expand security boundary to match 1.1.1 module.
[Steve Henson]
*) Remove redundant features: hash file source, editing of test vectors
modify fipsld to use external fips_premain.c signature.
[Steve Henson]
*) New perl script to create shell scripts or batch files to
run algorithm test programs.
[Steve Henson]
*) Make algorithm test programs more tolerant of whitespace.
[Steve Henson]
*) Have SSL/TLS server implementation tolerate "mismatched" record
protocol version while receiving ClientHello even if the
ClientHello is fragmented. (The server can't insist on the
particular protocol version it has chosen before the ServerHello
message has informed the client about his choice.)
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Load error codes if they are not already present instead of using a
static variable. This allows them to be cleanly unloaded and reloaded.
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 0.9.7k and 0.9.7l [28 Sep 2006]
*) Introduce limits to prevent malicious keys being able to
cause a denial of service. (CVE-2006-2940)
[Steve Henson, Bodo Moeller]
*) Fix ASN.1 parsing of certain invalid structures that can result
in a denial of service. (CVE-2006-2937) [Steve Henson]
*) Fix buffer overflow in SSL_get_shared_ciphers() function.
(CVE-2006-3738) [Tavis Ormandy and Will Drewry, Google Security Team]
*) Fix SSL client code which could crash if connecting to a
malicious SSLv2 server. (CVE-2006-4343)
[Tavis Ormandy and Will Drewry, Google Security Team]
*) Change ciphersuite string processing so that an explicit
ciphersuite selects this one ciphersuite (so that "AES256-SHA"
will no longer include "AES128-SHA"), and any other similar
ciphersuite (same bitmap) from *other* protocol versions (so that
"RC4-MD5" will still include both the SSL 2.0 ciphersuite and the
SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0 ciphersuite). This is a backport combining
changes from 0.9.8b and 0.9.8d.
[Bodo Moeller]
Changes between 0.9.7j and 0.9.7k [05 Sep 2006]
*) Avoid PKCS #1 v1.5 signature attack discovered by Daniel Bleichenbacher
(CVE-2006-4339) [Ben Laurie and Google Security Team]
*) Change the Unix randomness entropy gathering to use poll() when
possible instead of select(), since the latter has some
undesirable limitations.
[Darryl Miles via Richard Levitte and Bodo Moeller]
*) Disable rogue ciphersuites:
- SSLv2 0x08 0x00 0x80 ("RC4-64-MD5")
- SSLv3/TLSv1 0x00 0x61 ("EXP1024-RC2-CBC-MD5")
- SSLv3/TLSv1 0x00 0x60 ("EXP1024-RC4-MD5")
The latter two were purportedly from
draft-ietf-tls-56-bit-ciphersuites-0[01].txt, but do not really
appear there.
Also deactive the remaining ciphersuites from
draft-ietf-tls-56-bit-ciphersuites-01.txt. These are just as
unofficial, and the ID has long expired.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Fix RSA blinding Heisenbug (problems sometimes occured on
dual-core machines) and other potential thread-safety issues.
[Bodo Moeller]
Changes between 0.9.7i and 0.9.7j [04 May 2006]
*) Adapt fipsld and the build system to link against the validated FIPS
module in FIPS mode.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fixes for VC++ 2005 build under Windows.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add new Windows build target VC-32-GMAKE for VC++. This uses GNU make
from a Windows bash shell such as MSYS. It is autodetected from the
"config" script when run from a VC++ environment. Modify standard VC++
build to use fipscanister.o from the GNU make build.
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 0.9.7h and 0.9.7i [14 Oct 2005]
*) Wrapped the definition of EVP_MAX_MD_SIZE in a #ifdef OPENSSL_FIPS.
The value now differs depending on if you build for FIPS or not.
BEWARE! A program linked with a shared FIPSed libcrypto can't be
safely run with a non-FIPSed libcrypto, as it may crash because of
the difference induced by this change.
[Andy Polyakov]
Changes between 0.9.7g and 0.9.7h [11 Oct 2005]
*) Remove the functionality of SSL_OP_MSIE_SSLV2_RSA_PADDING
(part of SSL_OP_ALL). This option used to disable the
countermeasure against man-in-the-middle protocol-version
rollback in the SSL 2.0 server implementation, which is a bad
idea. (CVE-2005-2969)
[Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Yutaka Oiwa (Research Center
for Information Security, National Institute of Advanced Industrial
Science and Technology [AIST], Japan)]
*) Minimal support for X9.31 signatures and PSS padding modes. This is
mainly for FIPS compliance and not fully integrated at this stage.
[Steve Henson]
*) For DSA signing, unless DSA_FLAG_NO_EXP_CONSTTIME is set, perform
the exponentiation using a fixed-length exponent. (Otherwise,
the information leaked through timing could expose the secret key
after many signatures; cf. Bleichenbacher's attack on DSA with
biased k.)
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Make a new fixed-window mod_exp implementation the default for
RSA, DSA, and DH private-key operations so that the sequence of
squares and multiplies and the memory access pattern are
independent of the particular secret key. This will mitigate
cache-timing and potential related attacks.
BN_mod_exp_mont_consttime() is the new exponentiation implementation,
and this is automatically used by BN_mod_exp_mont() if the new flag
BN_FLG_EXP_CONSTTIME is set for the exponent. RSA, DSA, and DH
will use this BN flag for private exponents unless the flag
DH_FLAG_NO_EXP_CONSTTIME, respectively, is set.
[Matthew D Wood (Intel Corp), with some changes by Bodo Moeller]
*) Change the client implementation for SSLv23_method() and
SSLv23_client_method() so that is uses the SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0
Client Hello message format if the SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2 option is set.
(Previously, the SSL 2.0 backwards compatible Client Hello
message format would be used even with SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2.)
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add support for smime-type MIME parameter in S/MIME messages which some
clients need.
[Steve Henson]
*) New function BN_MONT_CTX_set_locked() to set montgomery parameters in
a threadsafe manner. Modify rsa code to use new function and add calls
to dsa and dh code (which had race conditions before).
[Steve Henson]
*) Include the fixed error library code in the C error file definitions
instead of fixing them up at runtime. This keeps the error code
structures constant.
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 0.9.7f and 0.9.7g [11 Apr 2005]
[NB: OpenSSL 0.9.7h and later 0.9.7 patch levels were released after
OpenSSL 0.9.8.]
*) Fixes for newer kerberos headers. NB: the casts are needed because
the 'length' field is signed on one version and unsigned on another
with no (?) obvious way to tell the difference, without these VC++
complains. Also the "definition" of FAR (blank) is no longer included
nor is the error ENOMEM. KRB5_PRIVATE has to be set to 1 to pick up
some needed definitions.
[Steve Henson]
*) Undo Cygwin change.
[Ulf Möller]
*) Added support for proxy certificates according to RFC 3820.
Because they may be a security thread to unaware applications,
they must be explicitely allowed in run-time. See
docs/HOWTO/proxy_certificates.txt for further information.
[Richard Levitte]
Changes between 0.9.7e and 0.9.7f [22 Mar 2005]
*) Use (SSL_RANDOM_VALUE - 4) bytes of pseudo random data when generating
server and client random values. Previously
(SSL_RANDOM_VALUE - sizeof(time_t)) would be used which would result in
less random data when sizeof(time_t) > 4 (some 64 bit platforms).
This change has negligible security impact because:
1. Server and client random values still have 24 bytes of pseudo random
2. Server and client random values are sent in the clear in the initial
3. The master secret is derived using the premaster secret (48 bytes in
size for static RSA ciphersuites) as well as client server and random
The OpenSSL team would like to thank the UK NISCC for bringing this issue
to our attention.
[Stephen Henson, reported by UK NISCC]
*) Use Windows randomness collection on Cygwin.
[Ulf Möller]
*) Fix hang in EGD/PRNGD query when communication socket is closed
prematurely by EGD/PRNGD.
[Darren Tucker <> via Lutz Jänicke, resolves #1014]
*) Prompt for pass phrases when appropriate for PKCS12 input format.
[Steve Henson]
*) Back-port of selected performance improvements from development
branch, as well as improved support for PowerPC platforms.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Add lots of checks for memory allocation failure, error codes to indicate
failure and freeing up memory if a failure occurs.
[Nauticus Networks SSL Team <>, Steve Henson]
*) Add new -passin argument to dgst.
[Steve Henson]
*) Perform some character comparisons of different types in X509_NAME_cmp:
this is needed for some certificates that reencode DNs into UTF8Strings
(in violation of RFC3280) and can't or wont issue name rollover
[Steve Henson]
*) Make an explicit check during certificate validation to see that
the CA setting in each certificate on the chain is correct. As a
side effect always do the following basic checks on extensions,
not just when there's an associated purpose to the check:
- if there is an unhandled critical extension (unless the user
has chosen to ignore this fault)
- if the path length has been exceeded (if one is set at all)
- that certain extensions fit the associated purpose (if one has
been given)
[Richard Levitte]
Changes between 0.9.7d and 0.9.7e [25 Oct 2004]
*) Avoid a race condition when CRLs are checked in a multi threaded
environment. This would happen due to the reordering of the revoked
entries during signature checking and serial number lookup. Now the
encoding is cached and the serial number sort performed under a lock.
Add new STACK function sk_is_sorted().
[Steve Henson]
*) Add Delta CRL to the extension code.
[Steve Henson]
*) Various fixes to s3_pkt.c so alerts are sent properly.
[David Holmes <>]
*) Reduce the chances of duplicate issuer name and serial numbers (in
violation of RFC3280) using the OpenSSL certificate creation utilities.
This is done by creating a random 64 bit value for the initial serial
number when a serial number file is created or when a self signed
certificate is created using 'openssl req -x509'. The initial serial
number file is created using 'openssl x509 -next_serial' in
rather than being initialized to 1.
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 0.9.7c and 0.9.7d [17 Mar 2004]
*) Fix null-pointer assignment in do_change_cipher_spec() revealed
by using the Codenomicon TLS Test Tool (CVE-2004-0079)
[Joe Orton, Steve Henson]
*) Fix flaw in SSL/TLS handshaking when using Kerberos ciphersuites
[Joe Orton, Steve Henson]
*) Make it possible to have multiple active certificates with the same
subject in the CA index file. This is done only if the keyword
'unique_subject' is set to 'no' in the main CA section (default
if 'CA_default') of the configuration file. The value is saved
with the database itself in a separate index attribute file,
named like the index file with '.attr' appended to the name.
[Richard Levitte]
*) X509 verify fixes. Disable broken certificate workarounds when
X509_V_FLAGS_X509_STRICT is set. Check CRL issuer has cRLSign set if
keyUsage extension present. Don't accept CRLs with unhandled critical
extensions: since verify currently doesn't process CRL extensions this
rejects a CRL with *any* critical extensions. Add new verify error codes
for these cases.
[Steve Henson]
*) When creating an OCSP nonce use an OCTET STRING inside the extnValue.
A clarification of RFC2560 will require the use of OCTET STRINGs and
some implementations cannot handle the current raw format. Since OpenSSL
copies and compares OCSP nonces as opaque blobs without any attempt at
parsing them this should not create any compatibility issues.
[Steve Henson]
*) New md flag EVP_MD_CTX_FLAG_REUSE this allows md_data to be reused when
calling EVP_MD_CTX_copy_ex() to avoid calling OPENSSL_malloc(). Without
this HMAC (and other) operations are several times slower than OpenSSL
< 0.9.7.
[Steve Henson]
*) Print out GeneralizedTime and UTCTime in ASN1_STRING_print_ex().
[Peter Sylvester <>]
*) Use the correct content when signing type "other".
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 0.9.7b and 0.9.7c [30 Sep 2003]
*) Fix various bugs revealed by running the NISCC test suite:
Stop out of bounds reads in the ASN1 code when presented with
invalid tags (CVE-2003-0543 and CVE-2003-0544).
Free up ASN1_TYPE correctly if ANY type is invalid (CVE-2003-0545).
If verify callback ignores invalid public key errors don't try to check
certificate signature with the NULL public key.
[Steve Henson]
*) New -ignore_err option in ocsp application to stop the server
exiting on the first error in a request.
[Steve Henson]
*) In ssl3_accept() (ssl/s3_srvr.c) only accept a client certificate
if the server requested one: as stated in TLS 1.0 and SSL 3.0
[Steve Henson]
*) In ssl3_get_client_hello() (ssl/s3_srvr.c), tolerate additional
extra data after the compression methods not only for TLS 1.0
but also for SSL 3.0 (as required by the specification).
[Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Matthias Loepfe]
*) Change X509_certificate_type() to mark the key as exported/exportable
when it's 512 *bits* long, not 512 bytes.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Change AES_cbc_encrypt() so it outputs exact multiple of
blocks during encryption.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Various fixes to base64 BIO and non blocking I/O. On write
flushes were not handled properly if the BIO retried. On read
data was not being buffered properly and had various logic bugs.
