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README.md

Arduino-LMIC library

This repository contains the IBM LMIC (LoRaWAN-MAC-in-C) library, slightly modified to run in the Arduino environment, allowing using the SX1272, SX1276 transceivers and compatible modules (such as some HopeRF RFM9x modules and the Murata LoRa modules).

Information about the LoRaWAN protocol is summarized in LoRaWAN-at-a-glance. Full information is available from the LoRa Alliance.

A support forum is available at forum.mcci.io.

The base Arduino library mostly exposes the functions defined by LMIC. It makes no attempt to wrap them in a higher level API that is more in the Arduino style. To find out how to use the library itself, see the examples, or see the PDF files in the doc subdirectory.

A separate library, MCCI arduino-lorawan, provides a higher level, more Arduino-like wrapper which may be useful.

This library requires Arduino IDE version 1.6.6 or above, since it requires C99 mode to be enabled by default.

GitHub release GitHub commits Build Status

Contents:

Installing

To install this library:

  • install it using the Arduino Library manager ("Sketch" -> "Include Library" -> "Manage Libraries..."), or
  • download a zip file from GitHub using the "Download ZIP" button and install it using the IDE ("Sketch" -> "Include Library" -> "Add .ZIP Library..."
  • clone this git repository into your sketchbook/libraries folder.

For more info, see https://www.arduino.cc/en/Guide/Libraries.

Getting Help

If it's not working

Ask questions at forum.mcci.io. Wireless is tricky, so don't be afraid to ask. The LMIC has been used successfully in a lot of applications, but it's common to have problems getting it working. To keep the code size down, there are not a lot of debugging features, and the features are not always easy to use.

If you've found a bug

Raise a GitHub issue at github.com/mcci-catena/arduino-lmic.

Features

The LMIC library provides a fairly complete LoRaWAN Class A and Class B implementation, supporting the EU-868, US-915, AU-921, AS-923, and IN-866 bands. Only a limited number of features was tested using this port on Arduino hardware, so be careful when using any of the untested features.

The library has only been tested with LoRaWAN 1.0.2/1.03 networks and does not have the separated key structure defined by LoRaWAN 1.1.

What certainly works:

  • Sending packets uplink, taking into account duty cycling.
  • Encryption and message integrity checking.
  • Custom frequencies and data rate settings.
  • Over-the-air activation (OTAA / joining).
  • Receiving downlink packets in the RX1 and RX2 windows.
  • MAC command processing.

What has not been tested:

  • Class B operation.
  • FSK has not been extensively tested. (Testing with the RedwoodComm RWC5020A analyzer in 2019 indicated that FSK downlink is stable but not reliable. This prevents successful completion of LoRaWAN pre-certification in regions that require support for FSK.)

If you try one of these untested features and it works, be sure to let us know (creating a GitHub issue is probably the best way for that).

Additional Documentation

PDF/Word Documentation

The doc directory contains LMIC-v3.3.0.pdf, which documents the library APIs and use. It's based on the original IBM documentation, but has been adapted for this version of the library. However, as this library is used for more than Arduino, that document is supplemented by practical details in this document.

Adding Regions

There is a general framework for adding support for a new region. HOWTO-ADD-REGION.md has step-by-step instructions for adding a region.

Known bugs and issues

See the list of bugs at mcci-catena/arduino-lmic.

Timing Issues

The LoRaWAN technology for class A devices requires devices to meet hard real-time deadlines. The Arduino environment doesn't provide built-in support for this, and this port of the LMIC doesn't really ensure it, either. It is your responsibility, when constructing your application, to ensure that you call os_runloop_once() "often enough".

How often is often enough?

It depends on what the LMIC is doing. For Class A devices, when the LMIC is idle, os_runloop_once() need not be called at all. However, during a message transmit, it's critical to ensure that os_runloop_once() is called frequently prior to hard deadlines. The API os_queryTimeCriticalJobs() can be used to check whether there are any deadlines due soon. Before doing work that takes n milliseconds, call os_queryTimeCriticalJobs(ms2osticks(n)), and skip the work if the API indicates that the LMIC needs attention.

However, in the current implementation, the LMIC is tracking the completion of uplink transmits. This is done by checking for transmit-complete indications, which is done by polling. So you must also continually call os_runloop_once() while waiting for a transmit to be completed. This is an area for future improvement.

Working with MCCI Murata-based boards

The Board Support Package V2.5.0 for the MCCI Murata-based boards (MCCI Catena 4610, MCCI Catena 4612, etc.) has a defect in clock calibration that prevents the compliance script from being used without modification. Versions V2.6.0 and later solve this issue.

Event-Handling Issues

The LMIC has a simple event notification system. When an interesting event occurs, it calls a user-provided function.

This function is sometimes called at time critical moments.

This means that your event function should avoid doing any time-critical work.

Furthermore, in versions of the LMIC prior to v3.0.99.3, the event function may be called in situations where it's not safe to call the general LMIC APIs. In those older LMIC versions, please be careful to defer all work from your event function to your loop() function. See the compliance example sketch for an elaborate version of how this can be done.

Configuration

A number of features can be enabled or disabled at compile time. This is done by adding the desired settings to the file project_config/lmic_project_config.h. The project_config directory is the only directory that contains files that you should edit to match your project; we organize things this way so that your local changes are more clearly separated from the distribution files. The Arduino environment doesn't give us a better way to do this, unless you change BOARDS.txt.

Unlike other ports of the LMIC code, in this port, you should not edit src/lmic/config.h to configure this package. The intention is that you'll edit the project_config/lmic_project_config.h (if using the Arduino environment), or change compiler command-line input (if using PlatformIO, make, etc.).

The following configuration variables are available.

Selecting the LoRaWAN Version

This library implements V1.0.3 of the LoRaWAN specification. However, it can also be used with V1.0.2. The only significant change when selecting V1.0.2 is that the US accepted power range in MAC commands is 10 dBm to 30 dBm; whereas in V1.0.3 the accepted range 2 dBm to 30 dBm.

The default LoRaWAN version, if no version is explicitly selected, is V1.0.3.

LMIC_LORAWAN_SPEC_VERSION is defined as an integer reflecting the targeted spec version; it will be set to LMIC_LORAWAN_SPEC_VERSION_1_0_2 or LMIC_LORAWAN_SPEC_VERSION_1_0_3. Arithmetic comparisons can be done on these version numbers: and we guarantee LMIC_LORAWAN_SPEC_VERSION_1_0_3 > LMIC_LORAWAN_SPEC_VERSION_1_0_2, but the details of the how the versions are encoded may change, and your code should not rely upon the details.

Selecting V1.0.2

In project_config/lmic_project_config.h, add:

#define LMIC_LORAWAN_SPEC_VERSION   LMIC_LORAWAN_SPEC_VERSION_1_0_2

On your compiler command line, add:

-D LMIC_LORAWAN_SPEC_VERSION=LMIC_LORAWAN_SPEC_VERSION_1_0_2

Selecting V1.0.3

In project_config/lmic_project_config.h, add:

#define LMIC_LORAWAN_SPEC_VERSION    LMIC_LORAWAN_SPEC_VERSION_1_0_3

On your compiler command line, add:

-D LMIC_LORAWAN_SPEC_VERSION=LMIC_LORAWAN_SPEC_VERSION_1_0_3

This is the default.

