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/*
Stockfish, a UCI chess playing engine derived from Glaurung 2.1
Copyright (C) 2004-2008 Tord Romstad (Glaurung author)
Copyright (C) 2008-2015 Marco Costalba, Joona Kiiski, Tord Romstad
Stockfish is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
Stockfish is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
*/
#include <algorithm>
#include <cassert>
#include "bitboard.h"
#include "bitcount.h"
#include "pawns.h"
#include "position.h"
#include "thread.h"
namespace {
#define V Value
#define S(mg, eg) make_score(mg, eg)
// Doubled pawn penalty by file
const Score Doubled[FILE_NB] = {
S(13, 43), S(20, 48), S(23, 48), S(23, 48),
S(23, 48), S(23, 48), S(20, 48), S(13, 43) };
// Isolated pawn penalty by opposed flag and file
const Score Isolated[2][FILE_NB] = {
{ S(37, 45), S(54, 52), S(60, 52), S(60, 52),
S(60, 52), S(60, 52), S(54, 52), S(37, 45) },
{ S(25, 30), S(36, 35), S(40, 35), S(40, 35),
S(40, 35), S(40, 35), S(36, 35), S(25, 30) } };
// Backward pawn penalty by opposed flag and file
const Score Backward[2][FILE_NB] = {
{ S(30, 42), S(43, 46), S(49, 46), S(49, 46),
S(49, 46), S(49, 46), S(43, 46), S(30, 42) },
{ S(20, 28), S(29, 31), S(33, 31), S(33, 31),
S(33, 31), S(33, 31), S(29, 31), S(20, 28) } };
// Connected pawn bonus by opposed, phalanx flags and rank
Score Connected[2][2][RANK_NB];
// Levers bonus by rank
const Score Lever[RANK_NB] = {
S( 0, 0), S( 0, 0), S(0, 0), S(0, 0),
S(20,20), S(40,40), S(0, 0), S(0, 0) };
// Unsupported pawn penalty
const Score UnsupportedPawnPenalty = S(20, 10);
// Weakness of our pawn shelter in front of the king by [distance from edge][rank]
const Value ShelterWeakness[][RANK_NB] = {
{ V(100), V(13), V(24), V(64), V(89), V( 93), V(104) },
{ V(110), V( 1), V(29), V(75), V(96), V(102), V(107) },
{ V(102), V( 0), V(39), V(74), V(88), V(101), V( 98) },
{ V( 88), V( 4), V(33), V(67), V(92), V( 94), V(107) } };
// Danger of enemy pawns moving toward our king by [type][distance from edge][rank]
const Value StormDanger[][4][RANK_NB] = {
{ { V( 0), V( 63), V( 128), V(43), V(27) },
{ V( 0), V( 62), V( 131), V(44), V(26) },
{ V( 0), V( 59), V( 121), V(50), V(28) },
{ V( 0), V( 62), V( 127), V(54), V(28) } },
{ { V(24), V( 40), V( 93), V(42), V(22) },
{ V(24), V( 28), V( 101), V(38), V(20) },
{ V(24), V( 32), V( 95), V(36), V(23) },
{ V(27), V( 24), V( 99), V(36), V(24) } },
{ { V( 0), V( 0), V( 81), V(16), V( 6) },
{ V( 0), V( 0), V( 165), V(29), V( 9) },
{ V( 0), V( 0), V( 163), V(23), V(12) },
{ V( 0), V( 0), V( 161), V(28), V(13) } },
{ { V( 0), V(-296), V(-299), V(55), V(25) },
{ V( 0), V( 67), V( 131), V(46), V(21) },
{ V( 0), V( 65), V( 135), V(50), V(31) },
{ V( 0), V( 62), V( 128), V(51), V(24) } } };
// Max bonus for king safety. Corresponds to start position with all the pawns
// in front of the king and no enemy pawn on the horizon.