This also affects blocking I/O when the data being decoded is a
certain size.
[Steve Henson]
*) Various S/MIME bugfixes and compatibility changes:
output correct application/pkcs7 MIME type if
PKCS7_NOOLDMIMETYPE is set. Tolerate some broken signatures.
Output CR+LF for EOL if PKCS7_CRLFEOL is set (this makes opening
of files as .eml work). Correctly handle very long lines in MIME
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 0.9.7a and 0.9.7b [10 Apr 2003]
*) Countermeasure against the Klima-Pokorny-Rosa extension of
Bleichbacher's attack on PKCS #1 v1.5 padding: treat
a protocol version number mismatch like a decryption error
in ssl3_get_client_key_exchange (ssl/s3_srvr.c).
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Turn on RSA blinding by default in the default implementation
to avoid a timing attack. Applications that don't want it can call
RSA_blinding_off() or use the new flag RSA_FLAG_NO_BLINDING.
They would be ill-advised to do so in most cases.
[Ben Laurie, Steve Henson, Geoff Thorpe, Bodo Moeller]
*) Change RSA blinding code so that it works when the PRNG is not
seeded (in this case, the secret RSA exponent is abused as
an unpredictable seed -- if it is not unpredictable, there
is no point in blinding anyway). Make RSA blinding thread-safe
by remembering the creator's thread ID in rsa->blinding and
having all other threads use local one-time blinding factors
(this requires more computation than sharing rsa->blinding, but
avoids excessive locking; and if an RSA object is not shared
between threads, blinding will still be very fast).
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Fixed a typo bug that would cause ENGINE_set_default() to set an
ENGINE as defaults for all supported algorithms irrespective of
the 'flags' parameter. 'flags' is now honoured, so applications
should make sure they are passing it correctly.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Target "mingw" now allows native Windows code to be generated in
the Cygwin environment as well as with the MinGW compiler.
[Ulf Moeller]
Changes between 0.9.7 and 0.9.7a [19 Feb 2003]
*) In ssl3_get_record (ssl/s3_pkt.c), minimize information leaked
via timing by performing a MAC computation even if incorrrect
block cipher padding has been found. This is a countermeasure
against active attacks where the attacker has to distinguish
between bad padding and a MAC verification error. (CVE-2003-0078)
[Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Brice Canvel (EPFL),
Alain Hiltgen (UBS), Serge Vaudenay (EPFL), and
Martin Vuagnoux (EPFL, Ilion)]
*) Make the no-err option work as intended. The intention with no-err
is not to have the whole error stack handling routines removed from
libcrypto, it's only intended to remove all the function name and
reason texts, thereby removing some of the footprint that may not
be interesting if those errors aren't displayed anyway.
NOTE: it's still possible for any application or module to have it's
own set of error texts inserted. The routines are there, just not
used by default when no-err is given.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add support for FreeBSD on IA64.
[ via Richard Levitte, resolves #454]
*) Adjust DES_cbc_cksum() so it returns the same value as the MIT
Kerberos function mit_des_cbc_cksum(). Before this change,
the value returned by DES_cbc_cksum() was like the one from
mit_des_cbc_cksum(), except the bytes were swapped.
[Kevin Greaney <> and Richard Levitte]
*) Allow an application to disable the automatic SSL chain building.
Before this a rather primitive chain build was always performed in
ssl3_output_cert_chain(): an application had no way to send the
correct chain if the automatic operation produced an incorrect result.
Now the chain builder is disabled if either:
1. Extra certificates are added via SSL_CTX_add_extra_chain_cert().
2. The mode flag SSL_MODE_NO_AUTO_CHAIN is set.
The reasoning behind this is that an application would not want the
auto chain building to take place if extra chain certificates are
present and it might also want a means of sending no additional
certificates (for example the chain has two certificates and the
root is omitted).
[Steve Henson]
*) Add the possibility to build without the ENGINE framework.
[Steven Reddie <> via Richard Levitte]
*) Under Win32 gmtime() can return NULL: check return value in
OPENSSL_gmtime(). Add error code for case where gmtime() fails.
[Steve Henson]
*) DSA routines: under certain error conditions uninitialized BN objects
could be freed. Solution: make sure initialization is performed early
enough. (Reported and fix supplied by Ivan D Nestlerode <nestler@MIT.EDU>,
Nils Larsch <> via PR#459)
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Another fix for SSLv2 session ID handling: the session ID was incorrectly
checked on reconnect on the client side, therefore session resumption
could still fail with a "ssl session id is different" error. This
behaviour is masked when SSL_OP_ALL is used due to
Behaviour observed by Crispin Flowerday <> as
followup to PR #377.
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) IA-32 assembler support enhancements: unified ELF targets, support
for SCO/Caldera platforms, fix for Cygwin shared build.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Add support for FreeBSD on sparc64. As a consequence, support for
FreeBSD on non-x86 processors is separate from x86 processors on
the config script, much like the NetBSD support.
[Richard Levitte & Kris Kennaway <>]
Changes between 0.9.6h and 0.9.7 [31 Dec 2002]
[NB: OpenSSL 0.9.6i and later 0.9.6 patch levels were released after
OpenSSL 0.9.7.]
*) Fix session ID handling in SSLv2 client code: the SERVER FINISHED
code (06) was taken as the first octet of the session ID and the last
octet was ignored consequently. As a result SSLv2 client side session
caching could not have worked due to the session ID mismatch between
client and server.
Behaviour observed by Crispin Flowerday <> as
PR #377.
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Change the declaration of needed Kerberos libraries to use EX_LIBS
instead of the special (and badly supported) LIBKRB5. LIBKRB5 is
removed entirely.
[Richard Levitte]
*) The hw_ncipher.c engine requires dynamic locks. Unfortunately, it
seems that in spite of existing for more than a year, many application
author have done nothing to provide the necessary callbacks, which
means that this particular engine will not work properly anywhere.
This is a very unfortunate situation which forces us, in the name
of usability, to give the hw_ncipher.c a static lock, which is part
of libcrypto.
NOTE: This is for the 0.9.7 series ONLY. This hack will never
appear in 0.9.8 or later. We EXPECT application authors to have
dealt properly with this when 0.9.8 is released (unless we actually
make such changes in the libcrypto locking code that changes will
have to be made anyway).
[Richard Levitte]
*) In asn1_d2i_read_bio() repeatedly call BIO_read() until all content
octets have been read, EOF or an error occurs. Without this change
some truncated ASN1 structures will not produce an error.
[Steve Henson]
*) Disable Heimdal support, since it hasn't been fully implemented.
Still give the possibility to force the use of Heimdal, but with
warnings and a request that patches get sent to openssl-dev.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add the VC-CE target, introduce the WINCE sysname, and add
INSTALL.WCE and appropriate conditionals to make it build.
[Steven Reddie <> via Richard Levitte]
*) Change the DLL names for Cygwin to cygcrypto-x.y.z.dll and
cygssl-x.y.z.dll, where x, y and z are the major, minor and
edit numbers of the version.
[Corinna Vinschen <> and Richard Levitte]
*) Introduce safe string copy and catenation functions
(BUF_strlcpy() and BUF_strlcat()).
[Ben Laurie (CHATS) and Richard Levitte]
*) Avoid using fixed-size buffers for one-line DNs.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Add BUF_MEM_grow_clean() to avoid information leakage when
resizing buffers containing secrets, and use where appropriate.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Avoid using fixed size buffers for configuration file location.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Avoid filename truncation for various CA files.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Use sizeof in preference to magic numbers.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Avoid filename truncation in cert requests.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Add assertions to check for (supposedly impossible) buffer
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Don't cache truncated DNS entries in the local cache (this could
potentially lead to a spoofing attack).
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Fix various buffers to be large enough for hex/decimal
representations in a platform independent manner.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Add CRYPTO_realloc_clean() to avoid information leakage when
resizing buffers containing secrets, and use where appropriate.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Add BIO_indent() to avoid much slightly worrying code to do
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Convert sprintf()/BIO_puts() to BIO_printf().
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) buffer_gets() could terminate with the buffer only half
full. Fixed.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Add assertions to prevent user-supplied crypto functions from
overflowing internal buffers by having large block sizes, etc.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) New OPENSSL_assert() macro (similar to assert(), but enabled
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Eliminate unused copy of key in RC4.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Eliminate unused and incorrectly sized buffers for IV in pem.h.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Fix off-by-one error in EGD path.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) If RANDFILE path is too long, ignore instead of truncating.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Eliminate unused and incorrectly sized X.509 structure
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Eliminate unused and dangerous function knumber().
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Eliminate unused and dangerous structure, KSSL_ERR.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Protect against overlong session ID context length in an encoded
session object. Since these are local, this does not appear to be
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Change from security patch (see 0.9.6e below) that did not affect
the 0.9.6 release series:
Remote buffer overflow in SSL3 protocol - an attacker could
supply an oversized master key in Kerberos-enabled versions.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Change the SSL kerb5 codes to match RFC 2712.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Make -nameopt work fully for req and add -reqopt switch.
[Michael Bell <>, Steve Henson]
*) The "block size" for block ciphers in CFB and OFB mode should be 1.
[Steve Henson, reported by Yngve Nysaeter Pettersen <>]
*) Make sure tests can be performed even if the corresponding algorithms
have been removed entirely. This was also the last step to make
OpenSSL compilable with DJGPP under all reasonable conditions.
[Richard Levitte, Doug Kaufman <>]
to allow version independent disabling of normally unselected ciphers,
which may be activated as a side-effect of selecting a single cipher.
(E.g., cipher list string "RSA" enables ciphersuites that are left
out of "ALL" because they do not provide symmetric encryption.
"RSA:!COMPLEMEMENTOFALL" avoids these unsafe ciphersuites.)
[Lutz Jaenicke, Bodo Moeller]
*) Add appropriate support for separate platform-dependent build
directories. The recommended way to make a platform-dependent
build directory is the following (tested on Linux), maybe with
some local tweaks:
# Place yourself outside of the OpenSSL source tree. In
# this example, the environment variable OPENSSL_SOURCE
# is assumed to contain the absolute OpenSSL source directory.
mkdir -p objtree/"`uname -s`-`uname -r`-`uname -m`"
cd objtree/"`uname -s`-`uname -r`-`uname -m`"
(cd $OPENSSL_SOURCE; find . -type f) | while read F; do
mkdir -p `dirname $F`
To be absolutely sure not to disturb the source tree, a "make clean"
is a good thing. If it isn't successfull, don't worry about it,
it probably means the source directory is very clean.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Make sure any ENGINE control commands make local copies of string
pointers passed to them whenever necessary. Otherwise it is possible
the caller may have overwritten (or deallocated) the original string
data when a later ENGINE operation tries to use the stored values.
[Götz Babin-Ebell <>]
*) Improve diagnostics in file reading and command-line digests.
[Ben Laurie aided and abetted by Solar Designer <>]
*) Add AES modes CFB and OFB to the object database. Correct an
error in AES-CFB decryption.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Remove most calls to EVP_CIPHER_CTX_cleanup() in evp_enc.c, this
allows existing EVP_CIPHER_CTX structures to be reused after
calling EVP_*Final(). This behaviour is used by encryption
BIOs and some applications. This has the side effect that
applications must explicitly clean up cipher contexts with
EVP_CIPHER_CTX_cleanup() or they will leak memory.
[Steve Henson]
*) Check the values of dna and dnb in bn_mul_recursive before calling
bn_mul_comba (a non zero value means the a or b arrays do not contain
n2 elements) and fallback to bn_mul_normal if either is not zero.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix escaping of non-ASCII characters when using the -subj option
of the "openssl req" command line tool. (Robert Joop <>)
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Make object definitions compliant to LDAP (RFC2256): SN is the short
form for "surname", serialNumber has no short form.
Use "mail" as the short name for "rfc822Mailbox" according to RFC2798;
therefore remove "mail" short name for "internet 7".
The OID for unique identifiers in X509 certificates is
x500UniqueIdentifier, not uniqueIdentifier.
Some more OID additions. (Michael Bell <>)
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Add an "init" command to the ENGINE config module and auto initialize
ENGINEs. Without any "init" command the ENGINE will be initialized
after all ctrl commands have been executed on it. If init=1 the
ENGINE is initailized at that point (ctrls before that point are run
on the uninitialized ENGINE and after on the initialized one). If
init=0 then the ENGINE will not be iniatialized at all.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix the 'app_verify_callback' interface so that the user-defined
argument is actually passed to the callback: In the
SSL_CTX_set_cert_verify_callback() prototype, the callback
declaration has been changed from
int (*cb)()
int (*cb)(X509_STORE_CTX *,void *);
in ssl_verify_cert_chain (ssl/ssl_cert.c), the call
has been changed into
i=s->ctx->app_verify_callback(&ctx, s->ctx->app_verify_arg).