Selecting the LoRaWAN Region Configuration

The library supports the following regions:

-D variable CFG region name CFG region value LoRaWAN Regional Spec 1.0.3 Reference Frequency
-D CFG_eu868 LMIC_REGION_eu868 1 2.2 EU 863-870 MHz ISM
-D CFG_us915 LMIC_REGION_us915 2 2.3 US 902-928 MHz ISM
-D CFG_au915 LMIC_REGION_au915 5 2.6 Australia 915-928 MHz ISM
-D CFG_as923 LMIC_REGION_as923 7 2.8 Asia 923 MHz ISM
-D CFG_as923jp LMIC_REGION_as923 and LMIC_COUNTRY_CODE_JP 7 2.8 Asia 923 MHz ISM with Japan listen-before-talk (LBT) rules
-D CFG_kr920 LMIC_REGION_kr920 8 2.9 Korea 920-923 MHz ISM
-D CFG_in866 LMIC_REGION_in866 9 2.10 India 865-867 MHz ISM

The library requires that the compile environment or the project config file define exactly one of CFG_... variables. As released, project_config/lmic_project_config.h defines CFG_us915. If you build with PlatformIO or other environments, and you do not provide a pointer to the platform config file, src/lmic/config.h will define CFG_eu868.

MCCI BSPs add menu entries to the Arduino IDE so you can select the target region interactively.

The library changes configuration pretty substantially according to the region selected, and this affects the symbols in-scope in your sketches and .cpp files. Some of the differences are listed below. This list is not comprehensive, and is subject to change in future major releases.

eu868, as923, in866, kr920

If the library is configured for EU868, AS923, or IN866 operation, we make the following changes:

  • Add the API LMIC_setupBand().
  • Add the constants MAX_CHANNELS, MAX_BANDS, LIMIT_CHANNELS, BAND_MILLI, BAND_CENTI, BAND_DECI, and BAND_AUX.

us915, au915

If the library is configured for US915 operation, we make the following changes:

  • Add the APIs LMIC_enableChannel(), LMIC_enableSubBand(), LMIC_disableSubBand(), and LMIC_selectSubBand().
  • Add the constants MAX_XCHANNELS.
  • Add a number of additional DR_... symbols.

Selecting the target radio transceiver

You should define one of the following variables. If you don't, the library assumes sx1276. There is a runtime check to make sure the actual transceiver matches the library configuration.

#define CFG_sx1272_radio 1

Configures the library for use with an sx1272 transceiver.

#define CFG_sx1276_radio 1

Configures the library for use with an sx1276 transceiver.

Controlling use of interrupts

#define LMIC_USE_INTERRUPTS

If defined, configures the library to use interrupts for detecting events from the transceiver. If left undefined, the library will poll for events from the transceiver. See Timing for more info. Be aware that interrupts are not tested or supported on many platforms.

Disabling PING

#define DISABLE_PING

If defined, removes all code needed for Class B downlink during ping slots (PING). Removes the APIs LMIC_setPingable() and LMIC_stopPingable(). Class A devices don't support PING, so defining DISABLE_PING is often a good idea.

By default, PING support is included in the library.

Disabling Beacons

#define DISABLE_BEACONS

If defined, removes all code needed for handling beacons. Removes the APIs LMIC_enableTracking() and LMIC_disableTracking().

Enabling beacon handling allows tracking of network time, and is required if you want to enable downlink during ping slots. However, many networks don't support Class B devices. Class A devices don't support tracking beacons, so defining DISABLE_BEACONS might be a good idea.

By default, beacon support is included in the library.

Enabling Network Time Support

#define LMIC_ENABLE_DeviceTimeReq number /* boolean: 0 or non-zero */

Disable or enable support for device network-time requests (LoRaWAN MAC request 0x0D). If zero, support is disabled. If non-zero, support is enabled.

If disabled, stub routines are provided that will return failure (so you don't need conditional compiles in client code).

Rarely changed variables

The remaining variables are rarely used, but we list them here for completeness.

Changing debug output

#define LMIC_PRINTF_TO SerialLikeObject

This variable should be set to the name of a Serial-like object (any subclass of Arduino's Print class), used for printing messages. If this variable is set, any calls to the standard printf function (or more generally all writes to the global stdout file descriptor) will redirected to the specified stream.

When this is not defined, printf and stdout are untouched and their behavior might vary among boards (and could print to somewhere, but also throw away output or crash). So if you want to use printf or LMIC_DEBUG_LEVEL, make sure to also define this.

Getting debug from the RF library

#define LMIC_DEBUG_LEVEL number /* 0, 1, or 2 */

This variable determines the amount of debug output to be produced by the library. The default is 0.

If LMIC_DEBUG_LEVEL is zero, no output is produced. If 1, limited output is produced. If 2, more extensive output is produced.

Note that debug output will influence the timing of various parts of the library and could introduce timing problems (especially in the RX window timing), so use it carefully.

Debug output is generated using the standard printf function, so unless your environment already redirects printf / stdout somewhere, you should also configure LIMC_PRINTF_TO.

Selecting the AES library

The library comes with two AES implementations. The original implementation is better on ARM processors because it's faster, but it's larger. For smaller AVR8 processors, a second library ("IDEETRON") is provided that has a smaller code footprint. You may define one of the following variables to choose the AES implementation. If you don't, the library uses the IDEETRON version.

#define USE_ORIGINAL_AES

If defined, the original AES implementation is used.

#define USE_IDEETRON_AES

If defined, the IDEETRON AES implementation is used.

Defining the OS Tick Frequency

#define US_PER_OSTICK_EXPONENT number

This variable should be set to the base-2 logarithm of the number of microseconds per OS tick. The default is 4, which indicates that each tick corresponds to 16 microseconds (because 16 == 2^4).

Setting the SPI-bus frequency

#define LMIC_SPI_FREQ floatNumber

This variable sets the default frequency for the SPI bus connection to the transceiver. The default is 1E6, meaning 1 MHz. However, this can be overridden by the contents of the lmic_pinmap structure, and we recommend that you use that approach rather than editing the project_config/lmic_project_config.h file.

Changing handling of runtime assertion failures

The variables LMIC_FAILURE_TO and DISABLE_LMIC_FAILURE_TO control the handling of runtime assertion failures. By default, assertion messages are displayed using the Serial object. You can define LMIC_FAILURE_TO to be the name of some other Print-like object. You can also define DISABLE_LMIC_FAILURE_TO to any value, in which case assert failures will silently halt execution.

Disabling JOIN

#define DISABLE_JOIN

If defined, removes code needed for OTAA activation. Removes the APIs LMIC_startJoining() and LMIC_tryRejoin().

Disabling Class A MAC commands

DISABLE_MCMD_DutyCycleReq, DISABLE_MCMD_RXParamSetupReq, DISABLE_MCMD_RXTimingSetupReq, DISABLE_MCMD_NewChannelReq, and DISABLE_MCMD_DlChannelReq respectively disable code for various Class A MAC commands.

Disabling Class B MAC commands

DISABLE_MCMD_PingSlotChannelReq disables the PING_SET MAC commands. It's implied by DISABLE_PING.

ENABLE_MCMD_BeaconTimingAns enables the next-beacon start command. It's disabled by default, and overridden (if enabled) by DISABLE_BEACON. (This command is deprecated.)

Disabling user events

Code to handle registered callbacks for transmit, receive, and events can be suppressed by setting LMIC_ENABLE_user_events to zero. This C preprocessor macro is always defined as a post-condition of #include "config.h"; if non-zero, user events are supported, if zero, user events are not-supported. The default is to support user events.

Disabling external reference to onEvent()

In V3 of the LMIC, you do not need to define a function named onEvent. The LMIC will notice that there's no such function, and will suppress the call. However, be cautious -- in a large software package, onEvent() may be defined for some other purpose. The LMIC has no way of knowing that this is not the LMIC's onEvent, so it will call the function, and this may cause problems.