const Value MaxSafetyBonus = V(257);
#undef S
#undef V
template<Color Us>
Score evaluate(const Position& pos, Pawns::Entry* e) {
const Color Them = (Us == WHITE ? BLACK : WHITE);
const Square Up = (Us == WHITE ? DELTA_N : DELTA_S);
const Square Right = (Us == WHITE ? DELTA_NE : DELTA_SW);
const Square Left = (Us == WHITE ? DELTA_NW : DELTA_SE);
Bitboard b, p, doubled, connected;
Square s;
bool passed, isolated, opposed, phalanx, backward, unsupported, lever;
Score score = SCORE_ZERO;
const Square* pl = pos.list<PAWN>(Us);
const Bitboard* pawnAttacksBB = StepAttacksBB[make_piece(Us, PAWN)];
Bitboard ourPawns = pos.pieces(Us , PAWN);
Bitboard theirPawns = pos.pieces(Them, PAWN);
e->passedPawns[Us] = 0;
e->kingSquares[Us] = SQ_NONE;
e->semiopenFiles[Us] = 0xFF;
e->pawnAttacks[Us] = shift_bb<Right>(ourPawns) | shift_bb<Left>(ourPawns);
e->pawnsOnSquares[Us][BLACK] = popcount<Max15>(ourPawns & DarkSquares);
e->pawnsOnSquares[Us][WHITE] = pos.count<PAWN>(Us) - e->pawnsOnSquares[Us][BLACK];
// Loop through all pawns of the current color and score each pawn
while ((s = *pl++) != SQ_NONE)
{
assert(pos.piece_on(s) == make_piece(Us, PAWN));
File f = file_of(s);
// This file cannot be semi-open
e->semiopenFiles[Us] &= ~(1 << f);
// Previous rank
p = rank_bb(s - pawn_push(Us));
// Flag the pawn as passed, isolated, doubled,
// unsupported or connected (but not the backward one).
connected = ourPawns & adjacent_files_bb(f) & (rank_bb(s) | p);
phalanx = connected & rank_bb(s);
unsupported = !(ourPawns & adjacent_files_bb(f) & p);
isolated = !(ourPawns & adjacent_files_bb(f));
doubled = ourPawns & forward_bb(Us, s);
opposed = theirPawns & forward_bb(Us, s);
passed = !(theirPawns & passed_pawn_mask(Us, s));
lever = theirPawns & pawnAttacksBB[s];
// Test for backward pawn.
// If the pawn is passed, isolated, or connected it cannot be
// backward. If there are friendly pawns behind on adjacent files
// or if it can capture an enemy pawn it cannot be backward either.
if ( (passed | isolated | connected)
|| (ourPawns & pawn_attack_span(Them, s))
|| (pos.attacks_from<PAWN>(s, Us) & theirPawns))
backward = false;
else
{
// We now know that there are no friendly pawns beside or behind this
// pawn on adjacent files. We now check whether the pawn is
// backward by looking in the forward direction on the adjacent
// files, and picking the closest pawn there.
b = pawn_attack_span(Us, s) & (ourPawns | theirPawns);
b = pawn_attack_span(Us, s) & rank_bb(backmost_sq(Us, b));
// If we have an enemy pawn in the same or next rank, the pawn is
// backward because it cannot advance without being captured.
backward = (b | shift_bb<Up>(b)) & theirPawns;
}
assert(opposed | passed | (pawn_attack_span(Us, s) & theirPawns));
// Passed pawns will be properly scored in evaluation because we need
// full attack info to evaluate passed pawns. Only the frontmost passed
// pawn on each file is considered a true passed pawn.
if (passed && !doubled)
e->passedPawns[Us] |= s;
// Score this pawn
if (isolated)
score -= Isolated[opposed][f];
if (unsupported && !isolated)
score -= UnsupportedPawnPenalty;
if (doubled)
score -= Doubled[f] / distance<Rank>(s, frontmost_sq(Us, doubled));
if (backward)
score -= Backward[opposed][f];
if (connected)
score += Connected[opposed][phalanx][relative_rank(Us, s)];
if (lever)
score += Lever[relative_rank(Us, s)];
}
b = e->semiopenFiles[Us] ^ 0xFF;
e->pawnSpan[Us] = b ? int(msb(b) - lsb(b)) : 0;
return score;
}
} // namespace
namespace Pawns {
/// Pawns::init() initializes some tables needed by evaluation. Instead of using
/// hard-coded tables, when makes sense, we prefer to calculate them with a formula
/// to reduce independent parameters and to allow easier tuning and better insight.