To update applications using SSL_CTX_set_cert_verify_callback(),
a dummy argument can be added to their callback functions.
[D. K. Smetters <>]
*) Added the '4758cca' ENGINE to support IBM 4758 cards.
[Maurice Gittens <>, touchups by Geoff Thorpe]
*) Add and OPENSSL_LOAD_CONF define which will cause
OpenSSL_add_all_algorithms() to load the openssl.cnf config file.
This allows older applications to transparently support certain
OpenSSL features: such as crypto acceleration and dynamic ENGINE loading.
Two new functions OPENSSL_add_all_algorithms_noconf() which will never
load the config file and OPENSSL_add_all_algorithms_conf() which will
always load it have also been added.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add the OFB, CFB and CTR (all with 128 bit feedback) to AES.
Adjust NIDs and EVP layer.
[Stephen Sprunk <> and Richard Levitte]
*) Config modules support in openssl utility.
Most commands now load modules from the config file,
though in a few (such as version) this isn't done
because it couldn't be used for anything.
In the case of ca and req the config file used is
the same as the utility itself: that is the -config
command line option can be used to specify an
alternative file.
[Steve Henson]
*) Move default behaviour from OPENSSL_config(). If appname is NULL
use "openssl_conf" if filename is NULL use default openssl config file.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add an argument to OPENSSL_config() to allow the use of an alternative
config section name. Add a new flag to tolerate a missing config file
and move code to CONF_modules_load_file().
[Steve Henson]
*) Support for crypto accelerator cards from Accelerated Encryption
Processing, (Use engine 'aep')
The support was copied from 0.9.6c [engine] and adapted/corrected
to work with the new engine framework.
[AEP Inc. and Richard Levitte]
*) Support for SureWare crypto accelerator cards from Baltimore
Technologies. (Use engine 'sureware')
The support was copied from 0.9.6c [engine] and adapted
to work with the new engine framework.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Have the CHIL engine fork-safe (as defined by nCipher) and actually
make the newer ENGINE framework commands for the CHIL engine work.
[Toomas Kiisk <> and Richard Levitte]
*) Make it possible to produce shared libraries on ReliantUNIX.
[Robert Dahlem <> via Richard Levitte]
*) Add the configuration target debug-linux-ppro.
Make 'openssl rsa' use the general key loading routines
implemented in apps.c, and make those routines able to
handle the key format FORMAT_NETSCAPE and the variant
[Toomas Kiisk <> via Richard Levitte]
*) Fix a crashbug and a logic bug in hwcrhk_load_pubkey().
[Toomas Kiisk <> via Richard Levitte]
*) Add -keyform to rsautl, and document -engine.
[Richard Levitte, inspired by Toomas Kiisk <>]
*) Change BIO_new_file (crypto/bio/bss_file.c) to use new
BIO_R_NO_SUCH_FILE error code rather than the generic
ERR_R_SYS_LIB error code if fopen() fails with ENOENT.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Add new functions
These are similar to
but report on the latest error recorded rather than the first one
still in the error queue.
[Ben Laurie, Bodo Moeller]
*) default_algorithms option in ENGINE config module. This allows things
default_algorithms = ALL
default_algorithms = RSA, DSA, RAND, CIPHERS, DIGESTS
[Steve Henson]
*) Prelminary ENGINE config module.
[Steve Henson]
*) New experimental application configuration code.
[Steve Henson]
*) Change the AES code to follow the same name structure as all other
symmetric ciphers, and behave the same way. Move everything to
the directory crypto/aes, thereby obsoleting crypto/rijndael.
[Stephen Sprunk <> and Richard Levitte]
*) SECURITY: remove unsafe setjmp/signal interaction from ui_openssl.c.
[Ben Laurie and Theo de Raadt]
*) Add option to output public keys in req command.
[Massimiliano Pala]
*) Use wNAFs in EC_POINTs_mul() for improved efficiency
(up to about 10% better than before for P-192 and P-224).
[Bodo Moeller]
*) New functions/macros
SSL_CTX_set_msg_callback(ctx, cb)
SSL_CTX_set_msg_callback_arg(ctx, arg)
SSL_set_msg_callback(ssl, cb)
SSL_set_msg_callback_arg(ssl, arg)
to request calling a callback function
void cb(int write_p, int version, int content_type,
const void *buf, size_t len, SSL *ssl, void *arg)
whenever a protocol message has been completely received
(write_p == 0) or sent (write_p == 1). Here 'version' is the
protocol version according to which the SSL library interprets
the current protocol message (SSL2_VERSION, SSL3_VERSION, or
TLS1_VERSION). 'content_type' is 0 in the case of SSL 2.0, or
the content type as defined in the SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0 protocol
specification (change_cipher_spec(20), alert(21), handshake(22)).
'buf' and 'len' point to the actual message, 'ssl' to the
SSL object, and 'arg' is the application-defined value set by
'openssl s_client' and 'openssl s_server' have new '-msg' options
to enable a callback that displays all protocol messages.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Change the shared library support so shared libraries are built as
soon as the corresponding static library is finished, and thereby get
openssl and the test programs linked against the shared library.
This still only happens when the keyword "shard" has been given to
the configuration scripts.
NOTE: shared library support is still an experimental thing, and
backward binary compatibility is still not guaranteed.
["Maciej W. Rozycki" <> and Richard Levitte]
*) Add support for Subject Information Access extension.
[Peter Sylvester <>]
*) Make BUF_MEM_grow() behaviour more consistent: Initialise to zero
additional bytes when new memory had to be allocated, not just
when reusing an existing buffer.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) New command line and configuration option 'utf8' for the req command.
This allows field values to be specified as UTF8 strings.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add -multi and -mr options to "openssl speed" - giving multiple parallel
runs for the former and machine-readable output for the latter.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Add '-noemailDN' option to 'openssl ca'. This prevents inclusion
of the e-mail address in the DN (i.e., it will go into a certificate
extension only). The new configuration file option 'email_in_dn = no'
has the same effect.
[Massimiliano Pala]
*) Change all functions with names starting with des_ to be starting
with DES_ instead. Add wrappers that are compatible with libdes,
but are named _ossl_old_des_*. Finally, add macros that map the
des_* symbols to the corresponding _ossl_old_des_* if libdes
compatibility is desired. If OpenSSL 0.9.6c compatibility is
desired, the des_* symbols will be mapped to DES_*, with one
Since we provide two compatibility mappings, the user needs to
define the macro OPENSSL_DES_LIBDES_COMPATIBILITY if libdes
compatibility is desired. The default (i.e., when that macro
isn't defined) is OpenSSL 0.9.6c compatibility.
There are also macros that enable and disable the support of old
des functions altogether. Those are OPENSSL_ENABLE_OLD_DES_SUPPORT
and OPENSSL_DISABLE_OLD_DES_SUPPORT. If none or both of those
are defined, the default will apply: to support the old des routines.
In either case, one must include openssl/des.h to get the correct
definitions. Do not try to just include openssl/des_old.h, that
won't work.
NOTE: This is a major break of an old API into a new one. Software
authors are encouraged to switch to the DES_ style functions. Some
time in the future, des_old.h and the libdes compatibility functions
will be disable (i.e. OPENSSL_DISABLE_OLD_DES_SUPPORT will be the
default), and then completely removed.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Test for certificates which contain unsupported critical extensions.
If such a certificate is found during a verify operation it is
rejected by default: this behaviour can be overridden by either
handling the new error X509_V_ERR_UNHANDLED_CRITICAL_EXTENSION or
by setting the verify flag X509_V_FLAG_IGNORE_CRITICAL. A new function
X509_supported_extension() has also been added which returns 1 if a
particular extension is supported.
[Steve Henson]
*) Modify the behaviour of EVP cipher functions in similar way to digests
to retain compatibility with existing code.
[Steve Henson]
*) Modify the behaviour of EVP_DigestInit() and EVP_DigestFinal() to retain
compatibility with existing code. In particular the 'ctx' parameter does
not have to be to be initialized before the call to EVP_DigestInit() and
it is tidied up after a call to EVP_DigestFinal(). New function
EVP_DigestFinal_ex() which does not tidy up the ctx. Similarly function
EVP_MD_CTX_copy() changed to not require the destination to be
initialized valid and new function EVP_MD_CTX_copy_ex() added which
requires the destination to be valid.
Modify all the OpenSSL digest calls to use EVP_DigestInit_ex(),
EVP_DigestFinal_ex() and EVP_MD_CTX_copy_ex().
[Steve Henson]
*) Change ssl3_get_message (ssl/s3_both.c) and the functions using it
so that complete 'Handshake' protocol structures are kept in memory
instead of overwriting 'msg_type' and 'length' with 'body' data.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add an implementation of SSL_add_dir_cert_subjects_to_stack for Win32.
[Massimo Santin via Richard Levitte]
*) Major restructuring to the underlying ENGINE code. This includes
reduction of linker bloat, separation of pure "ENGINE" manipulation
(initialisation, etc) from functionality dealing with implementations
of specific crypto iterfaces. This change also introduces integrated
support for symmetric ciphers and digest implementations - so ENGINEs
can now accelerate these by providing EVP_CIPHER and EVP_MD
implementations of their own. This is detailed in crypto/engine/README
as it couldn't be adequately described here. However, there are a few
API changes worth noting - some RSA, DSA, DH, and RAND functions that
were changed in the original introduction of ENGINE code have now
reverted back - the hooking from this code to ENGINE is now a good
deal more passive and at run-time, operations deal directly with
RSA_METHODs, DSA_METHODs (etc) as they did before, rather than
dereferencing through an ENGINE pointer any more. Also, the ENGINE
functions dealing with BN_MOD_EXP[_CRT] handlers have been removed -
they were not being used by the framework as there is no concept of a
BIGNUM_METHOD and they could not be generalised to the new
'ENGINE_TABLE' mechanism that underlies the new code. Similarly,
ENGINE_cpy() has been removed as it cannot be consistently defined in
the new code.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Change ASN1_GENERALIZEDTIME_check() to allow fractional seconds.
[Steve Henson]
*) Change to sort symbols that get the same entry number,
and make sure the automatically generated functions ERR_load_*
become part of libeay.num as well.
[Richard Levitte]
*) New function SSL_renegotiate_pending(). This returns true once
renegotiation has been requested (either SSL_renegotiate() call
or HelloRequest/ClientHello receveived from the peer) and becomes
false once a handshake has been completed.
(For servers, SSL_renegotiate() followed by SSL_do_handshake()
sends a HelloRequest, but does not ensure that a handshake takes
place. SSL_renegotiate_pending() is useful for checking if the
client has followed the request.)
[Bodo Moeller]
By default, clients may request session resumption even during
renegotiation (if session ID contexts permit); with this option,
session resumption is possible only in the first handshake.
SSL_OP_ALL is now 0x00000FFFL instead of 0x000FFFFFL. This makes
more bits available for options that should not be part of
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add some demos for certificate and certificate request creation.
[Steve Henson]
*) Make maximum certificate chain size accepted from the peer application
settable (SSL*_get/set_max_cert_list()), as proposed by
"Douglas E. Engert" <>.
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Add support for shared libraries for Unixware-7
(Boyd Lynn Gerber <>).
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Add a "destroy" handler to ENGINEs that allows structural cleanup to
be done prior to destruction. Use this to unload error strings from
ENGINEs that load their own error strings. NB: This adds two new API
functions to "get" and "set" this destroy handler in an ENGINE.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Alter all existing ENGINE implementations (except "openssl" and
"openbsd") to dynamically instantiate their own error strings. This
makes them more flexible to be built both as statically-linked ENGINEs
and self-contained shared-libraries loadable via the "dynamic" ENGINE.
Also, add stub code to each that makes building them as self-contained
shared-libraries easier (see README.ENGINE).
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Add a "dynamic" ENGINE that provides a mechanism for binding ENGINE
implementations into applications that are completely implemented in
self-contained shared-libraries. The "dynamic" ENGINE exposes control
commands that can be used to configure what shared-library to load and
to control aspects of the way it is handled. Also, made an update to
the README.ENGINE file that brings its information up-to-date and
provides some information and instructions on the "dynamic" ENGINE
(ie. how to use it, how to build "dynamic"-loadable ENGINEs, etc).
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Make it possible to unload ranges of ERR strings with a new
"ERR_unload_strings" function.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Add a copy() function to EVP_MD.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Make EVP_MD routines take a context pointer instead of just the
md_data void pointer.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Add flags to EVP_MD and EVP_MD_CTX. EVP_MD_FLAG_ONESHOT indicates
that the digest can only process a single chunk of data
(typically because it is provided by a piece of
hardware). EVP_MD_CTX_FLAG_ONESHOT indicates that the application
is only going to provide a single chunk of data, and hence the
framework needn't accumulate the data for oneshot drivers.