All reference to onEvent() can be suppressed by setting LMIC_ENABLE_onEvent to 0. This C preprocessor macro is always defined as a post-condition of #include "config.h"; if non-zero, a weak reference to onEvent() will be used; if zero, the user onEvent() function is not supported, and the client must register an event handler explicitly. See the PDF documentation for details on LMIC_registerEventCb().

Enabling long messages

By default, LMIC allows messages up to 255 bytes, as defined in the LoRaWAN standard and required by compliance testing. To save RAM for simple devices, this can be limited using the LMIC_MAX_FRAME_LENGTH macro. This macro defines the length of the full frame, the maximum payload size is a bit smaller (and can be read from the MAX_LEN_PAYLOAD constant).

This value controls both the TX and RX buffers, so reducing it by 1 saves 2 bytes of RAM. The value should be not be set too small, since that can prevent properly receiving network downlinks (e.g. join accepts or MAC commands). Using #define LMIC_MAX_FRAME_LENGTH 64 is common and should be big enough for most operation, while saving 384 bytes of RAM.

Originally, this was configured using the LMIC_ENABLE_long_messages macro, which is still supported for compatibility. Setting LMIC_ENABLE_long_messages to 0 is equivalent to setting LMIC_MAX_FRAME_LENGTH to 64.

Enabling LMIC event logging calls

When debugging the LMIC, debug prints change timing, and can make things not work at all. The LMIC has embedded optional calls to capture debug information that can be printed out later, when the LMIC is not active. Logging is enabled by setting LMIC_ENABLE_event_logging to 1. The default is not to log. This C preprocessor macro is always defined as a post-condition of #include "config.h".

The compliance test script includes a suitable logging implementation; the other example scripts do not.

Special purpose

#define DISABLE_INVERT_IQ_ON_RX disables the inverted Q-I polarity on RX. Use of this variable is deprecated, see issue #250. Rather than defining this, set the value of LMIC.noRXIQinversion. If set non-zero, receive will be non-inverted. End-devices will be able to receive messages from each other, but will not be able to hear the gateway (other than Class B beacons)aa. If set zero, (the default), end devices will only be able to hear gateways, not each other.

Supported hardware

This library is intended to be used with plain LoRa transceivers, connecting to them using SPI. In particular, the SX1272 and SX1276 families are supported (which should include SX1273, SX1277, SX1278 and SX1279 which only differ in the available frequencies, bandwidths and spreading factors). It has been tested with both SX1272 and SX1276 chips, using the Semtech SX1272 evaluation board and the HopeRF RFM92 and RFM95 boards (which supposedly contain an SX1272 and SX1276 chip respectively).

This library contains a full LoRaWAN stack and is intended to drive these Transceivers directly. It is not intended to be used with full-stack devices like the Microchip RN2483 and the Embit LR1272E. These contain a transceiver and microcontroller that implements the LoRaWAN stack and exposes a high-level serial interface instead of the low-level SPI transceiver interface.

This library is intended to be used inside the Arduino environment. It should be architecture-independent. Users have tested this on AVR, ARM, Xtensa-based, and RISC-V based system.

This library can be quite heavy on small systems, especially if the fairly small ATmega 328p (such as in the Arduino Uno) is used. In the default configuration, the available 32K flash space is nearly filled up (this includes some debug output overhead, though). By disabling some features in project_config/lmic_project_config.h (like beacon tracking and ping slots, which are not needed for Class A devices), some space can be freed up.

Pre-Integrated Boards

There are two ways of using this library, either with pre-integrated boards or with manually configured boards.

The following boards are pre-integrated.

To help you know if you have to worry, we'll call such boards "pre-integrated" and prefix each section with suitable guidance.

PlatformIO

For use with PlatformIO, the lmic_project_config.h has to be disabled with the flag ARDUINO_LMIC_PROJECT_CONFIG_H_SUPPRESS. The settings are defined in PlatformIO by build_flags.

lib_deps =
    MCCI LoRaWAN LMIC library

build_flags =
    -D ARDUINO_LMIC_PROJECT_CONFIG_H_SUPPRESS
    -D CFG_eu868=1
    -D CFG_sx1276_radio=1

Manual configuration

If your desired transceiver board is not pre-integrated, you need to provide the library with the required information.

You may need to wire up your transceiver. The exact connections are a bit dependent on the transceiver board and Arduino used, so this section tries to explain what each connection is for and in what cases it is (not) required.

Note that the SX127x module runs at 3.3V and likely does not like 5V on its pins (though the datasheet is not say anything about this, and my transceiver did not obviously break after accidentally using 5V I/O for a few hours). To be safe, make sure to use a level shifter, or an Arduino running at 3.3V. The Semtech evaluation board has 100 ohm resistors in series with all data lines that might prevent damage, but I would not count on that.

Power

If you're using a pre-integrated board, you can skip this section.

The SX127x transceivers need a supply voltage between 1.8V and 3.9V. Using a 3.3V supply is typical. Some modules have a single power pin (like the HopeRF modules, labeled 3.3V) but others expose multiple power pins for different parts (like the Semtech evaluation board that has VDD_RF, VDD_ANA and VDD_FEM), which can all be connected together. Any GND pins need to be connected to the Arduino GND pin(s).

SPI

If you're using a pre-integrated board, you can skip this section.

The primary way of communicating with the transceiver is through SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface). This uses four pins: MOSI, MISO, SCK and SS. The former three need to be directly connected: so MOSI to MOSI, MISO to MISO, SCK to SCK. Where these pins are located on your Arduino varies, see for example the "Connections" section of the Arduino SPI documentation.

The SS (slave select) connection is a bit more flexible. On the SPI slave side (the transceiver), this must be connect to the pin (typically) labeled NSS. On the SPI master (Arduino) side, this pin can connect to any I/O pin. Most Arduinos also have a pin labeled "SS", but this is only relevant when the Arduino works as an SPI slave, which is not the case here. Whatever pin you pick, you need to tell the library what pin you used through the pin mapping (see below).

DIO pins

If you're using a pre-integrated board, you can skip this section.

The DIO (digital I/O) pins on the SX127x can be configured for various functions. The LMIC library uses them to get instant status information from the transceiver. For example, when a LoRa transmission starts, the DIO0 pin is configured as a TxDone output. When the transmission is complete, the DIO0 pin is made high by the transceiver, which can be detected by the LMIC library.

The LMIC library needs only access to DIO0, DIO1 and DIO2, the other DIOx pins can be left disconnected. On the Arduino side, they can connect to any I/O pin. If interrupts are used, the accuracy of timing will be improved, particularly the rest of your loop() function has lengthy calculations; but in that case, the enabled DIO pins must all support rising-edge interrupts. See the Timing section below.

In LoRa mode the DIO pins are used as follows:

  • DIO0: TxDone and RxDone
  • DIO1: RxTimeout

In FSK mode they are used as follows::

  • DIO0: PayloadReady and PacketSent
  • DIO2: TimeOut

Both modes need only 2 pins, but the transceiver does not allow mapping them in such a way that all needed interrupts map to the same 2 pins. So, if both LoRa and FSK modes are used, all three pins must be connected.

The pins used on the Arduino side should be configured in the pin mapping in your sketch, by setting the values of lmic_pinmap::dio[0], [1], and [2] (see below).

Reset

If you're using a pre-integrated board, you can skip this section.

The transceiver has a reset pin that can be used to explicitly reset it. The LMIC library uses this to ensure the chip is in a consistent state at startup. In practice, this pin can be left disconnected, since the transceiver will already be in a sane state on power-on, but connecting it might prevent problems in some cases.

On the Arduino side, any I/O pin can be used. The pin number used must be configured in the pin mapping lmic_pinmap::rst field (see below).

RXTX

If you're using a pre-integrated board, you can skip this section.