void init()
{
static const int Seed[RANK_NB] = { 0, 6, 15, 10, 57, 75, 135, 258 };
for (int opposed = 0; opposed <= 1; ++opposed)
for (int phalanx = 0; phalanx <= 1; ++phalanx)
for (Rank r = RANK_2; r < RANK_8; ++r)
{
int bonus = Seed[r] + (phalanx ? (Seed[r + 1] - Seed[r]) / 2 : 0);
Connected[opposed][phalanx][r] = make_score(bonus / 2, bonus >> opposed);
}
}
/// Pawns::probe() looks up the current position's pawns configuration in
/// the pawns hash table. It returns a pointer to the Entry if the position
/// is found. Otherwise a new Entry is computed and stored there, so we don't
/// have to recompute all when the same pawns configuration occurs again.
Entry* probe(const Position& pos) {
Key key = pos.pawn_key();
Entry* e = pos.this_thread()->pawnsTable[key];
if (e->key == key)
return e;
e->key = key;
e->score = evaluate<WHITE>(pos, e) - evaluate<BLACK>(pos, e);
return e;
}
/// Entry::shelter_storm() calculates shelter and storm penalties for the file
/// the king is on, as well as the two adjacent files.
template<Color Us>
Value Entry::shelter_storm(const Position& pos, Square ksq) {
const Color Them = (Us == WHITE ? BLACK : WHITE);
enum { NoFriendlyPawn, Unblocked, BlockedByPawn, BlockedByKing };
Bitboard b = pos.pieces(PAWN) & (in_front_bb(Us, rank_of(ksq)) | rank_bb(ksq));
Bitboard ourPawns = b & pos.pieces(Us);
Bitboard theirPawns = b & pos.pieces(Them);
Value safety = MaxSafetyBonus;
File center = std::max(FILE_B, std::min(FILE_G, file_of(ksq)));
for (File f = center - File(1); f <= center + File(1); ++f)
{
b = ourPawns & file_bb(f);
Rank rkUs = b ? relative_rank(Us, backmost_sq(Us, b)) : RANK_1;
b = theirPawns & file_bb(f);
Rank rkThem = b ? relative_rank(Us, frontmost_sq(Them, b)) : RANK_1;
safety -= ShelterWeakness[std::min(f, FILE_H - f)][rkUs]
+ StormDanger
[f == file_of(ksq) && rkThem == relative_rank(Us, ksq) + 1 ? BlockedByKing :
rkUs == RANK_1 ? NoFriendlyPawn :
rkThem == rkUs + 1 ? BlockedByPawn : Unblocked]
[std::min(f, FILE_H - f)][rkThem];
}
return safety;
}
/// Entry::do_king_safety() calculates a bonus for king safety. It is called only
/// when king square changes, which is about 20% of total king_safety() calls.
template<Color Us>
Score Entry::do_king_safety(const Position& pos, Square ksq) {
kingSquares[Us] = ksq;
castlingRights[Us] = pos.can_castle(Us);
minKingPawnDistance[Us] = 0;
Bitboard pawns = pos.pieces(Us, PAWN);
if (pawns)
while (!(DistanceRingBB[ksq][minKingPawnDistance[Us]++] & pawns)) {}
if (relative_rank(Us, ksq) > RANK_4)
return make_score(0, -16 * minKingPawnDistance[Us]);
Value bonus = shelter_storm<Us>(pos, ksq);
// If we can castle use the bonus after the castling if it is bigger
if (pos.can_castle(MakeCastling<Us, KING_SIDE>::right))
bonus = std::max(bonus, shelter_storm<Us>(pos, relative_square(Us, SQ_G1)));
if (pos.can_castle(MakeCastling<Us, QUEEN_SIDE>::right))
bonus = std::max(bonus, shelter_storm<Us>(pos, relative_square(Us, SQ_C1)));
return make_score(bonus, -16 * minKingPawnDistance[Us]);
}
// Explicit template instantiation
template Score Entry::do_king_safety<WHITE>(const Position& pos, Square ksq);
template Score Entry::do_king_safety<BLACK>(const Position& pos, Square ksq);
} // namespace Pawns
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