[Ben Laurie]
*) As with "ERR", make it possible to replace the underlying "ex_data"
functions. This change also alters the storage and management of global
ex_data state - it's now all inside ex_data.c and all "class" code (eg.
RSA, BIO, SSL_CTX, etc) no longer stores its own STACKS and per-class
index counters. The API functions that use this state have been changed
to take a "class_index" rather than pointers to the class's local STACK
and counter, and there is now an API function to dynamically create new
classes. This centralisation allows us to (a) plug a lot of the
thread-safety problems that existed, and (b) makes it possible to clean
up all allocated state using "CRYPTO_cleanup_all_ex_data()". W.r.t. (b)
such data would previously have always leaked in application code and
workarounds were in place to make the memory debugging turn a blind eye
to it. Application code that doesn't use this new function will still
leak as before, but their memory debugging output will announce it now
rather than letting it slide.
Besides the addition of CRYPTO_cleanup_all_ex_data(), another API change
induced by the "ex_data" overhaul is that X509_STORE_CTX_init() now
has a return value to indicate success or failure.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Make it possible to replace the underlying "ERR" functions such that the
global state (2 LHASH tables and 2 locks) is only used by the "default"
implementation. This change also adds two functions to "get" and "set"
the implementation prior to it being automatically set the first time
any other ERR function takes place. Ie. an application can call "get",
pass the return value to a module it has just loaded, and that module
can call its own "set" function using that value. This means the
module's "ERR" operations will use (and modify) the error state in the
application and not in its own statically linked copy of OpenSSL code.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Give DH, DSA, and RSA types their own "**_up_ref()" function to increment
reference counts. This performs normal REF_PRINT/REF_CHECK macros on
the operation, and provides a more encapsulated way for external code
(crypto/evp/ and ssl/) to do this. Also changed the evp and ssl code
to use these functions rather than manually incrementing the counts.
Also rename "DSO_up()" function to more descriptive "DSO_up_ref()".
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Add EVP test program.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Add symmetric cipher support to ENGINE. Expect the API to change!
[Ben Laurie]
*) New CRL functions: X509_CRL_set_version(), X509_CRL_set_issuer_name()
X509_CRL_set_lastUpdate(), X509_CRL_set_nextUpdate(), X509_CRL_sort(),
X509_REVOKED_set_serialNumber(), and X509_REVOKED_set_revocationDate().
These allow a CRL to be built without having to access X509_CRL fields
directly. Modify 'ca' application to use new functions.
[Steve Henson]
*) Move SSL_OP_TLS_ROLLBACK_BUG out of the SSL_OP_ALL list of recommended
bug workarounds. Rollback attack detection is a security feature.
The problem will only arise on OpenSSL servers when TLSv1 is not
available (sslv3_server_method() or SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1).
Software authors not wanting to support TLSv1 will have special reasons
for their choice and can explicitly enable this option.
[Bodo Moeller, Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Rationalise EVP so it can be extended: don't include a union of
cipher/digest structures, add init/cleanup functions for EVP_MD_CTX
(similar to those existing for EVP_CIPHER_CTX).
Usage example:
EVP_MD_CTX_init(&md); /* new function call */
EVP_DigestInit(&md, EVP_sha1());
EVP_DigestUpdate(&md, in, len);
EVP_DigestFinal(&md, out, NULL);
EVP_MD_CTX_cleanup(&md); /* new function call */
[Ben Laurie]
*) Make DES key schedule conform to the usual scheme, as well as
correcting its structure. This means that calls to DES functions
now have to pass a pointer to a des_key_schedule instead of a
plain des_key_schedule (which was actually always a pointer
anyway): E.g.,
des_key_schedule ks;
des_set_key_checked(..., &ks);
des_ncbc_encrypt(..., &ks, ...);
(Note that a later change renames 'des_...' into 'DES_...'.)
[Ben Laurie]
*) Initial reduction of linker bloat: the use of some functions, such as
PEM causes large amounts of unused functions to be linked in due to
poor organisation. For example pem_all.c contains every PEM function
which has a knock on effect of linking in large amounts of (unused)
ASN1 code. Grouping together similar functions and splitting unrelated
functions prevents this.
[Steve Henson]
*) Cleanup of EVP macros.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Change historical references to {NID,SN,LN}_des_ede and ede3 to add the
correct _ecb suffix.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Add initial OCSP responder support to ocsp application. The
revocation information is handled using the text based index
use by the ca application. The responder can either handle
requests generated internally, supplied in files (for example
via a CGI script) or using an internal minimal server.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add configuration choices to get zlib compression for TLS.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Changes to Kerberos SSL for RFC 2712 compliance:
1. Implemented real KerberosWrapper, instead of just using
KRB5 AP_REQ message. [Thanks to Simon Wilkinson <>]
2. Implemented optional authenticator field of KerberosWrapper.
Added openssl-style ASN.1 macros for Kerberos ticket, ap_req,
and authenticator structs; see crypto/krb5/.
Generalized Kerberos calls to support multiple Kerberos libraries.
[Vern Staats <>,
Jeffrey Altman <>
via Richard Levitte]
*) Cause 'openssl speed' to use fully hard-coded DSA keys as it
already does with RSA. testdsa.h now has 'priv_key/pub_key'
values for each of the key sizes rather than having just
parameters (and 'speed' generating keys each time).
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Speed up EVP routines.
type 8 bytes 64 bytes 256 bytes 1024 bytes 8192 bytes
des-cbc 4408.85k 5560.51k 5778.46k 5862.20k 5825.16k
des-cbc 4389.55k 5571.17k 5792.23k 5846.91k 5832.11k
des-cbc 4394.32k 5575.92k 5807.44k 5848.37k 5841.30k
des-cbc 3482.66k 5069.49k 5496.39k 5614.16k 5639.28k
des-cbc 3480.74k 5068.76k 5510.34k 5609.87k 5635.52k
des-cbc 3483.72k 5067.62k 5504.60k 5708.01k 5724.80k
des-cbc 4660.16k 5650.19k 5807.19k 5827.13k 5783.32k
des-cbc 3624.96k 5258.21k 5530.91k 5624.30k 5628.26k
[Ben Laurie]
*) Added the OS2-EMX target.
["Brian Havard" <> and Richard Levitte]
*) Rewrite apps to use NCONF routines instead of the old CONF. New functions
to support NCONF routines in extension code. New function CONF_set_nconf()
to allow functions which take an NCONF to also handle the old LHASH
structure: this means that the old CONF compatible routines can be
retained (in particular wrt extensions) without having to duplicate the
code. New function X509V3_add_ext_nconf_sk to add extensions to a stack.
[Steve Henson]
*) Enhance the general user interface with mechanisms for inner control
and with possibilities to have yes/no kind of prompts.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Change all calls to low level digest routines in the library and
applications to use EVP. Add missing calls to HMAC_cleanup() and
don't assume HMAC_CTX can be copied using memcpy().
[Verdon Walker <>, Steve Henson]
*) Add the possibility to control engines through control names but with
arbitrary arguments instead of just a string.
Change the key loaders to take a UI_METHOD instead of a callback
function pointer. NOTE: this breaks binary compatibility with earlier
versions of OpenSSL [engine].
Adapt the nCipher code for these new conditions and add a card insertion
[Richard Levitte]
*) Enhance the general user interface with mechanisms to better support
dialog box interfaces, application-defined prompts, the possibility
to use defaults (for example default passwords from somewhere else)
and interrupts/cancellations.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Tidy up PKCS#12 attribute handling. Add support for the CSP name
attribute in PKCS#12 files, add new -CSP option to pkcs12 utility.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix a memory leak in 'sk_dup()' in the case reallocation fails. (Also
tidy up some unnecessarily weird code in 'sk_new()').
[Geoff, reported by Diego Tartara <>]
*) Change the key loading routines for ENGINEs to use the same kind
callback (pem_password_cb) as all other routines that need this
kind of callback.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Increase ENTROPY_NEEDED to 32 bytes, as Rijndael can operate with
256 bit (=32 byte) keys. Of course seeding with more entropy bytes
than this minimum value is recommended.
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) New random seeder for OpenVMS, using the system process statistics
that are easily reachable.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Windows apparently can't transparently handle global
variables defined in DLLs. Initialisations such as:
const ASN1_ITEM *it = &ASN1_INTEGER_it;
wont compile. This is used by the any applications that need to
declare their own ASN1 modules. This was fixed by adding the option
EXPORT_VAR_AS_FN to all Win32 platforms, although this isn't strictly
needed for static libraries under Win32.
[Steve Henson]
*) New functions X509_PURPOSE_set() and X509_TRUST_set() to handle
setting of purpose and trust fields. New X509_STORE trust and
purpose functions and tidy up setting in other SSL functions.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add copies of X509_STORE_CTX fields and callbacks to X509_STORE
structure. These are inherited by X509_STORE_CTX when it is
initialised. This allows various defaults to be set in the
X509_STORE structure (such as flags for CRL checking and custom
purpose or trust settings) for functions which only use X509_STORE_CTX
internally such as S/MIME.
Modify X509_STORE_CTX_purpose_inherit() so it only sets purposes and
trust settings if they are not set in X509_STORE. This allows X509_STORE
purposes and trust (in S/MIME for example) to override any set by default.
Add command line options for CRL checking to smime, s_client and s_server
[Steve Henson]
*) Initial CRL based revocation checking. If the CRL checking flag(s)
are set then the CRL is looked up in the X509_STORE structure and
its validity and signature checked, then if the certificate is found
in the CRL the verify fails with a revoked error.
Various new CRL related callbacks added to X509_STORE_CTX structure.
Command line options added to 'verify' application to support this.
This needs some additional work, such as being able to handle multiple
CRLs with different times, extension based lookup (rather than just
by subject name) and ultimately more complete V2 CRL extension
[Steve Henson]
*) Add a general user interface API (crypto/ui/). This is designed
to replace things like des_read_password and friends (backward
compatibility functions using this new API are provided).
The purpose is to remove prompting functions from the DES code
section as well as provide for prompting through dialog boxes in
a window system and the like.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add "ex_data" support to ENGINE so implementations can add state at a
per-structure level rather than having to store it globally.
*) Make it possible for ENGINE structures to be copied when retrieved by
ENGINE_by_id() if the ENGINE specifies a new flag: ENGINE_FLAGS_BY_ID_COPY.
This causes the "original" ENGINE structure to act like a template,
analogous to the RSA vs. RSA_METHOD type of separation. Because of this
operational state can be localised to each ENGINE structure, despite the
fact they all share the same "methods". New ENGINE structures returned in
this case have no functional references and the return value is the single
structural reference. This matches the single structural reference returned
by ENGINE_by_id() normally, when it is incremented on the pre-existing
ENGINE structure.
*) Fix ASN1 decoder when decoding type ANY and V_ASN1_OTHER: since this
needs to match any other type at all we need to manually clear the
tag cache.
[Steve Henson]
*) Changes to the "openssl engine" utility to include;
- verbosity levels ('-v', '-vv', and '-vvv') that provide information
about an ENGINE's available control commands.
- executing control commands from command line arguments using the
'-pre' and '-post' switches. '-post' is only used if '-t' is
specified and the ENGINE is successfully initialised. The syntax for
the individual commands are colon-separated, for example;
openssl engine chil -pre FORK_CHECK:0 -pre SO_PATH:/lib/
*) New dynamic control command support for ENGINEs. ENGINEs can now
declare their own commands (numbers), names (strings), descriptions,
and input types for run-time discovery by calling applications. A
subset of these commands are implicitly classed as "executable"
depending on their input type, and only these can be invoked through
the new string-based API function ENGINE_ctrl_cmd_string(). (Eg. this
can be based on user input, config files, etc). The distinction is
that "executable" commands cannot return anything other than a boolean
result and can only support numeric or string input, whereas some
discoverable commands may only be for direct use through
ENGINE_ctrl(), eg. supporting the exchange of binary data, function
pointers, or other custom uses. The "executable" commands are to
support parameterisations of ENGINE behaviour that can be
unambiguously defined by ENGINEs and used consistently across any
OpenSSL-based application. Commands have been added to all the
existing hardware-supporting ENGINEs, noticeably "SO_PATH" to allow
control over shared-library paths without source code alterations.
*) Changed all ENGINE implementations to dynamically allocate their
ENGINEs rather than declaring them statically. Apart from this being
necessary with the removal of the ENGINE_FLAGS_MALLOCED distinction,
this also allows the implementations to compile without using the
internal engine_int.h header.
*) Minor adjustment to "rand" code. RAND_get_rand_method() now returns a
'const' value. Any code that should be able to modify a RAND_METHOD
should already have non-const pointers to it (ie. they should only
modify their own ones).
*) Made a variety of little tweaks to the ENGINE code.