The transceiver contains two separate antenna connections: One for RX and one for TX. A typical transceiver board contains an antenna switch chip, that allows switching a single antenna between these RX and TX connections. Such a antenna switcher can typically be told what position it should be through an input pin, often labeled RXTX.

The easiest way to control the antenna switch is to use the RXTX pin on the SX127x transceiver. This pin is automatically set high during TX and low during RX. For example, the HopeRF boards seem to have this connection in place, so they do not expose any RXTX pins and the pin can be marked as unused in the pin mapping.

Some boards do expose the antenna switcher pin, and sometimes also the SX127x RXTX pin. For example, the SX1272 evaluation board calls the former FEM_CTX and the latter RXTX. Again, simply connecting these together with a jumper wire is the easiest solution.

Alternatively, or if the SX127x RXTX pin is not available, LMIC can be configured to control the antenna switch. Connect the antenna switch control pin (e.g. FEM_CTX on the Semtech evaluation board) to any I/O pin on the Arduino side, and configure the pin used in the pin map (see below).

The configuration entry lmic_pinmap::rxtx configures the pin to be used for the RXTX control function, in terms of the Arduino wire.h digital pin number. If set to LMIC_UNUSED_PIN, then the library assumes that software does not need to control the antenna switch.

RXTX Polarity

If you're using a pre-integrated board, you can skip this section.

If an external switch is used, you also must specify the polarity. Some modules want RXTX to be high for transmit, low for receive; Others want it to be low for transmit, high for receive. The Murata module, for example, requires that RXTX be high for receive, low for transmit.

The configuration entry lmic_pinmap::rxtx_rx_active should be set to the state to be written to the RXTX pin to make the receiver active. The opposite state is written to make the transmitter active. If lmic_pinmap::rxtx is LMIC_UNUSED_PIN, then the value of lmic_pinmap::rxtx_rx_active is ignored.

Pin mapping

If you're using a pre-integrated board, you can skip this section.

Refer to the documentation on your board for the required settings.

Remember, for pre-integrated boards, you don't worry about this.

We have details for the following manually-configured boards here:

If your board is not configured, you need at least to provide your own lmic_pinmap. As described above, a variety of configurations are possible. To tell the LMIC library how your board is configured, you must declare a variable containing a pin mapping struct in your sketch file. If you call os_init() to initialize the LMIC, you must name this structure lmic_pins. If you call os_init_ex(), you may name the structure what you like, but you pass a pointer as the parameter to os_init_ex().

Here's an example of a simple initialization:

  lmic_pinmap lmic_pins = {
    .nss = 6,
    .rxtx = LMIC_UNUSED_PIN,
    .rst = 5,
    .dio = {2, 3, 4},
    // optional: set polarity of rxtx pin.
    .rxtx_rx_active = 0,
    // optional: set RSSI cal for listen-before-talk
    // this value is in dB, and is added to RSSI
    // measured prior to decision.
    // Must include noise guardband! Ignored in US,
    // EU, IN, other markets where LBT is not required.
    .rssi_cal = 0,
    // optional: override LMIC_SPI_FREQ if non-zero
    .spi_freq = 0,
  };

The names refer to the pins on the transceiver side, the numbers refer to the Arduino pin numbers (to use the analog pins, use constants like A0). For the DIO pins, the three numbers refer to DIO0, DIO1 and DIO2 respectively. Any pins that are not needed should be specified as LMIC_UNUSED_PIN. The NSS and dio0 pins are required. The others can potentially left out (depending on the environments and requirements, see the notes above for when a pin can or cannot be left out).

Advanced initialization

In some boards require much more advanced management. The LMIC has a very flexible framework to support this, but it requires you to do some C++ work.

  1. You must define a new class derived from Arduino_LMIC::HalConfiguration_t. (We'll call this cMyHalConfiguration_t).

  2. This class may define overrides for several methods (discussed below).

  3. You must create an instance of your class, e.g.

    cMyHalConfiguration_t myHalConfigInstance;
  4. You add another entry in your lmic_pinmap, pConfig = &myHalConfigInstance, to link your pin-map to your object.

The full example looks like this:

class cMyHlaConfiguration_t : public Arduino_LMIC::HalConfiguration_t
  {
public:
  // ...
  // put your method function override declarations here.

  // this example uses RFO at 10 dBm or less, PA_BOOST up to 17 dBm,
  // or the high-power mode above 17 dBm. In other words, it lets the
  // LMIC-determined policy determine what's to be done.

  virutal TxPowerPolicy_t getTxPowerPolicy(
    TxPowerPolicy_t policy,
    int8_t requestedPower,
    uint32_t frequency
    ) override
    {
    return policy;
    }
  }

HalConfiguration_t methods

  • ostime_t setModuleActive(bool state) is called by the LMIC to make the module active or to deactivate it (the value of state is true to activate). The implementation must turn power to the module on and otherwise prepare for it to go to work, and must return the number of OS ticks to wait before starting to use the radio.

  • void begin(void) is called during initialization, and is your code's chance to do any early setup.

  • void end(void) is (to be) called during late shutdown. (Late shutdown is not implemented yet; but we wanted to add the API for consistency.)

  • bool queryUsingTcxo(void) shall return true if the module uses a TCXO; false otherwise.

  • TxPowerPolicy_t getTxPowerPolicy(TxPowerPolicy_t policy, int8_t requestedPower, uint32_t frequency) allows you to override the LMIC's selection of transmit power. If not provided, the default method forces the LMIC to use PA_BOOST mode. (We chose to do this because we found empirically that the Hope RF module doesn't support RFO, and because legacy LMIC code never used anything except PA_BOOST mode.)

Caution: the LMIC has no way of knowing whether the mode you return makes sense. Use of 20 dBm mode without limiting duty cycle can over-stress your module. The LMIC currently does not have any code to duty-cycle US transmissions at 20 dBm. If properly limiting transmissions to 400 milliseconds, a 1% duty-cycle means at most one message every 40 seconds. This shouldn't be a problem in practice, but buggy upper level software still might do things more rapidly.

LoRa Nexus by Ideetron

This board uses the following pin mapping:

  const lmic_pinmap lmic_pins = {
      .nss = 10,
      .rxtx = LMIC_UNUSED_PIN,
      .rst = LMIC_UNUSED_PIN, // hardwired to AtMega RESET
      .dio = {4, 5, 7},
  };

Example Sketches

This library provides several examples.

  • ttn-otaa.ino shows a basic transmission of a "Hello, world!" message using the LoRaWAN protocol. It contains some frequency settings and encryption keys intended for use with The Things Network, but these also correspond to the default settings of most gateways, so it should work with other networks and gateways as well. The example uses over-the-air activation (OTAA) to first join the network to establish a session and security keys. This was tested with The Things Network, but should also work (perhaps with some changes) for other networks. OTAA is the preferred way to work with production LoRaWAN networks.

  • ttn-otaa-feather-us915.ino is a version of ttn-otaa.ino that has been configured for use with the Feather M0 LoRa, in the US915 region, with The Things Network. Remember that you may also have to change config.h from defaults. This sketch also works with the MCCI Catena family of products as well as with the Feather 32u4 LoRa.

  • ttn-otaa-halconfig-us915.ino is a version of ttn-otaa.ino that uses the LMIC automatic configuration system, in the US915 region, with The Things Network. Remember that you may also have to change config.h from defaults. This sketch works with all the boards listed above under Pre-Integrated Boards.

  • ttn-otaa-feather-us915-dht22.ino is a further refinement of ttn-otaa-feather-us915.ino. It measures and transmits temperature and relative humidity using a DHT22 sensor. It's only been tested with Feather M0-family products.

  • raw.ino shows how to access the radio on a somewhat low level, and allows to send raw (non-LoRaWAN) packets between nodes directly. This is useful to verify basic connectivity, and when no gateway is available, but this example also bypasses duty cycle checks, so be careful when changing the settings.

  • raw-feather.ino is a version of raw.ino that is completely configured for the Adafruit Feather M0 LoRa, and for a variety of other MCCI products.

  • raw-halconfig.ino is like the other raw examples, but is most general. It's configured according to the LMIC's auto-configuration mechanism, and adapts according to the selected region.

  • ttn-abp.ino shows a basic transmission of a "Hello, world!" message using the LoRaWAN protocol. This example uses activation-by-personalization (ABP, preconfiguring a device address and encryption keys), and does not employ over-the-air activation.

    ABP should not be used if you have access to a production gateway and network; it's not compliant with LoRaWAN standards, it's not FCC compliant, and it's uses spectrum in a way that's unfair to other users. However, it's often the most economical way to get your feet wet with this technology. It's possible to do ABP compliantly with the LMIC framework, but you need to have FRAM storage and a framework that saves uplink and downlink counts across reboots and resets. See, for example, Catena-Arduino-Platform.

  • ttn-abp-feather-us915-dht22.ino refines ttn-abp.ino by configuring for use with the Feather M0 LoRa in the US915 region, with a single-channel gateway on The Things Network; it measures and transmits temperature and relative humidity using a DHT22 sensor. It's only been tested with Feather M0-family products.

    ABP should not be used if you have access to a production gateway and network; it's not compliant with LoRaWAN standards, it's not FCC compliant, and it's uses spectrum in a way that's unfair to other users. However, it's often the most economical way to get your feet wet with this technology. It's possible to do ABP compliantly with the LMIC framework, but you need to have FRAM storage and a framework that saves uplink and downlink counts across reboots and resets. See, for example, Catena-Arduino-Platform.

  • header_test.ino just tests the header files; it's used for regression testing.

  • compliance-otaa-halconfig.ino is a test sketch that is used for LoRaWAN compliance testing.

  • helium-us9115.ino is a complete example for using the LMIC on the Helium network. It's very similar to the OTAA examples, but sets up the prejoin parameters properly for the initial deployment of Helium LoRaWAN support.

  • ttn-otaa-network-time.ino demonstrates use of the network time request. Network time requests are not supported by The Things Network as of the time of writing.

Timing

The library is responsible for keeping track of time of certain network events, and scheduling other events relative to those events. For Class A uplink transmissions, the library must note when a packet finishes transmitting, so it can open up the RX1 and RX2 receive windows at a fixed time after the end of transmission. The library does this by watching for rising edges on the DIO0 output of the SX127x, and noting the time.

The library observes and processes rising edges on the pins as part of os_runloop() processing. This can be configured in one of two ways (see Controlling use of interrupts). See Interrupts and Arduino system timing for implementation details.

By default, the library polls the enabled pins to determine whether an event has occurred. This approach allows use of any CPU pin to sense the DIOs, and makes no assumptions about interrupts. However, it means that the end-of-transmit event is not observed (and time-stamped) until os_runloop_once() is called.

Optionally, you can configure the LMIC library to use interrupts. The interrupt handlers capture the time of the event. Actual processing is done the next time that os_runloop_once() is called, using the captured time. However, this requires that the DIO pins be wired to Arduino pins that support rising-edge interrupts, and it may require custom initialization code on your platform to hook up the interrupts.

Controlling protocol timing

The timing of end-of-transmit interrupts is used to determine when to open the downlink receive window. Because of the considerations above, some inaccuracy in the time stamp for the end-of-transmit interrupt is inevitable.

Fortunately, the timing of the receive windows at the device need not be extremely accurate; the LMIC has to turn on the receiver early enough to capture a downlink from the gateway and must leave the receiver on long enough to compensate for timing errors due to various inaccuracies. To make it easier for the device to catch downlinks, the gateway first transmits a preamble consisting of 8 symbols. The SX127x receiver needs to see at least 4 symbols to detect a message. The Arduino LMIC tries to enable the receiver for 6 symbol times slightly before the start of the receive window.

The HAL bases all timing on the Arduino micros() timer, which has a platform-specific granularity and accuracy, and is based on the primary microcontroller clock.

If using an internal oscillator that is less than 100ppm accurate but better than 4000 ppm accurate, or if your other loop() processing is time consuming, you can use LMIC_setClockError() to cause the library to leave the radio on longer. Note that for various reasons, it is not practical to set enormous clock errors. Oscillators that are 4000 ppm accurate or worse should be supplemented or disciplined with a better timing source. The LoRaWAN spec, for class B, implicitly assumes 100 ppm accuracy in the clock.

Users of older versions of the library were advised to set large clock errors if they were experiencing timing problems. However, close analysis and debugging during the preparation of v3.1.0 of this library revealed that the real errors were in the timing calculations in the library. Once those were corrected, the need for large clock error settings was reduced. It's still possible to use large clock errors if needed, but this must be enabled via a compile time switch.

An even more accurate solution could be to use a dedicated timer with an input capture unit, that can store the timestamp of a change on the DIO0 pin (the only one that is timing-critical) entirely in hardware. Experience shows that this is not normally required, so we leave this as a customization to be performed on a platform-by-platform basis. We provide a special API, radio_irq_handler_v2(u1_t dio, ostime_t tEvent). This API allows you to supply a hardware-captured time for extra accuracy.

The practical consequence of inaccurate timing is reduced battery life; the LMIC must turn on the receiver earlier in order to be sure to capture downlink packets. However, this is a second order effect on class A devices; every receive is preceded by a transmit, which takes approximately ten times as much power per millisecond as a receive.

LMIC_setClockError()

You may call this routine during initialization to inform the LMIC code about the timing accuracy of your system.

enum { MAX_CLOCK_ERROR = 65535 };

void LMIC_setClockError(
    u2_t error
);

This function sets the anticipated relative clock error. MAX_CLOCK_ERROR represents +/- 100%, and 0 represents no additional clock compensation. To allow for an error of 20%, you would call

LMIC_setClockError(MAX_CLOCK_ERROR * 20 / 100);

Setting a high clock error causes the RX windows to be opened earlier than it otherwise would be. This causes more power to be consumed. For Class A devices, this extra power is not substantial, but for Class B devices, this can be significant.

For a variety of reasons, the LMIC normally ignores clock errors greater than 4000 ppm (0.4%). The compile-time flag LMIC_ENABLE_arbitrary_clock_error can remove this limit. To do this, define it to a non-zero value.

This clock error is not reset by LMIC_reset().

Interrupts and Arduino system timing

The IBM LMIC used as the basis for this code disables interrupts while the radio driver is active, to prevent reentrancy via radio_irq_handler() at unexpected moments. It uses os_getTime(), and assumes that os_getTime() still works when interrupts were disabled. This causes problems on Arduino platforms. Most board support packages use interrupts to advance millis() and micros(), and with these BSPs, millis() and micros() return incorrect values while interrupts are disabled. Although some BSPs (like the ones provided by MCCI) provide real time correctly while interrupts are disabled, this is not portable. It's not practical to make such changes in every BSP.

To avoid this, the LMIC processes events in several steps; these steps ensure that radio_irq_handler_v2() is only called at predictable times.

  1. If interrupts are enabled via LMIC_USE_INTERRUPTS, hardware interrupts catch the time of the interrupt and record that the interrupt occurred. These routines rely on hardware edge-sensitive interrupts. If your hardware interrupts are level-sensitive, you must mask the interrupt somehow at the ISR. You can't use SPI routines to talk to the radio, because this may leave the SPI system and the radio in undefined states. In this configuration, hal_io_pollIRQs() exists but is a no-op.