- "atalla" and "ubsec" string definitions were moved from header files
to C code. "nuron" string definitions were placed in variables
rather than hard-coded - allowing parameterisation of these values
later on via ctrl() commands.
- Removed unused "#if 0"'d code.
- Fixed engine list iteration code so it uses ENGINE_free() to release
structural references.
- Constified the RAND_METHOD element of ENGINE structures.
- Constified various get/set functions as appropriate and added
missing functions (including a catch-all ENGINE_cpy that duplicates
all ENGINE values onto a new ENGINE except reference counts/state).
- Removed NULL parameter checks in get/set functions. Setting a method
or function to NULL is a way of cancelling out a previously set
value. Passing a NULL ENGINE parameter is just plain stupid anyway
and doesn't justify the extra error symbols and code.
- Deprecate the ENGINE_FLAGS_MALLOCED define and move the area for
flags from engine_int.h to engine.h.
- Changed prototypes for ENGINE handler functions (init(), finish(),
ctrl(), key-load functions, etc) to take an (ENGINE*) parameter.
*) Implement binary inversion algorithm for BN_mod_inverse in addition
to the algorithm using long division. The binary algorithm can be
used only if the modulus is odd. On 32-bit systems, it is faster
only for relatively small moduli (roughly 20-30% for 128-bit moduli,
roughly 5-15% for 256-bit moduli), so we use it only for moduli
up to 450 bits. In 64-bit environments, the binary algorithm
appears to be advantageous for much longer moduli; here we use it
for moduli up to 2048 bits.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Rewrite CHOICE field setting in ASN1_item_ex_d2i(). The old code
could not support the combine flag in choice fields.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add a 'copy_extensions' option to the 'ca' utility. This copies
extensions from a certificate request to the certificate.
[Steve Henson]
*) Allow multiple 'certopt' and 'nameopt' options to be separated
by commas. Add 'namopt' and 'certopt' options to the 'ca' config
file: this allows the display of the certificate about to be
signed to be customised, to allow certain fields to be included
or excluded and extension details. The old system didn't display
multicharacter strings properly, omitted fields not in the policy
and couldn't display additional details such as extensions.
[Steve Henson]
*) Function EC_POINTs_mul for multiple scalar multiplication
of an arbitrary number of elliptic curve points
\sum scalars[i]*points[i],
optionally including the generator defined for the EC_GROUP:
scalar*generator + \sum scalars[i]*points[i].
EC_POINT_mul is a simple wrapper function for the typical case
that the point list has just one item (besides the optional
[Bodo Moeller]
*) First EC_METHODs for curves over GF(p):
EC_GFp_simple_method() uses the basic BN_mod_mul and BN_mod_sqr
operations and provides various method functions that can also
operate with faster implementations of modular arithmetic.
EC_GFp_mont_method() reuses most functions that are part of
EC_GFp_simple_method, but uses Montgomery arithmetic.
[Bodo Moeller; point addition and point doubling
implementation directly derived from source code provided by
Lenka Fibikova <>]
*) Framework for elliptic curves (crypto/ec/ec.h, crypto/ec/ec_lcl.h,
Curves are EC_GROUP objects (with an optional group generator)
based on EC_METHODs that are built into the library.
Points are EC_POINT objects based on EC_GROUP objects.
Most of the framework would be able to handle curves over arbitrary
finite fields, but as there are no obvious types for fields other
than GF(p), some functions are limited to that for now.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add the -HTTP option to s_server. It is similar to -WWW, but requires
that the file contains a complete HTTP response.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add the ec directory to and In
change the def and num file printf format specifier from "%-40sXXX"
to "%-39s XXX". The latter will always guarantee a space after the
field while the former will cause them to run together if the field
is 40 of more characters long.
[Steve Henson]
*) Constify the cipher and digest 'method' functions and structures
and modify related functions to take constant EVP_MD and EVP_CIPHER
[Steve Henson]
*) Hide BN_CTX structure details in bn_lcl.h instead of publishing them
in <openssl/bn.h>. Also further increase BN_CTX_NUM to 32.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Modify EVP_Digest*() routines so they now return values. Although the
internal software routines can never fail additional hardware versions
[Steve Henson]
*) Clean up crypto/err/err.h and change some error codes to avoid conflicts:
Previously ERR_R_FATAL was too small and coincided with ERR_LIB_PKCS7
(= ERR_R_PKCS7_LIB); it is now 64 instead of 32.
ASN1 error codes
were 4 .. 9, conflicting with
They are now 58 .. 63 (i.e., just below ERR_R_FATAL).
Add new error code 'ERR_R_INTERNAL_ERROR'.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Don't overuse locks in crypto/err/err.c: For data retrieval, CRYPTO_r_lock
[Bodo Moeller]
*) New option '-subj arg' for 'openssl req' and 'openssl ca'. This
sets the subject name for a new request or supersedes the
subject name in a given request. Formats that can be parsed are
'CN=Some Name, OU=myOU, C=IT'
'CN=Some Name/OU=myOU/C=IT'.
Add options '-batch' and '-verbose' to 'openssl req'.
[Massimiliano Pala <>]
*) Introduce the possibility to access global variables through
functions on platform were that's the best way to handle exporting
global variables in shared libraries. To enable this functionality,
one must configure with "EXPORT_VAR_AS_FN" or defined the C macro
"OPENSSL_EXPORT_VAR_AS_FUNCTION" in crypto/opensslconf.h (the latter
is normally done by Configure or something similar).
To implement a global variable, use the macro OPENSSL_IMPLEMENT_GLOBAL
in the source file (foo.c) like this:
To declare a global variable, use the macros OPENSSL_DECLARE_GLOBAL
and OPENSSL_GLOBAL_REF in the header file (foo.h) like this:
#define foo OPENSSL_GLOBAL_REF(foo)
#define bar OPENSSL_GLOBAL_REF(bar)
The #defines are very important, and therefore so is including the
header file everywhere where the defined globals are used.
The macro OPENSSL_EXPORT_VAR_AS_FUNCTION also affects the definition
of ASN.1 items, but that structure is a bit different.
The largest change is in util/ which has been enhanced with
better and easier to understand logic to choose which symbols should
go into the Windows .def files as well as a number of fixes and code
cleanup (among others, algorithm keywords are now sorted
lexicographically to avoid constant rewrites).
[Richard Levitte]
*) In BN_div() keep a copy of the sign of 'num' before writing the
result to 'rm' because if rm==num the value will be overwritten
and produce the wrong result if 'num' is negative: this caused
problems with BN_mod() and BN_nnmod().
[Steve Henson]
*) Function OCSP_request_verify(). This checks the signature on an
OCSP request and verifies the signer certificate. The signer
certificate is just checked for a generic purpose and OCSP request
trust settings.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add OCSP_check_validity() function to check the validity of OCSP
responses. OCSP responses are prepared in real time and may only
be a few seconds old. Simply checking that the current time lies
between thisUpdate and nextUpdate max reject otherwise valid responses
caused by either OCSP responder or client clock inaccuracy. Instead
we allow thisUpdate and nextUpdate to fall within a certain period of
the current time. The age of the response can also optionally be
checked. Two new options -validity_period and -status_age added to
ocsp utility.
[Steve Henson]
*) If signature or public key algorithm is unrecognized print out its
OID rather that just UNKNOWN.
[Steve Henson]
*) Change OCSP_cert_to_id() to tolerate a NULL subject certificate and
OCSP_cert_id_new() a NULL serialNumber. This allows a partial certificate
ID to be generated from the issuer certificate alone which can then be
passed to OCSP_id_issuer_cmp().
[Steve Henson]
*) New compilation option ASN1_ITEM_FUNCTIONS. This causes the new
ASN1 modules to export functions returning ASN1_ITEM pointers
instead of the ASN1_ITEM structures themselves. This adds several
new macros which allow the underlying ASN1 function/structure to
be accessed transparently. As a result code should not use ASN1_ITEM
references directly (such as &X509_it) but instead use the relevant
macros (such as ASN1_ITEM_rptr(X509)). This option is to allow
use of the new ASN1 code on platforms where exporting structures
is problematical (for example in shared libraries) but exporting
functions returning pointers to structures is not.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add support for overriding the generation of SSL/TLS session IDs.
These callbacks can be registered either in an SSL_CTX or per SSL.
The purpose of this is to allow applications to control, if they wish,
the arbitrary values chosen for use as session IDs, particularly as it
can be useful for session caching in multiple-server environments. A
command-line switch for testing this (and any client code that wishes
to use such a feature) has been added to "s_server".
[Geoff Thorpe, Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Modify to recognise and parse preprocessor conditionals
of the form '#if defined(...) || defined(...) || ...' and
'#if !defined(...) && !defined(...) && ...'. This also avoids
the growing number of special cases it was previously handling.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Make all configuration macros available for application by making
sure they are available in opensslconf.h, by giving them names starting
with "OPENSSL_" to avoid conflicts with other packages and by making
sure e_os2.h will cover all platform-specific cases together with
Additionally, it is now possible to define configuration/platform-
specific names (called "system identities"). In the C code, these
are prefixed with "OPENSSL_SYSNAME_". e_os2.h will create another
macro with the name beginning with "OPENSSL_SYS_", which is determined
from "OPENSSL_SYSNAME_*" or compiler-specific macros depending on
what is available.
[Richard Levitte]
*) New option -set_serial to 'req' and 'x509' this allows the serial
number to use to be specified on the command line. Previously self
signed certificates were hard coded with serial number 0 and the
CA options of 'x509' had to use a serial number in a file which was
auto incremented.
[Steve Henson]
*) New options to 'ca' utility to support V2 CRL entry extensions.
Currently CRL reason, invalidity date and hold instruction are
supported. Add new CRL extensions to V3 code and some new objects.
[Steve Henson]
*) New function EVP_CIPHER_CTX_set_padding() this is used to
disable standard block padding (aka PKCS#5 padding) in the EVP
API, which was previously mandatory. This means that the data is
not padded in any way and so the total length much be a multiple
of the block size, otherwise an error occurs.
[Steve Henson]
*) Initial (incomplete) OCSP SSL support.
[Steve Henson]
*) New function OCSP_parse_url(). This splits up a URL into its host,
port and path components: primarily to parse OCSP URLs. New -url
option to ocsp utility.
[Steve Henson]
*) New nonce behavior. The return value of OCSP_check_nonce() now
reflects the various checks performed. Applications can decide
whether to tolerate certain situations such as an absent nonce
in a response when one was present in a request: the ocsp application
just prints out a warning. New function OCSP_add1_basic_nonce()
this is to allow responders to include a nonce in a response even if
the request is nonce-less.
[Steve Henson]
*) Disable stdin buffering in load_cert (apps/apps.c) so that no certs are
skipped when using openssl x509 multiple times on a single input file,
e.g. "(openssl x509 -out cert1; openssl x509 -out cert2) <certs".
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Make ASN1_UTCTIME_set_string() and ASN1_GENERALIZEDTIME_set_string()
set string type: to handle setting ASN1_TIME structures. Fix ca
utility to correctly initialize revocation date of CRLs.
[Steve Henson]
*) New option SSL_OP_CIPHER_SERVER_PREFERENCE allows the server to override
the clients preferred ciphersuites and rather use its own preferences.
Should help to work around M$ SGC (Server Gated Cryptography) bug in
Internet Explorer by ensuring unchanged hash method during stepup.
(Also replaces the broken/deactivated SSL_OP_NON_EXPORT_FIRST option.)
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Make recognise all DECLARE_ASN1 macros, change rijndael
to aes and add a new 'exist' option to print out symbols that don't
appear to exist.
[Steve Henson]
*) Additional options to ocsp utility to allow flags to be set and
additional certificates supplied.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add the option -VAfile to 'openssl ocsp', so the user can give the
OCSP client a number of certificate to only verify the response
signature against.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Update Rijndael code to version 3.0 and change EVP AES ciphers to
handle the new API. Currently only ECB, CBC modes supported. Add new
Add TLS AES ciphersuites as described in RFC3268, "Advanced
Encryption Standard (AES) Ciphersuites for Transport Layer
Security (TLS)". (In beta versions of OpenSSL 0.9.7, these were
not enabled by default and were not part of the "ALL" ciphersuite
alias because they were not yet official; they could be
explicitly requested by specifying the "AESdraft" ciphersuite
group alias. In the final release of OpenSSL 0.9.7, the group
alias is called "AES" and is part of "ALL".)
[Ben Laurie, Steve Henson, Bodo Moeller]
*) New function OCSP_copy_nonce() to copy nonce value (if present) from
request to response.
[Steve Henson]
*) Functions for OCSP responders. OCSP_request_onereq_count(),
OCSP_request_onereq_get0(), OCSP_onereq_get0_id() and OCSP_id_get0_info()
extract information from a certificate request. OCSP_response_create()
creates a response and optionally adds a basic response structure.
OCSP_basic_add1_status() adds a complete single response to a basic
response and returns the OCSP_SINGLERESP structure just added (to allow
extensions to be included for example). OCSP_basic_add1_cert() adds a
certificate to a basic response and OCSP_basic_sign() signs a basic
response with various flags. New helper functions ASN1_TIME_check()
(checks validity of ASN1_TIME structure) and ASN1_TIME_to_generalizedtime()
(converts ASN1_TIME to GeneralizedTime).
[Steve Henson]
*) Various new functions. EVP_Digest() combines EVP_Digest{Init,Update,Final}()
in a single operation. X509_get0_pubkey_bitstr() extracts the public_key
structure from a certificate. X509_pubkey_digest() digests the public_key
contents: this is used in various key identifiers.
[Steve Henson]
*) Make sk_sort() tolerate a NULL argument.
[Steve Henson reported by Massimiliano Pala <>]
*) New OCSP verify flag OCSP_TRUSTOTHER. When set the "other" certificates
passed by the function are trusted implicitly. If any of them signed the
response then it is assumed to be valid and is not verified.
[Steve Henson]
*) In PKCS7_set_type() initialise content_type in PKCS7_ENC_CONTENT
to data. This was previously part of the PKCS7 ASN1 code. This
was causing problems with OpenSSL created PKCS#12 and PKCS#7 structures.
[Steve Henson, reported by Kenneth R. Robinette
*) Add CRYPTO_push_info() and CRYPTO_pop_info() calls to new ASN1
routines: without these tracing memory leaks is very painful.
Fix leaks in PKCS12 and PKCS7 routines.
[Steve Henson]
*) Make X509_time_adj() cope with the new behaviour of ASN1_TIME_new().
Previously it initialised the 'type' argument to V_ASN1_UTCTIME which
effectively meant GeneralizedTime would never be used. Now it
is initialised to -1 but X509_time_adj() now has to check the value
and use ASN1_TIME_set() if the value is not V_ASN1_UTCTIME or
V_ASN1_GENERALIZEDTIME, without this it always uses GeneralizedTime.
[Steve Henson, reported by Kenneth R. Robinette
*) Fixes to BN_to_ASN1_INTEGER when bn is zero. This would previously
result in a zero length in the ASN1_INTEGER structure which was
not consistent with the structure when d2i_ASN1_INTEGER() was used
and would cause ASN1_INTEGER_cmp() to fail. Enhance s2i_ASN1_INTEGER()
to cope with hex and negative integers. Fix bug in i2a_ASN1_INTEGER()
where it did not print out a minus for negative ASN1_INTEGER.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add summary printout to ocsp utility. The various functions which
convert status values to strings have been renamed to:
OCSP_response_status_str(), OCSP_cert_status_str() and
OCSP_crl_reason_str() and are no longer static. New options
to verify nonce values and to disable verification. OCSP response
printout format cleaned up.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add additional OCSP certificate checks. These are those specified
in RFC2560. This consists of two separate checks: the CA of the
certificate being checked must either be the OCSP signer certificate
or the issuer of the OCSP signer certificate. In the latter case the
OCSP signer certificate must contain the OCSP signing extended key
usage. This check is performed by attempting to match the OCSP
signer or the OCSP signer CA to the issuerNameHash and issuerKeyHash
in the OCSP_CERTID structures of the response.
[Steve Henson]
*) Initial OCSP certificate verification added to OCSP_basic_verify()
and related routines. This uses the standard OpenSSL certificate
verify routines to perform initial checks (just CA validity) and
to obtain the certificate chain. Then additional checks will be
performed on the chain. Currently the root CA is checked to see
if it is explicitly trusted for OCSP signing. This is used to set
a root CA as a global signing root: that is any certificate that
chains to that CA is an acceptable OCSP signing certificate.
[Steve Henson]
*) New '-extfile ...' option to 'openssl ca' for reading X.509v3
extensions from a separate configuration file.
As when reading extensions from the main configuration file,
the '-extensions ...' option may be used for specifying the
section to use.
[Massimiliano Pala <>]
*) New OCSP utility. Allows OCSP requests to be generated or
read. The request can be sent to a responder and the output
parsed, outputed or printed in text form. Not complete yet:
still needs to check the OCSP response validity.
[Steve Henson]
*) New subcommands for 'openssl ca':
'openssl ca -status <serial>' prints the status of the cert with
the given serial number (according to the index file).
'openssl ca -updatedb' updates the expiry status of certificates
in the index file.
[Massimiliano Pala <>]
*) New '-newreq-nodes' command option to This is like
'-newreq', but calls 'openssl req' with the '-nodes' option
so that the resulting key is not encrypted.
[Damien Miller <>]
*) New configuration for the GNU Hurd.
[Jonathan Bartlett <> via Richard Levitte]
*) Initial code to implement OCSP basic response verify. This
is currently incomplete. Currently just finds the signer's
certificate and verifies the signature on the response.
[Steve Henson]
*) New SSLeay_version code SSLEAY_DIR to determine the compiled-in
value of OPENSSLDIR. This is available via the new '-d' option
to 'openssl version', and is also included in 'openssl version -a'.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Allowing defining memory allocation callbacks that will be given
file name and line number information in additional arguments
(a const char* and an int). The basic functionality remains, as
well as the original possibility to just replace malloc(),
realloc() and free() by functions that do not know about these
additional arguments. To register and find out the current
settings for extended allocation functions, the following
functions are provided:
These work the same way as CRYPTO_set_mem_functions and friends.
CRYPTO_get_[locked_]mem_functions now writes 0 where such an
extended allocation function is enabled.
Similarly, CRYPTO_get_[locked_]mem_ex_functions writes 0 where
a conventional allocation function is enabled.
[Richard Levitte, Bodo Moeller]
*) Finish off removing the remaining LHASH function pointer casts.
There should no longer be any prototype-casting required when using
the LHASH abstraction, and any casts that remain are "bugs". See
the callback types and macros at the head of lhash.h for details
(and "OBJ_cleanup" in crypto/objects/obj_dat.c as an example).
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Add automatic query of EGD sockets in RAND_poll() for the unix variant.
If /dev/[u]random devices are not available or do not return enough
entropy, EGD style sockets (served by EGD or PRNGD) will automatically
be queried.
The locations /var/run/egd-pool, /dev/egd-pool, /etc/egd-pool, and
/etc/entropy will be queried once each in this sequence, quering stops
when enough entropy was collected without querying more sockets.
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Change the Unix RAND_poll() variant to be able to poll several
random devices, as specified by DEVRANDOM, until a sufficient amount
of data has been collected. We spend at most 10 ms on each file
(select timeout) and read in non-blocking mode. DEVRANDOM now
defaults to the list "/dev/urandom", "/dev/random", "/dev/srandom"
(previously it was just the string "/dev/urandom"), so on typical
platforms the 10 ms delay will never occur.
Also separate out the Unix variant to its own file, rand_unix.c.
For VMS, there's a currently-empty rand_vms.c.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Move OCSP client related routines to ocsp_cl.c. These
provide utility functions which an application needing
to issue a request to an OCSP responder and analyse the
response will typically need: as opposed to those which an
OCSP responder itself would need which will be added later.
OCSP_request_sign() signs an OCSP request with an API similar
to PKCS7_sign(). OCSP_response_status() returns status of OCSP
response. OCSP_response_get1_basic() extracts basic response
from response. OCSP_resp_find_status(): finds and extracts status
information from an OCSP_CERTID structure (which will be created
when the request structure is built). These are built from lower
level functions which work on OCSP_SINGLERESP structures but
wont normally be used unless the application wishes to examine
extensions in the OCSP response for example.
Replace nonce routines with a pair of functions.
OCSP_request_add1_nonce() adds a nonce value and optionally
generates a random value. OCSP_check_nonce() checks the
validity of the nonce in an OCSP response.
[Steve Henson]
*) Change function OCSP_request_add() to OCSP_request_add0_id().
This doesn't copy the supplied OCSP_CERTID and avoids the
need to free up the newly created id. Change return type
to OCSP_ONEREQ to return the internal OCSP_ONEREQ structure.
This can then be used to add extensions to the request.
Deleted OCSP_request_new(), since most of its functionality
is now in OCSP_REQUEST_new() (and the case insensitive name
clash) apart from the ability to set the request name which
will be added elsewhere.
[Steve Henson]
*) Update OCSP API. Remove obsolete extensions argument from
various functions. Extensions are now handled using the new
OCSP extension code. New simple OCSP HTTP function which
can be used to send requests and parse the response.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix the PKCS#7 (S/MIME) code to work with new ASN1. Two new
ASN1_ITEM structures help with sign and verify. PKCS7_ATTR_SIGN
uses the special reorder version of SET OF to sort the attributes
and reorder them to match the encoded order. This resolves a long
standing problem: a verify on a PKCS7 structure just after signing
it used to fail because the attribute order did not match the
encoded order. PKCS7_ATTR_VERIFY does not reorder the attributes:
it uses the received order. This is necessary to tolerate some broken
software that does not order SET OF. This is handled by encoding
as a SEQUENCE OF but using implicit tagging (with UNIVERSAL class)
to produce the required SET OF.
[Steve Henson]
*) Have generate the macros OPENSSL_BUILD_SHLIBCRYPTO and
OPENSSL_BUILD_SHLIBSSL and use them appropriately in the header
files to get correct declarations of the ASN.1 item variables.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Rewrite of PKCS#12 code to use new ASN1 functionality. Replace many
PKCS#12 macros with real functions. Fix two unrelated ASN1 bugs:
asn1_check_tlen() would sometimes attempt to use 'ctx' when it was
NULL and ASN1_TYPE was not dereferenced properly in asn1_ex_c2i().
New ASN1 macro: DECLARE_ASN1_ITEM() which just declares the relevant
ASN1_ITEM and no wrapper functions.
[Steve Henson]
*) New functions or ASN1_item_d2i_fp() and ASN1_item_d2i_bio(). These
replace the old function pointer based I/O routines. Change most of
the *_d2i_bio() and *_d2i_fp() functions to use these.
[Steve Henson]
*) Enhance to be more accepting about spacing in C preprocessor
lines, recognice more "algorithms" that can be deselected, and make
it complain about algorithm deselection that isn't recognised.
[Richard Levitte]
*) New ASN1 functions to handle dup, sign, verify, digest, pack and
unpack operations in terms of ASN1_ITEM. Modify existing wrappers
to use new functions. Add NO_ASN1_OLD which can be set to remove
some old style ASN1 functions: this can be used to determine if old
code will still work when these eventually go away.
[Steve Henson]
*) New extension functions for OCSP structures, these follow the
same conventions as certificates and CRLs.
[Steve Henson]
*) New function X509V3_add1_i2d(). This automatically encodes and
adds an extension. Its behaviour can be customised with various
flags to append, replace or delete. Various wrappers added for
certifcates and CRLs.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix to avoid calling the underlying ASN1 print routine when
an extension cannot be parsed. Correct a typo in the
OCSP_SERVICELOC extension. Tidy up print OCSP format.
[Steve Henson]
*) Make parse some of the ASN1 macros and add apropriate
entries for variables.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add functionality to apps/openssl.c for detecting locking
problems: As the program is single-threaded, all we have
to do is register a locking callback using an array for
storing which locks are currently held by the program.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Use a lock around the call to CRYPTO_get_ex_new_index() in
SSL_get_ex_data_X509_STORE_idx(), which is used in
ssl_verify_cert_chain() and thus can be called at any time
during TLS/SSL handshakes so that thread-safety is essential.
Unfortunately, the ex_data design is not at all suited
for multi-threaded use, so it probably should be abolished.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Added Broadcom "ubsec" ENGINE to OpenSSL.
[Broadcom, tweaked and integrated by Geoff Thorpe]
*) Move common extension printing code to new function
X509V3_print_extensions(). Reorganise OCSP print routines and
implement some needed OCSP ASN1 functions. Add OCSP extensions.
[Steve Henson]
*) New function X509_signature_print() to remove duplication in some
print routines.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add a special meaning when SET OF and SEQUENCE OF flags are both
set (this was treated exactly the same as SET OF previously). This
is used to reorder the STACK representing the structure to match the
encoding. This will be used to get round a problem where a PKCS7
structure which was signed could not be verified because the STACK
order did not reflect the encoded order.
[Steve Henson]
*) Reimplement the OCSP ASN1 module using the new code.
[Steve Henson]
*) Update the X509V3 code to permit the use of an ASN1_ITEM structure
for its ASN1 operations. The old style function pointers still exist
for now but they will eventually go away.
[Steve Henson]
*) Merge in replacement ASN1 code from the ASN1 branch. This almost
completely replaces the old ASN1 functionality with a table driven
encoder and decoder which interprets an ASN1_ITEM structure describing
the ASN1 module. Compatibility with the existing ASN1 API (i2d,d2i) is
largely maintained. Almost all of the old asn1_mac.h macro based ASN1
has also been converted to the new form.