  2. If interrupts are not enabled via LMIC_USE_INTERRUPTS, the digital I/O lines are polled every so often by calling the routine hal_io_pollIRQs(). This routine watches for edges on the relevant digital I/O lines, and records the time of transition.

  3. The LMIC os_runloop_once() routine calls hal_processPendingIRQs(). This routine uses the timestamps captured by the hardware ISRs and hal_io_pollIRQs() to invoke radio_irq_hander_v2() with the appropriate information. hal_processPendingIRQs() in turn calls hal_io_pollIRQs() (in case interrupts are not configured).

  4. For compatibility with older versions of the Arduino LMIC, hal_enableIRQs() also calls hal_io_pollIRQs() when enabling interrupts. However, it does not dispatch the interrupts to radio_irq_handler_v2(); this must be done by a subsequent call to hal_processPendingIRQs().

Downlink data rate

Note that the data rate used for downlink packets in the RX2 window varies by region. Consult your network's manual for any divergences from the LoRaWAN Regional Parameters. This library assumes that the network follows the regional default.

Some networks use different values than the specification. For example, in Europe, the specification default is DR0 (SF12, 125 kHz bandwidth). However, iot.semtech.com and The Things Network both used SF9 / 125 kHz or DR3). If using over-the-air activation (OTAA), the network will download RX2 parameters as part of the JoinAccept message; the LMIC will honor the downloaded parameters.

However, when using personalized activate (ABP), it is your responsibility to set the right settings, e.g. by adding this to your sketch (after calling LMIC_setSession). ttn-abp.ino already does this.

LMIC.dn2Dr = DR_SF9;

Encoding Utilities

It is generally important to make LoRaWAN messages as small as practical. Extra bytes mean extra transmit time, which wastes battery power and interferes with other nodes on the network.

To simplify coding, the Arduino header file <lmic.h> defines some data encoding utility functions to encode floating-point data into uint16_t values using sflt16 or uflt16 bit layout. For even more efficiency, there are versions that use only the bottom 12 bits of the uint16_t, allowing for other bits to be carried in the top 4 bits, or for two values to be crammed into three bytes.

  • uint16_t LMIC_f2sflt16(float) converts a floating point number to a sflt16-encoded uint16_t.
  • uint16_t LMIC_f2uflt16(float) converts a floating-point number to a uflt16-encoded uint16_t.
  • uint16_t LMIC_f2sflt12(float) converts a floating-point number to a sflt12-encoded uint16_t, leaving the top four bits of the result set to zero.
  • uint16_t LMIC_f2uflt12(float) converts a floating-point number to a uflt12-encoded uint16_t, leaving the top four bits of the result set to zero.

JavaScript code for decoding the data can be found in the following sections.

sflt16

A sflt16 datum represents an unsigned floating point number in the range [0, 1.0), transmitted as a 16-bit field. The encoded field is interpreted as follows:

bits description
15 Sign bit
14..11 binary exponent b
10..0 fraction f

The corresponding floating point value is computed by computing f/2048 * 2^(b-15). Note that this format is deliberately not IEEE-compliant; it's intended to be easy to decode by hand and not overwhelmingly sophisticated. However, it is similar to IEEE format in that it uses sign-magnitude rather than twos-complement for negative values.

For example, if the data value is 0x8D, 0x55, the equivalent floating point number is found as follows.

  1. The full 16-bit number is 0x8D55.
  2. Bit 15 is 1, so this is a negative value.
  3. b is 1, and b-15 is -14. 2^-14 is 1/16384
  4. f is 0x555. 0x555/2048 = 1365/2048 is 0.667
  5. f * 2^(b-15) is therefore 0.667/16384 or 0.00004068
  6. Since the number is negative, the value is -0.00004068

Floating point mavens will immediately recognize:

  • This format uses sign/magnitude representation for negative numbers.
  • Numbers do not need to be normalized (although in practice they always are).
  • The format is somewhat wasteful, because it explicitly transmits the most-significant bit of the fraction. (Most binary floating-point formats assume that f is is normalized, which means by definition that the exponent b is adjusted and f is shifted left until the most-significant bit of f is one. Most formats then choose to delete the most-significant bit from the encoding. If we were to do that, we would insist that the actual value of f be in the range 2048..4095, and then transmit only f - 2048, saving a bit. However, this complicates the handling of gradual underflow; see next point.)
  • Gradual underflow at the bottom of the range is automatic and simple with this encoding; the more sophisticated schemes need extra logic (and extra testing) in order to provide the same feature.

JavaScript decoder

function sflt162f(rawSflt16)
    {
    // rawSflt16 is the 2-byte number decoded from wherever;
    // it's in range 0..0xFFFF
    // bit 15 is the sign bit
    // bits 14..11 are the exponent
    // bits 10..0 are the the mantissa. Unlike IEEE format,
    // the msb is explicit; this means that numbers
    // might not be normalized, but makes coding for
    // underflow easier.
    // As with IEEE format, negative zero is possible, so
    // we special-case that in hopes that JavaScript will
    // also cooperate.
    //
    // The result is a number in the open interval (-1.0, 1.0);
    //

    // throw away high bits for repeatability.
    rawSflt16 &= 0xFFFF;

    // special case minus zero:
    if (rawSflt16 == 0x8000)
        return -0.0;

    // extract the sign.
    var sSign = ((rawSflt16 & 0x8000) != 0) ? -1 : 1;

    // extract the exponent
    var exp1 = (rawSflt16 >> 11) & 0xF;

    // extract the "mantissa" (the fractional part)
    var mant1 = (rawSflt16 & 0x7FF) / 2048.0;

    // convert back to a floating point number. We hope
    // that Math.pow(2, k) is handled efficiently by
    // the JS interpreter! If this is time critical code,
    // you can replace by a suitable shift and divide.
    var f_unscaled = sSign * mant1 * Math.pow(2, exp1 - 15);

    return f_unscaled;
    }

uflt16

A uflt16 datum represents an unsigned floating point number in the range [0, 1.0), transmitted as a 16-bit field. The encoded field is interpreted as follows:

bits description
15..12 binary exponent b
11..0 fraction f

The corresponding floating point value is computed by computing f/4096 * 2^(b-15). Note that this format is deliberately not IEEE-compliant; it's intended to be easy to decode by hand and not overwhelmingly sophisticated.

For example, if the transmitted message contains 0xEB, 0xF7, and the transmitted byte order is big endian, the equivalent floating point number is found as follows.

  1. The full 16-bit number is 0xEBF7.
  2. b is therefore 0xE, and b-15 is -1. 2^-1 is 1/2
  3. f is 0xBF7. 0xBF7/4096 is 3063/4096 == 0.74780...
  4. f * 2^(b-15) is therefore 0.74780/2 or 0.37390

Floating point mavens will immediately recognize:

  • There is no sign bit; all numbers are positive.
  • Numbers do not need to be normalized (although in practice they always are).
  • The format is somewhat wasteful, because it explicitly transmits the most-significant bit of the fraction. (Most binary floating-point formats assume that f is is normalized, which means by definition that the exponent b is adjusted and f is shifted left until the most-significant bit of f is one. Most formats then choose to delete the most-significant bit from the encoding. If we were to do that, we would insist that the actual value of f be in the range 4096..8191, and then transmit only f - 4096, saving a bit. However, this complicated the handling of gradual underflow; see next point.)
  • Gradual underflow at the bottom of the range is automatic and simple with this encoding; the more sophisticated schemes need extra logic (and extra testing) in order to provide the same feature.