[Steve Henson]
*) Change BN_mod_exp_recp so that negative moduli are tolerated
(the sign is ignored). Similarly, ignore the sign in BN_MONT_CTX_set
so that BN_mod_exp_mont and BN_mod_exp_mont_word work
for negative moduli.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Fix BN_uadd and BN_usub: Always return non-negative results instead
of not touching the result's sign bit.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) BN_div bugfix: If the result is 0, the sign (res->neg) must not be
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Changed the LHASH code to use prototypes for callbacks, and created
macros to declare and implement thin (optionally static) functions
that provide type-safety and avoid function pointer casting for the
type-specific callbacks.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Added Kerberos Cipher Suites to be used with TLS, as written in
RFC 2712.
[Veers Staats <>,
Jeffrey Altman <>, via Richard Levitte]
*) Reformat the FAQ so the different questions and answers can be divided
in sections depending on the subject.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Have the zlib compression code load ZLIB.DLL dynamically under
[Richard Levitte]
*) New function BN_mod_sqrt for computing square roots modulo a prime
(using the probabilistic Tonelli-Shanks algorithm unless
p == 3 (mod 4) or p == 5 (mod 8), which are cases that can
be handled deterministically).
[Lenka Fibikova <>, Bodo Moeller]
*) Make BN_mod_inverse faster by explicitly handling small quotients
in the Euclid loop. (Speed gain about 20% for small moduli [256 or
512 bits], about 30% for larger ones [1024 or 2048 bits].)
[Bodo Moeller]
*) New function BN_kronecker.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Fix BN_gcd so that it works on negative inputs; the result is
positive unless both parameters are zero.
Previously something reasonably close to an infinite loop was
possible because numbers could be growing instead of shrinking
in the implementation of Euclid's algorithm.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Fix BN_is_word() and BN_is_one() macros to take into account the
sign of the number in question.
Fix BN_is_word(a,w) to work correctly for w == 0.
The old BN_is_word(a,w) macro is now called BN_abs_is_word(a,w)
because its test if the absolute value of 'a' equals 'w'.
Note that BN_abs_is_word does *not* handle w == 0 reliably;
it exists mostly for use in the implementations of BN_is_zero(),
BN_is_one(), and BN_is_word().
[Bodo Moeller]
*) New function BN_swap.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Use BN_nnmod instead of BN_mod in crypto/bn/bn_exp.c so that
the exponentiation functions are more likely to produce reasonable
results on negative inputs.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Change BN_mod_mul so that the result is always non-negative.
Previously, it could be negative if one of the factors was negative;
I don't think anyone really wanted that behaviour.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Move BN_mod_... functions into new file crypto/bn/bn_mod.c
(except for exponentiation, which stays in crypto/bn/bn_exp.c,
and BN_mod_mul_reciprocal, which stays in crypto/bn/bn_recp.c)
and add new functions:
These functions always generate non-negative results.
BN_nnmod otherwise is like BN_mod (if BN_mod computes a remainder r
such that |m| < r < 0, BN_nnmod will output rem + |m| instead).
BN_mod_XXX_quick(r, a, [b,] m) generates the same result as
BN_mod_XXX(r, a, [b,] m, ctx), but requires that a [and b]
be reduced modulo m.
[Lenka Fibikova <>, Bodo Moeller]
#if 0
The following entry accidentily appeared in the CHANGES file
distributed with OpenSSL 0.9.7. The modifications described in
it do *not* apply to OpenSSL 0.9.7.
*) Remove a few calls to bn_wexpand() in BN_sqr() (the one in there
was actually never needed) and in BN_mul(). The removal in BN_mul()
required a small change in bn_mul_part_recursive() and the addition
of the functions bn_cmp_part_words(), bn_sub_part_words() and
bn_add_part_words(), which do the same thing as bn_cmp_words(),
bn_sub_words() and bn_add_words() except they take arrays with
differing sizes.
[Richard Levitte]
*) In 'openssl passwd', verify passwords read from the terminal
unless the '-salt' option is used (which usually means that
verification would just waste user's time since the resulting
hash is going to be compared with some given password hash)
or the new '-noverify' option is used.
This is an incompatible change, but it does not affect
non-interactive use of 'openssl passwd' (passwords on the command
line, '-stdin' option, '-in ...' option) and thus should not
cause any problems.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Remove all references to RSAref, since there's no more need for it.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Make DSO load along a path given through an environment variable
(SHLIB_PATH) with shl_load().
[Richard Levitte]
*) Constify the ENGINE code as a result of BIGNUM constification.
Also constify the RSA code and most things related to it. In a
few places, most notable in the depth of the ASN.1 code, ugly
casts back to non-const were required (to be solved at a later
[Richard Levitte]
*) Make it so the openssl application has all engines loaded by default.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Constify the BIGNUM routines a little more.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add the following functions:
That way, an application can itself choose if external engines that
are built-in in OpenSSL shall ever be used or not. The benefit is
that applications won't have to be linked with libdl or other dso
libraries unless it's really needed.
Changed 'openssl engine' to load all engines on demand.
Changed the engine header files to avoid the duplication of some
declarations (they differed!).
[Richard Levitte]
*) 'openssl engine' can now list capabilities.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Better error reporting in 'openssl engine'.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Never call load_dh_param(NULL) in s_server.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add engine application. It can currently list engines by name and
identity, and test if they are actually available.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Improve RPM specification file by forcing symbolic linking and making
sure the installed documentation is also owned by root.root.
[Damien Miller <>]
*) Give the OpenSSL applications more possibilities to make use of
keys (public as well as private) handled by engines.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add OCSP code that comes from CertCo.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Add VMS support for the Rijndael code.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Added untested support for Nuron crypto accelerator.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Add support for external cryptographic devices. This code was
previously distributed separately as the "engine" branch.
[Geoff Thorpe, Richard Levitte]
*) Rework the filename-translation in the DSO code. It is now possible to
have far greater control over how a "name" is turned into a filename
depending on the operating environment and any oddities about the
different shared library filenames on each system.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Support threads on FreeBSD-elf in Configure.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Fix for SHA1 assembly problem with MASM: it produces
warnings about corrupt line number information when assembling
with debugging information. This is caused by the overlapping
of two sections.
[Bernd Matthes <>, Steve Henson]
*) NCONF changes.
NCONF_get_number() has no error checking at all. As a replacement,
NCONF_get_number_e() is defined (_e for "error checking") and is
promoted strongly. The old NCONF_get_number is kept around for
binary backward compatibility.
Make it possible for methods to load from something other than a BIO,
by providing a function pointer that is given a name instead of a BIO.
For example, this could be used to load configuration data from an
LDAP server.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Fix for non blocking accept BIOs. Added new I/O special reason
BIO_RR_ACCEPT to cover this case. Previously use of accept BIOs
with non blocking I/O was not possible because no retry code was
implemented. Also added new SSL code SSL_WANT_ACCEPT to cover
this case.
[Steve Henson]
*) Added the beginnings of Rijndael support.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Fix for bug in DirectoryString mask setting. Add support for
X509_NAME_print_ex() in 'req' and X509_print_ex() function
to allow certificate printing to more controllable, additional
'certopt' option to 'x509' to allow new printing options to be
[Steve Henson]
*) Clean old EAY MD5 hack from e_os.h.
[Richard Levitte]
Changes between 0.9.6l and 0.9.6m [17 Mar 2004]
*) Fix null-pointer assignment in do_change_cipher_spec() revealed
by using the Codenomicon TLS Test Tool (CVE-2004-0079)
[Joe Orton, Steve Henson]
Changes between 0.9.6k and 0.9.6l [04 Nov 2003]
*) Fix additional bug revealed by the NISCC test suite:
Stop bug triggering large recursion when presented with
certain ASN.1 tags (CVE-2003-0851)
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 0.9.6j and 0.9.6k [30 Sep 2003]
*) Fix various bugs revealed by running the NISCC test suite:
Stop out of bounds reads in the ASN1 code when presented with
invalid tags (CVE-2003-0543 and CVE-2003-0544).
If verify callback ignores invalid public key errors don't try to check
certificate signature with the NULL public key.
[Steve Henson]
*) In ssl3_accept() (ssl/s3_srvr.c) only accept a client certificate
if the server requested one: as stated in TLS 1.0 and SSL 3.0
[Steve Henson]
*) In ssl3_get_client_hello() (ssl/s3_srvr.c), tolerate additional
extra data after the compression methods not only for TLS 1.0
but also for SSL 3.0 (as required by the specification).
[Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Matthias Loepfe]
*) Change X509_certificate_type() to mark the key as exported/exportable
when it's 512 *bits* long, not 512 bytes.
[Richard Levitte]
Changes between 0.9.6i and 0.9.6j [10 Apr 2003]
*) Countermeasure against the Klima-Pokorny-Rosa extension of
Bleichbacher's attack on PKCS #1 v1.5 padding: treat
a protocol version number mismatch like a decryption error
in ssl3_get_client_key_exchange (ssl/s3_srvr.c).
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Turn on RSA blinding by default in the default implementation
to avoid a timing attack. Applications that don't want it can call
RSA_blinding_off() or use the new flag RSA_FLAG_NO_BLINDING.
They would be ill-advised to do so in most cases.
[Ben Laurie, Steve Henson, Geoff Thorpe, Bodo Moeller]
*) Change RSA blinding code so that it works when the PRNG is not
seeded (in this case, the secret RSA exponent is abused as
an unpredictable seed -- if it is not unpredictable, there
is no point in blinding anyway). Make RSA blinding thread-safe
by remembering the creator's thread ID in rsa->blinding and
having all other threads use local one-time blinding factors
(this requires more computation than sharing rsa->blinding, but
avoids excessive locking; and if an RSA object is not shared
between threads, blinding will still be very fast).
[Bodo Moeller]
Changes between 0.9.6h and 0.9.6i [19 Feb 2003]
*) In ssl3_get_record (ssl/s3_pkt.c), minimize information leaked
via timing by performing a MAC computation even if incorrrect
block cipher padding has been found. This is a countermeasure
against active attacks where the attacker has to distinguish
between bad padding and a MAC verification error. (CVE-2003-0078)
[Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Brice Canvel (EPFL),
Alain Hiltgen (UBS), Serge Vaudenay (EPFL), and
Martin Vuagnoux (EPFL, Ilion)]
Changes between 0.9.6g and 0.9.6h [5 Dec 2002]
*) New function OPENSSL_cleanse(), which is used to cleanse a section of
memory from it's contents. This is done with a counter that will
place alternating values in each byte. This can be used to solve
two issues: 1) the removal of calls to memset() by highly optimizing
compilers, and 2) cleansing with other values than 0, since those can
be read through on certain media, for example a swap space on disk.
[Geoff Thorpe]
*) Bugfix: client side session caching did not work with external caching,
because the session->cipher setting was not restored when reloading
from the external cache. This problem was masked, when
(Found by Steve Haslam <>.)
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Fix client_certificate (ssl/s2_clnt.c): The permissible total
length of the REQUEST-CERTIFICATE message is 18 .. 34, not 17 .. 33.
[Zeev Lieber <>]
*) Undo an undocumented change introduced in 0.9.6e which caused
repeated calls to OpenSSL_add_all_ciphers() and
OpenSSL_add_all_digests() to be ignored, even after calling
[Richard Levitte]
*) Change the default configuration reader to deal with last line not
being properly terminated.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Change X509_NAME_cmp() so it applies the special rules on handling
DN values that are of type PrintableString, as well as RDNs of type
emailAddress where the value has the type ia5String.
[ via Richard Levitte]
*) Add a SSL_SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL_STORE flag to take over half
the job SSL_SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL_LOOKUP was inconsistently
doing, define a new flag (SSL_SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL) to be
the bitwise-OR of the two for use by the majority of applications
wanting this behaviour, and update the docs. The documented
behaviour and actual behaviour were inconsistent and had been
changing anyway, so this is more a bug-fix than a behavioural
[Geoff Thorpe, diagnosed by Nadav Har'El]
*) Don't impose a 16-byte length minimum on session IDs in ssl/s3_clnt.c
(the SSL 3.0 and TLS 1.0 specifications allow any length up to 32 bytes).
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Fix initialization code race conditions in
SSLv23_method(), SSLv23_client_method(), SSLv23_server_method(),
SSLv2_method(), SSLv2_client_method(), SSLv2_server_method(),
SSLv3_method(), SSLv3_client_method(), SSLv3_server_method(),
TLSv1_method(), TLSv1_client_method(), TLSv1_server_method(),
[Patrick McCormick <>, Bodo Moeller]
*) Reorder cleanup sequence in SSL_CTX_free(): only remove the ex_data after
the cached sessions are flushed, as the remove_cb() might use ex_data
contents. Bug found by Sam Varshavchik <>
(see [ #212]).
[Geoff Thorpe, Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Fix typo in OBJ_txt2obj which incorrectly passed the content
length, instead of the encoding length to d2i_ASN1_OBJECT.
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 0.9.6f and 0.9.6g [9 Aug 2002]
*) [In 0.9.6g-engine release:]
Fix crypto/engine/vendor_defns/cswift.h for WIN32 (use '_stdcall').
[Lynn Gazis <>]
Changes between 0.9.6e and 0.9.6f [8 Aug 2002]
*) Fix ASN1 checks. Check for overflow by comparing with LONG_MAX
and get fix the header length calculation.
[Florian Weimer <Weimer@CERT.Uni-Stuttgart.DE>,
Alon Kantor <> (and others),
Steve Henson]
*) Use proper error handling instead of 'assertions' in buffer
overflow checks added in 0.9.6e. This prevents DoS (the
assertions could call abort()).
[Arne Ansper <>, Bodo Moeller]
Changes between 0.9.6d and 0.9.6e [30 Jul 2002]
*) Add various sanity checks to asn1_get_length() to reject
the ASN1 length bytes if they exceed sizeof(long), will appear
negative or the content length exceeds the length of the
supplied buffer.
[Steve Henson, Adi Stav <>, James Yonan <>]
*) Fix cipher selection routines: ciphers without encryption had no flags
for the cipher strength set and where therefore not handled correctly
by the selection routines (PR #130).
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Fix EVP_dsa_sha macro.
[Nils Larsch]
*) New option
for disabling the SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0 CBC vulnerability countermeasure
that was added in OpenSSL 0.9.6d.
As the countermeasure turned out to be incompatible with some
broken SSL implementations, the new option is part of SSL_OP_ALL.
SSL_OP_ALL is usually employed when compatibility with weird SSL
implementations is desired (e.g. '-bugs' option to 's_client' and
's_server'), so the new option is automatically set in many
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Changes in security patch:
Changes marked "(CHATS)" were sponsored by the Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and Air Force Research Laboratory,
Air Force Materiel Command, USAF, under agreement number
*) Add various sanity checks to asn1_get_length() to reject
the ASN1 length bytes if they exceed sizeof(long), will appear
negative or the content length exceeds the length of the
supplied buffer. (CVE-2002-0659)
[Steve Henson, Adi Stav <>, James Yonan <>]
*) Assertions for various potential buffer overflows, not known to
happen in practice.
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Various temporary buffers to hold ASCII versions of integers were
too small for 64 bit platforms. (CVE-2002-0655)
[Matthew Byng-Maddick <> and Ben Laurie (CHATS)>
*) Remote buffer overflow in SSL3 protocol - an attacker could
supply an oversized session ID to a client. (CVE-2002-0656)
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
*) Remote buffer overflow in SSL2 protocol - an attacker could
supply an oversized client master key. (CVE-2002-0656)
[Ben Laurie (CHATS)]
Changes between 0.9.6c and 0.9.6d [9 May 2002]
*) Fix crypto/asn1/a_sign.c so that 'parameters' is omitted (not
encoded as NULL) with id-dsa-with-sha1.
[Nils Larsch <>; problem pointed out by Bodo Moeller]
*) Check various X509_...() return values in apps/req.c.
[Nils Larsch <>]
*) Fix BASE64 decode (EVP_DecodeUpdate) for data with CR/LF ended lines:
an end-of-file condition would erronously be flagged, when the CRLF
was just at the end of a processed block. The bug was discovered when
processing data through a buffering memory BIO handing the data to a
BASE64-decoding BIO. Bug fund and patch submitted by Pavel Tsekov
<> and Nedelcho Stanev.
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Implement a countermeasure against a vulnerability recently found
in CBC ciphersuites in SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0: Send an empty fragment
before application data chunks to avoid the use of known IVs
with data potentially chosen by the attacker.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Fix length checks in ssl3_get_client_hello().
[Bodo Moeller]
*) TLS/SSL library bugfix: use s->s3->in_read_app_data differently
to prevent ssl3_read_internal() from incorrectly assuming that
ssl3_read_bytes() found application data while handshake
processing was enabled when in fact s->s3->in_read_app_data was
merely automatically cleared during the initial handshake.
[Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Arne Ansper <>]
*) Fix object definitions for Private and Enterprise: they were not
recognized in their shortname (=lowercase) representation. Extend to issue an error when using undefined keywords instead
of silently ignoring the problem (Svenning Sorensen
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Fix DH_generate_parameters() so that it works for 'non-standard'
generators, i.e. generators other than 2 and 5. (Previously, the
code did not properly initialise the 'add' and 'rem' values to
In the new general case, we do not insist that 'generator' is
actually a primitive root: This requirement is rather pointless;
a generator of the order-q subgroup is just as good, if not
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Map new X509 verification errors to alerts. Discovered and submitted by
Tom Wu <>.
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Fix ssl3_pending() (ssl/s3_lib.c) to prevent SSL_pending() from
returning non-zero before the data has been completely received
when using non-blocking I/O.
[Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by John Hughes]
*) Some of the ciphers missed the strength entry (SSL_LOW etc).
[Ben Laurie, Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Fix bug in SSL_clear(): bad sessions were not removed (found by
Yoram Zahavi <>).
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Add information about CygWin 1.3 and on, and preserve proper
configuration for the versions before that.
[Corinna Vinschen <> and Richard Levitte]
*) Make removal from session cache (SSL_CTX_remove_session()) more robust:
check whether we deal with a copy of a session and do not delete from
the cache in this case. Problem reported by "Izhar Shoshani Levi"
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Do not store session data into the internal session cache, if it
is never intended to be looked up (SSL_SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL_LOOKUP
flag is set). Proposed by Aslam <>.
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Have ASN1_BIT_STRING_set_bit() really clear a bit when the requested
value is 0.
[Richard Levitte]
*) [In 0.9.6d-engine release:]
Fix a crashbug and a logic bug in hwcrhk_load_pubkey().
[Toomas Kiisk <> via Richard Levitte]
*) Add the configuration target linux-s390x.
[Neale Ferguson <> via Richard Levitte]
*) The earlier bugfix for the SSL3_ST_SW_HELLO_REQ_C case of
ssl3_accept (ssl/s3_srvr.c) incorrectly used a local flag
variable as an indication that a ClientHello message has been
received. As the flag value will be lost between multiple
invocations of ssl3_accept when using non-blocking I/O, the
function may not be aware that a handshake has actually taken
place, thus preventing a new session from being added to the
session cache.
To avoid this problem, we now set s->new_session to 2 instead of
using a local variable.
[Lutz Jaenicke, Bodo Moeller]
*) Bugfix: Return -1 from ssl3_get_server_done (ssl3/s3_clnt.c)
if the SSL_R_LENGTH_MISMATCH error is detected.
[Geoff Thorpe, Bodo Moeller]
*) New 'shared_ldflag' column in Configure platform table.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Fix EVP_CIPHER_mode macro.
["Dan S. Camper" <>]
*) Fix ssl3_read_bytes (ssl/s3_pkt.c): To ignore messages of unknown
type, we must throw them away by setting rr->length to 0.
[D P Chang <>]
Changes between 0.9.6b and 0.9.6c [21 dec 2001]
*) Fix BN_rand_range bug pointed out by Dominikus Scherkl
<>. (The previous implementation
worked incorrectly for those cases where range = 10..._2 and
3*range is two bits longer than range.)
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Only add signing time to PKCS7 structures if it is not already
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix crypto/objects/objects.h: "ld-ce" should be "id-ce",
OBJ_ld_ce should be OBJ_id_ce.
Also some ip-pda OIDs in crypto/objects/objects.txt were
incorrect (cf. RFC 3039).
[Matt Cooper, Frederic Giudicelli, Bodo Moeller]
*) Release CRYPTO_LOCK_DYNLOCK when CRYPTO_destroy_dynlockid()
returns early because it has nothing to do.
[Andy Schneider <>]
*) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
Fix mutex callback return values in crypto/engine/hw_ncipher.c.
[Andy Schneider <>]
*) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
Add support for Cryptographic Appliance's keyserver technology.
(Use engine 'keyclient')
[Cryptographic Appliances and Geoff Thorpe]
*) Add a configuration entry for OS/390 Unix. The C compiler 'c89'
is called via tools/ because arguments have to be
rearranged (all '-L' options must appear before the first object
[Richard Shapiro <>]
*) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
Add support for Broadcom crypto accelerator cards, backported
from 0.9.7.
[Broadcom, Nalin Dahyabhai <>, Mark Cox]
*) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
Add support for SureWare crypto accelerator cards from
Baltimore Technologies. (Use engine 'sureware')
[Baltimore Technologies and Mark Cox]
*) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
Add support for crypto accelerator cards from Accelerated
Encryption Processing, (Use engine 'aep')
[AEP Inc. and Mark Cox]
*) Add a configuration entry for gcc on UnixWare.
[Gary Benson <>]
*) Change ssl/s2_clnt.c and ssl/s2_srvr.c so that received handshake
messages are stored in a single piece (fixed-length part and
variable-length part combined) and fix various bugs found on the way.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Disable caching in BIO_gethostbyname(), directly use gethostbyname()
instead. BIO_gethostbyname() does not know what timeouts are
appropriate, so entries would stay in cache even when they have
become invalid.
[Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Rich Salz <>
*) Change ssl23_get_client_hello (ssl/s23_srvr.c) behaviour when
faced with a pathologically small ClientHello fragment that does
not contain client_version: Instead of aborting with an error,
simply choose the highest available protocol version (i.e.,
TLS 1.0 unless it is disabled). In practice, ClientHello
messages are never sent like this, but this change gives us
strictly correct behaviour at least for TLS.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Fix SSL handshake functions and SSL_clear() such that SSL_clear()
never resets s->method to s->ctx->method when called from within
one of the SSL handshake functions.
[Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Niko Baric]
*) In ssl3_get_client_hello (ssl/s3_srvr.c), generate a fatal alert
(sent using the client's version number) if client_version is
smaller than the protocol version in use. Also change
ssl23_get_client_hello (ssl/s23_srvr.c) to select TLS 1.0 if
the client demanded SSL 3.0 but only TLS 1.0 is enabled; then
the client will at least see that alert.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Fix ssl3_get_message (ssl/s3_both.c) to handle message fragmentation
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Avoid infinite loop in ssl3_get_message (ssl/s3_both.c) if a
client receives HelloRequest while in a handshake.
[Bodo Moeller; bug noticed by Andy Schneider <>]
*) Bugfix in ssl3_accept (ssl/s3_srvr.c): Case SSL3_ST_SW_HELLO_REQ_C
should end in 'break', not 'goto end' which circuments various
cleanups done in state SSL_ST_OK. But session related stuff
must be disabled for SSL_ST_OK in the case that we just sent a
Also avoid some overhead by not calling ssl_init_wbio_buffer()
before just sending a HelloRequest.
[Bodo Moeller, Eric Rescorla <>]
*) Fix ssl/s3_enc.c, ssl/t1_enc.c and ssl/s3_pkt.c so that we don't
reveal whether illegal block cipher padding was found or a MAC
verification error occured. (Neither SSLerr() codes nor alerts
are directly visible to potential attackers, but the information
may leak via logfiles.)
Similar changes are not required for the SSL 2.0 implementation
because the number of padding bytes is sent in clear for SSL 2.0,
and the extra bytes are just ignored. However ssl/s2_pkt.c
failed to verify that the purported number of padding bytes is in
the legal range.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add OpenUNIX-8 support including shared libraries
(Boyd Lynn Gerber <>).
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Improve RSA_padding_check_PKCS1_OAEP() check again to avoid
'wristwatch attack' using huge encoding parameters (cf.
James H. Manger's CRYPTO 2001 paper). Note that the
RSA_PKCS1_OAEP_PADDING case of RSA_private_decrypt() does not use
encoding parameters and hence was not vulnerable.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) BN_sqr() bug fix.
[Ulf Möller, reported by Jim Ellis <>]
*) Rabin-Miller test analyses assume uniformly distributed witnesses,
so use BN_pseudo_rand_range() instead of using BN_pseudo_rand()
followed by modular reduction.
[Bodo Moeller; pointed out by Adam Young <AYoung1@NCSUS.JNJ.COM>]
*) Add BN_pseudo_rand_range() with obvious functionality: BN_rand_range()
equivalent based on BN_pseudo_rand() instead of BN_rand().
[Bodo Moeller]
*) s3_srvr.c: allow sending of large client certificate lists (> 16 kB).
This function was broken, as the check for a new client hello message
to handle SGC did not allow these large messages.
(Tracked down by "Douglas E. Engert" <>.)
[Lutz Jaenicke]
*) Add alert descriptions for TLSv1 to SSL_alert_desc_string[_long]().