uflt16 JavaScript decoder

function uflt162f(rawUflt16)
    {
    // rawUflt16 is the 2-byte number decoded from wherever;
    // it's in range 0..0xFFFF
    // bits 15..12 are the exponent
    // bits 11..0 are the the mantissa. Unlike IEEE format,
    // the msb is explicit; this means that numbers
    // might not be normalized, but makes coding for
    // underflow easier.
    // As with IEEE format, negative zero is possible, so
    // we special-case that in hopes that JavaScript will
    // also cooperate.
    //
    // The result is a number in the half-open interval [0, 1.0);
    //

    // throw away high bits for repeatability.
    rawUflt16 &= 0xFFFF;

    // extract the exponent
    var exp1 = (rawUflt16 >> 12) & 0xF;

    // extract the "mantissa" (the fractional part)
    var mant1 = (rawUflt16 & 0xFFF) / 4096.0;

    // convert back to a floating point number. We hope
    // that Math.pow(2, k) is handled efficiently by
    // the JS interpreter! If this is time critical code,
    // you can replace by a suitable shift and divide.
    var f_unscaled = mant1 * Math.pow(2, exp1 - 15);

    return f_unscaled;
    }

sflt12

A sflt12 datum represents an signed floating point number in the range [0, 1.0), transmitted as a 12-bit field. The encoded field is interpreted as follows:

bits description
11 sign bit
11..8 binary exponent b
7..0 fraction f

The corresponding floating point value is computed by computing f/128 * 2^(b-15). Note that this format is deliberately not IEEE-compliant; it's intended to be easy to decode by hand and not overwhelmingly sophisticated.

For example, if the transmitted message contains 0x8, 0xD5, the equivalent floating point number is found as follows.

  1. The full 16-bit number is 0x8D5.
  2. The number is negative.
  3. b is 0x1, and b-15 is -14. 2^-14 is 1/16384
  4. f is 0x55. 0x55/128 is 85/128, or 0.66
  5. f * 2^(b-15) is therefore 0.66/16384 or 0.000041 (to two significant digits)
  6. The decoded number is therefore -0.000041.

Floating point mavens will immediately recognize:

  • This format uses sign/magnitude representation for negative numbers.
  • Numbers do not need to be normalized (although in practice they always are).
  • The format is somewhat wasteful, because it explicitly transmits the most-significant bit of the fraction. (Most binary floating-point formats assume that f is is normalized, which means by definition that the exponent b is adjusted and f is shifted left until the most-significant bit of f is one. Most formats then choose to delete the most-significant bit from the encoding. If we were to do that, we would insist that the actual value of f be in the range 128 .. 256, and then transmit only f - 128, saving a bit. However, this complicates the handling of gradual underflow; see next point.)
  • Gradual underflow at the bottom of the range is automatic and simple with this encoding; the more sophisticated schemes need extra logic (and extra testing) in order to provide the same feature.
  • It can be strongly argued that dropping the sign bit would be worth the effort, as this would get us 14% more resolution for a minor amount of work.

sflt12f JavaScript decoder

function sflt12f(rawSflt12)
    {
    // rawSflt12 is the 2-byte number decoded from wherever;
    // it's in range 0..0xFFF (12 bits). For safety, we mask
    // on entry and discard the high-order bits.
    // bit 11 is the sign bit
    // bits 10..7 are the exponent
    // bits 6..0 are the the mantissa. Unlike IEEE format,
    // the msb is explicit; this means that numbers
    // might not be normalized, but makes coding for
    // underflow easier.
    // As with IEEE format, negative zero is possible, so
    // we special-case that in hopes that JavaScript will
    // also cooperate.
    //
    // The result is a number in the open interval (-1.0, 1.0);
    //

    // throw away high bits for repeatability.
    rawSflt12 &= 0xFFF;

    // special case minus zero:
    if (rawSflt12 == 0x800)
        return -0.0;

    // extract the sign.
    var sSign = ((rawSflt12 & 0x800) != 0) ? -1 : 1;

    // extract the exponent
    var exp1 = (rawSflt12 >> 7) & 0xF;

    // extract the "mantissa" (the fractional part)
    var mant1 = (rawSflt12 & 0x7F) / 128.0;

    // convert back to a floating point number. We hope
    // that Math.pow(2, k) is handled efficiently by
    // the JS interpreter! If this is time critical code,
    // you can replace by a suitable shift and divide.
    var f_unscaled = sSign * mant1 * Math.pow(2, exp1 - 15);

    return f_unscaled;
    }

uflt12

A uflt12 datum represents an unsigned floating point number in the range [0, 1.0), transmitted as a 16-bit field. The encoded field is interpreted as follows:

bits description
11..8 binary exponent b
7..0 fraction f

The corresponding floating point value is computed by computing f/256 * 2^(b-15). Note that this format is deliberately not IEEE-compliant; it's intended to be easy to decode by hand and not overwhelmingly sophisticated.

For example, if the transmitted message contains 0x1, 0xAB, the equivalent floating point number is found as follows.

  1. The full 16-bit number is 0x1AB.
  2. b is therefore 0x1, and b-15 is -14. 2^-14 is 1/16384
  3. f is 0xAB. 0xAB/256 is 0.67
  4. f * 2^(b-15) is therefore 0.67/16384 or 0.0000408 (to three significant digits)

Floating point mavens will immediately recognize:

  • There is no sign bit; all numbers are positive.
  • Numbers do not need to be normalized (although in practice they always are).
  • The format is somewhat wasteful, because it explicitly transmits the most-significant bit of the fraction. (Most binary floating-point formats assume that f is is normalized, which means by definition that the exponent b is adjusted and f is shifted left until the most-significant bit of f is one. Most formats then choose to delete the most-significant bit from the encoding. If we were to do that, we would insist that the actual value of f be in the range 256 .. 512, and then transmit only f - 256, saving a bit. However, this complicates the handling of gradual underflow; see next point.)
  • Gradual underflow at the bottom of the range is automatic and simple with this encoding; the more sophisticated schemes need extra logic (and extra testing) in order to provide the same feature.

uflt12f JavaScript decoder

function uflt12f(rawUflt12)
    {
    // rawUflt12 is the 2-byte number decoded from wherever;
    // it's in range 0..0xFFF (12 bits). For safety, we mask
    // on entry and discard the high-order bits.
    // bits 11..8 are the exponent
    // bits 7..0 are the the mantissa. Unlike IEEE format,
    // the msb is explicit; this means that numbers
    // might not be normalized, but makes coding for
    // underflow easier.
    // As with IEEE format, negative zero is possible, so
    // we special-case that in hopes that JavaScript will
    // also cooperate.
    //
    // The result is a number in the half-open interval [0, 1.0);
    //

    // throw away high bits for repeatability.
    rawUflt12 &= 0xFFF;

    // extract the exponent
    var exp1 = (rawUflt12 >> 8) & 0xF;

    // extract the "mantissa" (the fractional part)
    var mant1 = (rawUflt12 & 0xFF) / 256.0;

    // convert back to a floating point number. We hope
    // that Math.pow(2, k) is handled efficiently by
    // the JS interpreter! If this is time critical code,
    // you can replace by a suitable shift and divide.
    var f_unscaled = sSign * mant1 * Math.pow(2, exp1 - 15);

    return f_unscaled;
    }

Release History

  • v3.3.0 is primarily a maintenance and roll-up release.

  • v3.2.0 has the following changes:

    • #550 fixes debug prints in ttn-otaa.ino.
    • #553 add full regional support to raw.ino and ttn-abp.ino.
    • #570 corrects handling of piggy-back MAC responses when sending an LMIC_sendAlive() (OPMODE_POLL) message.
    • #524 corrects handling of interrupt disable, and slightly refactors the low-level interrupt handling wrappers for clarity. With this change, radio_irq_handler_v2() is never called except from the run loop, and so the radio driver need not (and does not) disable interrupts. Version is v3.1.0.20.
    • #568 improves documentation for the radio driver.
    • #537 fixes a compile error in SX1272 support. (Thanks @ricaun.) Version is v3.1.0.10.
  • v3.1.0 officially adopts the changes from v3.0.99. There were dozens of changes; check the GitHub issue logs and change logs. This was a breaking release (due to changes in data layout in the LMIC structure; the structure is accessed by apps).

  • v3.0.99 (the pre-release for v3.1.0) added the following changes. (This is not an exhaustive list.) Note that the behavior of the LMIC changes in important ways, as it now enforces the LoRaWAN mandated maximum frame size for a given data rate. For Class A devices, this may cause your device to go silent after join, if you're not able to handle the frame size dictated by the parameters downloaded to the device by the network during join. The library will attempt to find a data rate that will work, but there is no guarantee that the network has provided such a data rate.

    • #470 corrects the name of AU915 region. #516 makes sure that LMIC_REGION_au921 is defined (but deprecated) for backward compatibility.
    • #452 fixes a bug #450 in LMIC_clrTxData() that would cause join hiccups if called while (1) a join was in progress and (2) a regular data packet was waiting to be uplinked after the join completes. Also fixes AS923- and AU915-specific bugs #446, #447, #448. Version is v3.0.99.5.
    • #443 addresses a number of problems found in cooperation with RedwoodComm. They suggested a timing improvement to speed testing; this lead to the discovery of a number of problems. Some were in the compliance framework, but one corrects timing for very high spreading factors, several (#442, #436, #435, #434 fix glaring problems in FSK support; #249 greatly enhances stability by making API calls much less likely to crash the LMIC if it's active. Version is v3.0.99.3.
    • #388, #389, #390 change the LMIC to honor the maximum frame size for a given DR in the current region. This proves to be a breaking change for many applications, especially in the US, because DR0 in the US supports only an 11-byte payload, and many apps were ignoring this. Additional error codes were defined so that apps can detect and recover from this situation, but they must detect; otherwise they run the risk of being blocked from the network by the LMIC. Because of this change, the next version of the LMIC will be V3.1 or higher, and the LMIC version for development is bumped to 3.0.99.0.
    • #401 adds 865 MHz through 868 MHz to the "1%" band for EU.
    • #395 corrects pin-mode initialization if using hal_interrupt_init().
    • #385 corrects an error handling data rate selection for TxParamSetupReq, found in US-915 certification testing. (v2.3.2.71)
    • #378 completely reworks MAC downlink handling. Resulting code passes the LoRaWAN V1.5 EU certification test. (v2.3.2.70)
    • #360 adds support for the KR-920 regional plan.
  • v2.3.2 is a patch release. It incorporates two pull requests.

    • #204 eliminates a warning if using a custom pin-map.
    • #206 updates CI testing to Arduino IDE v1.8.8.
  • v2.3.1 is a patch release. It adds <arduino_lmic_user_configuration.h>, which loads the pre-processor LMIC configuration variables into scope (issue #199).

  • v2.3.0 introduces two important changes.

    1. The pin-map is extended with an additional field pConfig, pointing to a C++ class instance. This instance, if provided, has extra methods for dealing with TCXO control and other fine details of operating the radio. It also gives a natural way for us to extend the behavior of the HAL.

    2. Pinmaps can be pre-configured into the library, so that users don't have to do this in every sketch.

    Accompanying this was a fairly large refactoring of inner header files. We now have top-level header file <arduino_lmic_hal_configuration.h>, which provides much the same info as the original <hal/hal.h>, without bringing most of the LMIC internal definitions into scope. We also changed the SPI API based on a suggestion from @manuelbl, making the HAL more friendly to structured BSPs (and also making the SPI API potentially faster).

  • Interim bug fixes: added a new API (radio_irq_handler_v2()), which allows the caller to provide the timestamp of the interrupt. This allows for more accurate timing, because the knowledge of interrupt overhead can be moved to a platform-specific layer (#148). Fixed compile issues on ESP32 (#140 and #153). We added ESP32 and 32u4 as targets in CI testing. We switched CI testing to Arduino IDE 1.8.7. Fixed issue #161 selecting the Japan version of as923 using CFG_as923jp (selecting via CFG_as923 and LMIC_COUNTRY_CODE=LMIC_COUNTRY_CODE_JP worked). Fixed #38 -- now any call to hal_init() will put the NSS line in the idle (high/inactive) state. As a side effect, RXTX is initialized, and RESET code changed to set value before transitioning state. Likely no net effect, but certainly more correct.

  • V2.2.2 adds ttn-abp-feather-us915-dht22.ino example, and fixes some documentation typos. It also fixes encoding of the Margin field of the DevStatusAns MAC message (#130). This makes Arduino LMIC work with networks implemented with LoraServer.

  • V2.2.1 corrects the value of ARDUINO_LMIC_VERSION (#123), allows ttn-otaa-feather-us915 example to compile for the Feather 32u4 LoRa (#116), and addresses documentation issues (#122, #120).

  • V2.2.0 adds encoding functions and tn-otaa-feather-us915-dht22.ino example. Plus a large number of issues: #59, #60, #63, #64 (listen-before-talk for Japan), #65, #68, #75, #78, #80, #91, #98, #101. Added full Travis CI testing, switched to travis-ci.com as the CI service. Prepared to publish library in the official Arduino library list.

  • V2.1.5 fixes issue #56 (a documentation bug). Documentation was quickly reviewed and other issues were corrected. The OTAA examples were also updated slightly.

  • V2.1.4 fixes issues #47 and #50 in the radio driver for the SX1276 (both related to handling of output power control bits).

  • V2.1.3 has a fix for issue #43: handling of LinkAdrRequest was incorrect for US915 and AU915; when TTN added ADR support on US and AU, the deficiency was revealed (and caused an ASSERT).

  • V2.1.2 has a fix for issue #39 (adding a prototype for LMIC_DEBUG_PRINTF if needed). Fully upward compatible, so just a patch.

  • V2.1.1 has the same content as V2.1.2, but was accidentally released without updating library.properties.

  • V2.1.0 adds support for the Murata LoRaWAN module.

  • V2.0.2 adds support for additional regions.

Contributions

This library started from the IBM V1.5 open-source code.

  • Thomas Telkamp and Matthijs Kooijman ported V1.5 to Arduino and did a lot of bug fixing.

  • Terry Moore, LeRoy Leslie, Frank Rose, and ChaeHee Won did a lot of work on US support.

  • Terry Moore added the AU915, AS923, KR920 and IN866 regions, and created the regionalization framework, and did corrections for LoRaWAN 1.0.3 compliance testing.

  • @tanupoo of the WIDE Project debugged AS923JP and LBT support.

  • @frazar contributed numerous features, e.g. network time support, CI testing, documentation improvements.

  • @manuelbl contributed numerous ESP32-related patches and improvements.

  • @ngraziano did extensive testing and contributed numerous ADR-related patches.

There are many others, who have contributed code and also participated in discussions, performed testing, reported problems and results. Thanks to all who have participated.

Trademark Acknowledgements

LoRa is a registered trademark of Semtech Corporation. LoRaWAN is a registered trademark of the LoRa Alliance.

MCCI and MCCI Catena are registered trademarks of MCCI Corporation.

All other trademarks are the properties of their respective owners.

License

The upstream files from IBM v1.6 are based on the Berkeley license, and the merge which synchronized this repository therefore migrated the core files to the Berkeley license. However, modifications made in the Arduino branch were done under the Eclipse license, so the overall license of this repository is still Eclipse Public License v1.0. The examples which use a more liberal license. Some of the AES code is available under the LGPL. Refer to each individual source file for more details, but bear in mind that until the upstream developers look into this issue, it is safest to assume the Eclipse license applies.

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